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Zone of Peace - Nepal

U.S. & 130 Countries Support 'Zone of Peace' in Nepal

Toasts of the President and King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev of Nepal at the State Dinner
December 7, 1983

The President:

"You got mighty quiet all of a sudden. [Laughter]

Well, Your Majesties, honored guests, ladies and gentlemen, today King Birendra and I had the opportunity to review our bilateral relations and to discuss our international concerns. We also had the chance to get to know one another as individuals. I'm pleased to inform you tonight that not only are relations between Nepal and the United States good, but King Birendra and I have each discovered a new friend.

Our discussion of bilateral relations revealed a refreshing lack of difficulties. Notwithstanding the great distance that separates our two nations, Nepal and the United States through the years have enjoyed a particularly amicable relationship. We prefer to think of you, Your Majesties, as neighbors on the other side of the world. (***Note: In 1983, the average annual salary in Nepal was around $160 p/year, compared to $35,000 in the US. In 2010, there were 18 hours of electricity black-outs per day in the Kathmandu Valley, after the Royal Nepalese Army stood 'shoulder to shoulder' with the U.S. in the Iraq & Afghanistan Wars.) We're so pleased that you've made this neighborly visit. It will serve to expand the good will between our peoples when more Americans, as I did today, get the chance to meet you personally.

Americans respect individuals of courage and conviction. And to give you some idea of how this applies to King Birendra, one of His Majesty's many talents is parachuting. We have a great deal in common -- [laughter] -- but let me hasten to say we found our common ground in another of his interests -- horseback riding. [Laughter]

Your Majesty, the highest mountain on our planet, Mount Everest, is in Nepal. So are 8 of the world's 10 highest peaks. And the character of your people, the sincerity of your convictions stand as tall and strong as your mountains.

Any American who's visited Nepal returns home in awe, not only of the majestic beauty of your land but also of the religious strength of your people. There are countless religious shrines in Nepal -- outward symbols of your country's greatest strength. And, Your Majesty, this spiritual side which is so important to your nation speaks well of you and your countrymen.

Today we had the opportunity to discuss a proposal of which you and your people can be rightfully proud. Through the Nepal Zone of Peace concept, you're seeking to ensure that your country's future will not be held back by using scarce resources for military purposes. We Americans support the objectives of Your Majesty's Zone of Peace proposal, and we endorse it. We would only hope that one day the world in its entirety will be a zone of peace.

In the meantime, we encourage you to continue to work closely with your neighbors to make Nepal's Zone of Peace a reality. Your innovative approach to peace and development could be a foundation for progress throughout the region. We wish you success.

It is an honor to have you with us, Your Majesties. Now, would all of you please join me in sharing this bread and fish with His Majesty, King Birendra, Her Majesty, Queen Aishwarya, and the good people of Nepal. Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall...! [Applause] Who got beef!... [Laughter]

The King:

'Mr. President, Mrs. Reagan, distinguished ladies and gentlemen, I'm touched by your cordial welcome and the warm words with which you and Mrs. Reagan have received us here in Washington. We're equally honored by the generous remarks you, Mr. President, have just made about my country and people. Seen from Washington, Nepal is almost on the other side of the globe, and yet, as this friendly gathering here tonight shows, distance notwithstanding, friendship and cordiality based on shared ideals can exist between countries that are geographically far apart. In 1947, as soon as Nepal broke her age-old isolation by seeking friendship beyond her borders, it was with the United States of America that Nepal sought to establish her diplomatic relations. Since 1951, the year when my grandfather, late King Tribhuvan, led the Nepalese people to democracy, we have looked to the United States as a land of freedom and fulfillment. The enduring ideals of the Founding Fathers of America, who spoke to men of liberty and independence, have inspired men throughout the world, including those of us living in the mountain fastness of Nepal.

In our part of the world, if America is looked upon as a land of gold, grain, and computers, a country of skyscrapers and space shuttle, she is also regarded as a nation committed to respect man and his dignity. A land of discovery, America has distinguished herself in being inventive, in breaking new grounds, and opening newer horizons of knowledge for the betterment of man. With a country such as the United States, one wonders if Nepal has anything in common. On the surface, there may seem very little. Yet, as men living in the same planet, we have common stakes in the global peace, prosperity, and, indeed, the survival of man in dignity and freedom. We're happy to see, Mr. President, your efforts to maintain peace and stability around the world. The Nepalese people join me in appreciating the understanding with which on behalf of the people and the Government of the United States you have extended support to the concept of Nepal as a Zone of Peace. This recognition, I assure you, will go down not only as an important landmark in the history of our relations but also as a testimony of your personal commitment to the cause of peace, stability, and freedom.

Nepal rejoices in the achievements of the American people in different fields of human endeavors. The initiative and enterprise of your people are exemplary. Yet, what happens in this part of the world sends its ripples even to the roadless villages of Nepal. We receive their fallout. When America suffers a temporary drought, millions around the world get affected. Indeed, if I may seek your indulgence, I would like to mention something that on the surface may sound trivial, but sometimes it is the small thing that can bring about profound changes. The corn maize in Nepal was introduced from this part of America, as were the potatoes from the Andes nearly 300 years ago. These new crops not only altered our hill economy but even the mode of life, by making settlements possible in the mountain terraces of Nepal. Evidently, we do not live in islands, but in a world bound in a nexus of interdependence. What happens in America ceases, therefore, to be a local event. The United States as such has shown a consistent understanding towards this and has assisted Nepal in stretching her hand of friendship and cooperation in many fields, including the building of infrastructures.

May I take this opportunity, therefore, to thank you, and through you, to the people and Government of the United States for the support we have received in meeting the challenges of development in Nepal.

Mr. President, in recent years, America has brought glory to humanity by landing man on the Moon. It is indeed thrilling to reflect that one can soar into space to explore the unknown and scan the stars. Yet these adventures into outer space would carry still deeper meaning if the part of humanity living in Nepal could also rid themselves of their continuing poverty. Herself, a least developed, land-locked country, Nepal has always sought understanding and cooperation from our friends and neighbors. In fact, since the time I assumed responsibilities, I have sought that the minimum of basic needs must not be denied to people anywhere in the world. In this regard, I take comfort in the reassurance that the United States will continue to extend cooperation on a long-term basis into the future.

Modern technology, Mr. President, has reduced distance and joined us all into a family of nations. This situation demands that we create an enduring relationship based on a sense of purpose and meaning. With Nepal and countries in her region willing to join hands with the United States and other international agencies in a creative effort for prosperity by putting into use a fragment of their human and capital resources to harness the water potentials of Nepal, it would not only enable them to walk over a long road to progress for our region, as a whole, but would also continue to build bridges of understanding between a most advanced and a least developed nation of the world. It would also mean eliminating the perils of hunger on the one hand, and the danger of instability and extremism on the other.

I have no doubt that Nepal and the United States can cooperate in many fields of creative endeavors. As countries that have shown respect to the uniqueness of the individual, we believe in the conservation of the natural as well as the spiritual heritage of man. But most important of all, we both honor the freedom of man and the independence of nations. In this regard, we appreciate the support the United States has shown consistently to our identity as a nation.

Mr. President, I cherish the fruitful exchange of views we have had recently with each other. You have been very reassuring, and I wish to thank you and Mrs. Reagan for the warmth of hospitality shown to me, my wife, and members of my entourage.

Excellencies, ladies and gentlemen, may I now request you to join me in proposing a toast to the health and happiness of President Ronald Reagan of the United States of America, and the First Lady, Mrs. Nancy Reagan, to the peace and prosperity of the American people, and to the further development of friendship between Nepal and the United States. Thank you."

Note: The President spoke at 9:54 p.m. in the State Dining Room at the White House.

+ http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/speeches/1983/120783c.htm

Sri Panch Birendra

Remarks at the Welcoming Ceremony for King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev of Nepal
December 7, 1983

The President:

'Nancy and I welcome you to the White House and the United States of America. It's a particular pleasure to have King Birendra back in our country for the first time since his student days. We hope that you will again feel at home and among friends here, not only at the White House, which you visited as Crown Prince, but throughout our country. And, Queen Aishwarya, this is your first visit to the United States, and we hope that our good will and hospitality will encourage you to return again.

The United States and Nepal are on opposite sides of the globe. We face different challenges, and our cultures symbolize the diversity with which mankind views the world. Yet our ties have grown stronger since our countries established relations in 1947. The vast distance which separates us is bridged with a miracle of modern communications and transportation. Our distinct cultures are linked in our peoples' common commitment to peace and human progress.

In Nepal, Your Majesty, you've set forth to win the battle against illiteracy, disease, hunger, and poverty. The challenges you face on the frontier of modernization are formidable. The very topography which makes Nepal one of Earth's most beautiful sites makes your task more difficult by limiting the amount of arable land and complicating communications. Although improved health and nutrition in your country has saved lives, it has also increased the pressures on finite resources. Education and information have expanded the horizons of your citizens, but have also raised their expectations.

Your development program, which began some 30 years ago, exemplifies the wise and progressive leadership provided by your family. From your grandfather's decision to seek modernization down to the present day, your people have been blessed by something money cannot buy: wise leadership. This, coupled with your country's hard-working people, tremendous hydroelectric potential, and access to substantial technical and financial support from the international community, all represent opportunities for dramatic progress.

America is proud that for a third of a century we've played a part in your development efforts. The record reflects the close partnership of our governments and peoples. We plan to continue American investment in Nepal's economic development during the next 5 years, including the funding of new agricultural research and training projects, areas which Your Majesty has identified as vital to improving the well-being of your people.

The Peace Corps will also continue its important work in Nepal. More than 2,000 volunteers have served in your country, one of our largest Peace Corps posts. The 180 volunteers presently there are carrying on their fine tradition of competence and compassion.

Your Majesty, you, your father, and your grandfather before you have been the architects of Nepal's efforts to build a better future. In the political arena your reforms are enlisting public participation in identifying national goals, thus guaranteeing that your people have a stake in their future. The United States respects these and other initiatives Your Majesty is making to develop popular institutions consistent with the spirit of the Nepalese people. There is every reason to be confident that your goals of economic progress, political stability, and national security will be reached. America is happy to offer encouragement and support in these noble efforts.

Your Majesty's moral leadership in condemning the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan is much appreciated here. We should not forget the heroism of the Afghan people in their fight for the freedom and independence of their country.

We're also grateful for the courage your nation has shown in the cause of peace. Nepal has been willing to do more than just cast a ballot at the United Nations. It has volunteered its military personnel to serve in some of the world's most troubled areas, giving depth and meaning to Nepal's commitment to peace. The world needs more nations like Nepal which are willing to help shoulder the burden of preserving peace as well as advocating it in world forums.

Once again, Your Majesties, welcome to America. We look forward to getting to know you better as a means of enriching the deep friendship which has always characterized our relations.'

+ President Reagan Press Conference: 5/22/1984 (Excerpt)
+ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yVYtIdUcYqY

The King:

'Mr. President, Mrs. Reagan, ladies and gentlemen, I'd like to thank you, Mr. President and Mrs. Reagan, for this welcome ceremony and for the warmth with which my wife and I, along with the members of my entourage, have been received here. I also wish to convey to you -- and through you, to the Government and people of the United States -- greetings and good wishes of the Government and people of Nepal.

For me it is also a nostalgic moment. I recall with fondness the time I had stood by my august father, late King Mahendra, on a similar occasion, in a similar setting here in 1967.

I do not feel a complete stranger to this land. Indeed, I come to you in the spirit of a friend who has had the benefit of studying in one of your leading institutions of learning. Inspired as Nepal and the United States are by the common goals of striving for freedom and dignity of man, it is also a fulfilling experience for me to be back here again.

Mr. President, few things in the history of man have been as eventful as the discovery of this new-found land. It gave birth to a republic known not only for its inspiring ideals but also for the most epoch-making feats of scientific endeavor. Viewed from this angle, America stands on the very forefront of modern history. Indeed, what the United States represents is a harmonious amalgam of high human and material achievements rarely surpassed elsewhere in the world. As a nation that has brought about such profound changes, it is only natural to look up to this country in joining hands with the rest of the world to herald a new age of peace, understanding, friendship, and prosperity for all.

Committed as we are in Nepal to these ideals, we hold you, Mr. President, in high esteem and wish to see the United States as a bulwark of peace and stability, cherishing the belief that all nations of the world -- whether big or small, rich or poor, developed or developing -- must have a place under the Sun.

It is in this spirit that I look forward to exchange views with you, Mr. President, on matters of mutual interest. I also hope to meet other leaders and seek the opportunity to renew my acquaintances with friends that I have known. I'm confident that our visit to this country will be fruitful as well as memorable.

Thank you.'

Note: "The President spoke at 10:10 a.m. on the South Lawn of the White House, where King Birendra was accorded a formal welcome with full military honors. Following the ceremony, the President and the King met in the Oval Office. They were then joined by U.S. and Nepalese officials for further discussions."

+ http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/speeches/1983/120783a.htm

Reagan and King Birendra

'Leaving their Royal Palace and the peaceful Himalayan mountainscape of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, King Birendra and his Queen, Aishwarya, embarked on an important state visit to the United States. They rule over the world's second largest Hindu population, 13 million, in a nation the size of Iowa (54,000 sq. miles). Half way around the globe, in Washington, D.C., inside the colonial halls of the White House, His Majesty sat with another powerful man - President Ronald Reagan. Like a king of old, the dignified but youthful monarch, 38, a little more than half the age of the President, spoke of matters most dear to his people. Foremost were continued and increased U.S. aid to 15 million dollars over the next five years for a subsistence economy, and U.S. endorsement to make Nepal a Zone of Peace. "Substantive talks" with President Reagan, Vice-President Bush, and a number of cabinet members were favorable for both proposals.

From the Christian or Islamic world perspective, nothing momentus had happened. But looked at from another angle, the absolute ruler from the only Hindu kingdom in the world had made his first formal visit to the West; had accomplished his mission; had come in his native Hindu garb and met with the heads of the most influential and militarily powerful nation in the world; without shyness, without giving up his Hindu-ness, without compromising the shelter that he so generously provides the Hindu religion in his land.

Though dwarfed by the veritable empires of China, the U.S.S.R. and the U.S., Nepal's strategic position between India and China is meaningful: a major motive for the interest of the U.S., always wary of the unpredictable Chinese communists. This position could, King Birendra surely realizes, put an end to the relative isolation and cultural purity that his nation now enjoys largely because of its geography. His northern neighbor, Tibet, the former great Buddhist holy land, was, after all, swallowed up, many of its priests killed and an ancient way of life overrun by a ruthless Chinese army. The "King" of Tibet, the Dalai Lama, is still exiled in India, a man without a country.

King Birendra warned of the dangers of transplanting Western political institutions in illiterate developing countries, and cautioned against forsaking indigenous cultural values and beliefs "We must realize that there is an inseparable relationship between the culture of a country and the ideology it follows. The time, therefore, has come for the world to appreciate the link of the present with the past." These poignant words were spoken by His Majesty in an address given at the University of California Berkeley, following his receipt of the U.C. Berkeley Medal of Honor award. He is only the third person ever to receive the medal, joining queen Beatrix of the Netherlands and former Italian Prime Minister, Giovanni Spadalini.

For centuries, until after W.W.II, the feudal monarchy of Nepal was under a strict isolationist policy. Now King Birendra is approaching the great powers with requests for help, and with cautions to leave Nepal's internal affairs alone. Recognition of Nepal as a non-aligned Zone of Peace has been His Majesty's wish since his coronation in 1975. At U.C. Berkeley he said he hopes that by pledging non-interference in the internal affairs of other nations, by peacefully resolving all conflicts between Nepal and other countries and by not entering into any military alliances nor allowing the establishment of any foreign military bases on Nepalese soil, his mountain kingdom will be better able to concentrate its resources on effecting economic and social reforms.

King Birendra's policy regarding the promotion of Hinduism follows this same internal integrity and external non-interference ideal. A Nepal foreign secretary said that the King was not actively engaged in promoting Hinduism in other countries, but Nepal is protecting Hinduism within its own borders. Any well-informed Christian missionary could tell you that, and those who have tried to proselytize in Nepal for the purpose of converting Hindus to their faith have been strongly "discouraged;" even fined and incarcerated, some sources say. Converting anyone in Nepal is against the law, confirmed Washington, D.C., Nepalese Embassy attache, Mr. Kartha. "We don't want them to change the religion of the people here. There are only two religions in Nepal, Hinduism and Buddhism and they are very close." There are no churches, no mosques, no evangelists, no talk of Christ in the schools, no fear of damnation in Nepal - nothing but the Hindu mind-flow, as in ancient days, there and in India, with a minority of Buddhists in a cooperative blend of similar thinking and culture. Yes, Hinduism is protected by law in the Kingdom of Nepal. Though a Saivite himself, the King is supportive of all denominations of Hinduism, the foreign secretary added.

An anachronism, a relic from bygone days of brave heroes who were, above all, faithful to dharma? Why not? King Birendra, educated at Harvard, unassuming, refined, speaking clearly and with regal authority, is certainly a symbol for Hindus of the strength that they need and the faith they may take pride in. Around the world, Hindus are compromising their religion, and even giving it up, for political motives, for economic advantage, for social acceptance in the Christian or Muslim community and for other reasons. Afraid of the Christians, petrified of the Muslims, embarrassed by lack of knowledge of their own faith and gullible to negative propaganda against it, many Hindus are going down with the rise of technology. Not King Birendra. Not in Nepal.

He told the U.C. Berkeley gathering, at the end of his two-week, eight-city tour, "Until recently Nepal had been living almost in the Middle Ages. We had everything that people in medieval times had lived with - peace and contentment on the one hand, and illiteracy[70%] and epidemics on the other." His father, King Mahendra, led a revolution in 1950 which reestablished the royal family. Now King Birendra, who ascended the throne in 1972 after his father's death, hopes to bring significant improvements, but not at the cost of that peace and contentment. The key to Nepal's future, he believes, lies in tapping the power of the nation's many rivers, which, tumbling out of the mountains, have carved wide valleys and gorges in places, thousands of feet deep. Properly harnessed, the rivers would provide abundant water for irrigation to bolster agriculture (90% of the 15 million population are farmers), and hydroelectric power sufficient to provide not only for Nepal's needs, but a surplus for "exportation" to northern India.

Any sensitive visitor to Nepal would understand the treasures at state, despite all poverty: snow-capped Himalayas, plush, verdant valleys, millions of acres of forest, a simple village life and occasional small market centers, and above all a feeling of peace and social harmony which, one could safely assume, is largely due to the unity of belief among all the land's people. A full 90% of the Nepalese are Hindu and 9% are Buddhists. The themes of most artistic works are religious, depicting the lives of Gods, saints and heroes; the relationship of man to society and to universe are expounded in sculpture, architecture and drama. In Kathmandu Valley, 2,500 temples and shrines display the skill and highly developed aesthetic sense of Newar artisans, depicting the lives of Gods, saints and heroes. There is something very special about Nepal, worth preserving.

President Reagan's words in a toast to His Majesty at the December 7th White House dinner, at which representatives from 35 other nations joined him in honoring the King, bespeak a promising future for Nepal: "Through the Zone of Peace concept, you're seeking to ensure that your country's future will not be held back by using scarce resources for military purposes. Your innovative approach towards peace and development could be a foundation for progress through the region. We wish you success." Lifting his kingdom out of the Middle Ages may be just the challenge King Birendra was born for, and with two bright sons behind him, succession to the royal throne is safely assured.'

+ Nepal's Hindu King Makes Royal Visit to US
+ King Birendra and Queen Aishwarya, Monarchs For 13 Million Hindus, Meet President Ronald Reagan
+ http://www.hinduismtoday.com/modules/smartsection/item.php?itemid=287
+ http://www.upi.com/Archives/1983/12/07/President-Reagan-welcomed-the-king-of-Nepal-to-the/4624439621200/

'King Birendra of Nepal says President Reagan's endorsement of his tiny Himalayan country as a 'zone of peace' is testimony to his personal commitment to the cause of peace and freedom. His majesty expressed his gratitude Wednesday after Reagan, in a toast at a state dinner in his honor, said that the United States supports the objectives and endorses the King's efforts to turn his Central Asian nation into a 'zone of peace.' 'We only hope that one day the world in its entirety will become a zone of peace,' Reagan said in a toast to his royal visitor at a state dinner.'
+ http://www.upi.com/Archives/1983/12/08/King-of-Nepal-pleased-with-Reagans-endorsement-of-peace-plan/90024397...

'On October 11, 1986, halfway between Moscow and Washington, D.C., the leaders of the world’s two superpowers met at the stark and picturesque Hofdi House in Reykjavik, Iceland. Secretary General Mikhail Gorbachev had proposed the meeting to President Ronald Reagan less than thirty days before. The expectations for the summit at Reykjavik were low.

Reagan and Gorbachev had established a personal relationship just one year before at their Geneva Summit. In Geneva they attempted to reach agreement on bilateral nuclear arms reductions. Since then, their negotiators had reached an impasse. Both leaders hoped a face to face meeting at Reykjavik might revive the negotiations.

The talks between Reagan and Gorbachev at Reykjavik proceeded at a breakneck pace. Gorbachev agreed that human rights issues were a legitimate topic of discussion, something no previous Soviet leader had ever agreed to. A proposal to eliminate all new strategic missiles grew into a discussion, for the first time in history, of the real possibility of eliminating nuclear weapons forever.

Aides to both leaders were shocked by the pace of the discussions. A summit that began with low expectations had blossomed into one of the most dramatic and potentially productive summits of all time. At one point Reagan even described to Gorbachev how both men might return to Reykjavik in ten years, aged and retired leaders, to personally witness the dismantling of the world’s last remaining nuclear warhead.

But one point of contention remained. Reagan was committed to see his Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) to completion. Gorbachev, fearing an imbalance of power, was equally determined to make sure SDI would never be implemented. Reagan offered assurances to Gorbachev that the missile defense shield, which he had championed and funded despite widespread criticism at home, was being developed not to gain an advantage, but to offer safety against accidents or outlaw nations. Reagan offered many times to share this technology with the Soviets, which Gorbachev refused to believe.

Toward the end of the long and stressful final negotiations Gorbachev would accept continued development of SDI as long as testing was confined to the laboratory for the next ten years. Reagan would not agree. He could not and would not allow the division of his two-part strategy of the simultaneous elimination of nuclear weapons with the creation of a missile defense shield.

After the negotiations broke down without a final agreement, Reagan wrote that he left the meeting knowing how close they had come to achieving his long goal of eliminating the threat of nuclear destruction, and that this was the angriest moment of his career.'

+ The Reykjavik Summit: http://www.thereaganvision.org/the-reykjavik-summit-the-story/
+ Reykjavík Summit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reykjav%C3%ADk_Summit

'Few dramas can match what happened at Nepal's Narayanhity Palace on the first night of June, 2001, when gunshots rang out, leaving most of the royal family dead.

Crown Prince Dipendra shot and killed nine members his family and himself. His parents apparently objected to his plans to marry local aristocrat Devyani Rana.

They had reportedly threatened to disinherit him if he did so, and there has been speculation that this conflict between love and duty is what caused his rampage. Rana reportedly comes from a lower clan of nobility in India, and her great-grandmother was also said once to have been a mistress to a member of the Nepalese royal family.

The public rioted for several days after the massacre, incredulous that the carefree prince once known as "Dippy" could be responsible for the violence. There was also speculation that the slain king's unpopular brother Gyanendra, who is now Nepal's monarch, was responsible for the tragedy.

New reports have also emerged ultimately blaming Devyani. They say to placate his parents, Dipendra had agreed to their plan for him to marry another girlfriend and keep Devyani as a mistress. But Devyani reportedly rejected that plan.

Devyani is now in hiding in Europe, and refusing to come home. Without her presence, many questions remain unanswered.

Shortly after the carnage, the new king opened a two-member official commission to understand what happened.

This is a timeline of events, based on what the commission found:

7:30 p.m.: His Royal Highness Crown Prince Dipendra arrives at the locale of a regularly scheduled family gathering.

He plays billiards by himself for some time in the palace billiard room, and drinks one or two pegs of Famous Grouse whisky.

8:00 p.m.: Dipendra leaves the area and heads to pick up the Queen Mother to take her to the gathering. They return, and the Queen Mother stops to talks to Princess Helen Shaha in a small chamber east of the billiard hall. The crown prince returns to the billiards room.

8:12 p.m.: The crown prince talks to Devyani Rana for 1 minute l4 seconds, according to telecommunications records.

8:19 p.m.: The crown prince calls an aide by mobile phone to get him some cigarettes. They are "a special kind of cigarette prepared with a mixture of hashish and another unnamed black substance as per an order." The aide gives them to Prince Paras to give to the crown prince.

Several people see the crown prince in the billiards room "swaying, unable to hold himself upright." There is suspicion that the prince was drunk from the whiskey, and four guests, including Prince Nirajan and Prince Paras help him to his room.

8.25 p.m.: Rana calls the prince's aides after speaking with him. She says she noticed his speech was slurred, and urged his aides to check on him.

The crown prince's aides reach his room and find him prone on the ground trying to undo the clothing on the upper part of his body. They help him take off the clothing and he goes to the bathroom.

One of the aides hears retching noises coming from the bathroom. After coming out of the bathroom the crown prince orders them both to go to their respective rooms to sleep.

8:30 p.m.: King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev arrives on foot from his office. He proceeds to meet other guests in the billiard room.

8.39 p.m.: The Crown Prince talks to Devyani Rana for 32 seconds. The Crown Prince tells her "I am now about to sleep … good night, we'll talk tomorrow."

After the phone call, the crown prince puts on army fatigues — black army boots, a camouflage army jacket and trousers, black leather gloves, black stockings and a camouflage vest.

He comes out of the bed chamber with weapons. One of his aides sees him and asks, "shall the emergency bag be brought sire?" The Crown Prince replies "it's not necessary now." The crown prince then proceeds to the billiard hall.

Billiard Room 1: At the billiard hall, he fires at the ceiling and west wall with a 9 mm Caliber MP-5K automatic sub-machine gun. He also aims and fires at the king who is standing near the east end of the billiard table talking to others.

Dipendra then steps out of the billiard room and throws one of his guns near the stairs to the north of the inner garden edge, east of the hall.

Billiard Room 2: Dipendra enters the billiard room again, shooting at the king, his brother-inlaw Gorakh, his uncles Dhirendra and Khadga. Gorakh is wounded, the King, Dhirendra and Khadaga are killed.

Billiard Room 3: Dipendra moves back to the door, and forward again, firing indiscriminately a third time. Among others, he hits his sister and Gorakh's wife, Princess Shruti; Khadaga's wife Princess Sharada; his aunt Shanti and a cousin, Princess Jayanti. They are all killed.

Chasing the Last Victims: Prince Nirajan and Queen Aishwarya leave the billiard room and head toward the inner garden. Dipendra also leaves the billiard hall and goes east toward the inner garden.

Nirajan is found by palace officials unconscious near the garden and delivered to the hospital. He is pronounced dead on arrival at 9:15.

The queen's body is found in the staircase leading to the prince's room. She is pronounced dead on arrival at 9:15.

Denouement: The crown prince is found lying on his back on a bridge over a little pond near his room. A 9mm caliber Glock pistol, believed to have belonged to the prince, is found in the water of the pond. An M-16 rifle believed to have belonged to the prince is also found nearby.

The crown prince reaches the hospital at 9:24 P.M. on June 1, 2001, and is pronounced dead at 5:57 p.m. at the hospital on June 4.'

+ Timeline: The Nepal Royal Massacre: http://abcnews.go.com/International/story?id=80302&page=1

Nepal Royal Palace

'According to reports, Dipendra had been drinking heavily, smoked large quantities of hashish and had "misbehaved" with a guest, which resulted in his father, King Birendra, telling his oldest son to leave the party. The drunken Dipendra was taken to his room by his brother Prince Nirajan and cousin Prince Paras. One hour later, Dipendra returned to the party armed with an H&K MP5, a Franchi SPAS-12 and an M16 and fired a single shot into the ceiling before turning the gun on his father, King Birendra. He then shot his uncle Dhirendra in the chest at point-blank range with when he tried to stop Dipendra. Prince Paras suffered slight injuries and managed to save at least three royals, including two children, by pulling a sofa over them. During the attack, Dipendra darted in and out of the room firing shots each time. Excerpts from the two-member committee report by Chief Justice Keshab Prasad Upadhyaya say that King Birendra made an abortive last-minute attempt to shoot at Dipendra as the latter fired indiscriminately, according to the details of the official probe report released in Kathmandu. After getting injured in the first attack by Dipendra, King Birendra picked up the 9mm caliber MP-5K automatic sub-machine gun, which the prince had thrown before entering the billiards room in the palace for the second time and firing at the monarch and others, the late king's sister Princess Shova Shahi is quoted as having told the high-level probe panel. However, Shahi snatched the weapon from her brother and pulled out the magazine thinking that it was the only weapon Dipendra had. Corroborating Shova Shahi's version, Prince Paras is quoted as having said, "She [Shova] must have thought that it was the only weapon Dai (Dipendra) had but I saw that he had much more weapons." His mother, Queen Aishwarya, who came into the room when the first shots were fired, left quickly, looking for help. Aishwarya and Prince Nirajan confronted Dipendra in the garden of the palace, where they were both fatally shot multiple times. Dipendra then proceeded to a small bridge over a stream running through the palace, where he shot himself. Lamteri, a junior army staff at Narayanhiti Palace, claimed that he saw Dipendra, who got six bullet shots in his back and one on the left hand, in an inebriated state in his private room before the royal family was killed.'
+ Nepalese Royal Massacre: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nepalese_royal_massacre
+ Heckler & Koch MP5: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heckler_%26_Koch_MP5
+ Glock Ges.m.b.H.: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glock
+ Rifle, Caliber 5.56 mm, M16 (ArmaLite AR-15): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M16_rifle
+ Franchi SPAS-12: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franchi_SPAS-12
+ "Barrage of Bullets": https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cFVtyYzs48I
+ THE FAMOUS MELLOW GOLD: https://www.thefamousgrouse.com/gb/our-whiskies

'NEPAL-Zone of Peace (ZoP) (Nepali:नेपाल शान्तिक्षेत्र प्रस्ताव) was a proposition made by King Birendra during his coronation ceremony in 1975. King Birendra formally asked the international community to endorse his proposal that the United Nations should declare Nepal a ZoP, so as to give a new dimension to the Nepalese non-alignment.

"As it's one of the most ancient civilizations in Asia, our natural concern is to preserve our independence, a legacy handed down by history. We need peace for our security, independence and for development. And if today, peace is an overriding concern for us, it is only because our people genuinely desire peace in the country, in our region and elsewhere in the world. It is with this earnest desire to institutionalize peace that I stand to make a proposition—a proposition that my country, Nepal, be declared a Zone of Peace. As heirs to a country that has always lived in independence, we wish to see that our freedom and independence shall not be thwarted by the changing flux of time, when understanding is replaced by misunderstanding, when conciliation is replaced by belligerency and war."

The proposal has been endorsed by over 130 nations, but has since become moribund with the fall of the Panchayat System in 1990.'
+ Nepal Zone of Peace Proposition: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nepal_Zone_of_Peace_Proposition

Sept. 20, 2015: "President Ram Baran Yadav announced the promulgation of Constitution of Nepal, 2072 at a special meeting of the Constituent Assembly (CA)."
+ 16,278 Killed in Nepal Civil War (1996-2006): http://reliefweb.int/report/nepal/nepal-government-raises-war-death-toll
+ See more at: http://typehost.org/photos/sep-20-2015-president-ram-baran-yadav-announced-promulgation-constitution-nepal-2...
+ TypeHost Photos - News: http://typehost.org/photos/news
+ Sherpa: http://sher.pa/

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