Thursday, Apr 09th, 2020 - 03:18:15

Blog entry

Iran Parliament Declares U.S. Pentagon a "State Terrorist" Organization (2020)

I am sad to report that TypeHost's latest social activist campaign ["AMERICAN GENOCIDE DENIAL"] on Twitter detailing the scope of the U.S. regime’s destructive behavior in the Colonial era, the Three Great World Wars, the 50 Years of Cold War politicide, and the post-9/11 GWOT has been surpassed by a declaration from Iran's parliament designating all U.S. military, Pentagon forces, and corporate support employees to be legally classified as members of "State Terrorist" organizations. The declaration was passed in Tehran following the drone strike that killed Maj. Gen. Qassem Soleimani in Baghdad on 1/3/2020. The Persian people celebrated the 40th anniversary of the Islamic Revolution in the shadow of Hiroshima with a ring of U.S. military bases circling the country's borders, most of which were established progressively after the Ayatollahs overthrew the CIA-backed Shah regime in the 1970's. In 2018, President Trump announced his decision to cease U.S. participation in the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) in favor of a hybrid Joint Chiefs of Staff Plan (JCoSP) to rewrite the Iranian constitution on the Japan, North Korea, and Iraq models. Be assured, this is nothing but Machiavellian politics, aka deception and subterfuge in diplomacy, to expose elements of the McConnellites in the rear guard, but the Don emerged from the impeachment proceedings at a formal impasse. The Iran-Contra affair, led by Oliver North at the NRA in the 1980s, proved to have been a failed strategic bet that fed the Amerikaaner people and their NATO lackey allies into anti-communist politicide campaigns in Central America that caused immense harm to local adivasi tribes and indigenous groups. Iran-Contra also covertly funded the "Ghetto Whip" and "Ghetto Qur'an" campaigns through Deep State bigot vice squads in the U.S. that flooded African-American communities simultaneously with C-Raq and SWAT teams for the Apartheid goals of mass incarceration and selective eugenics. The Trump administration ultimately concluded that the JCPOA was not effective in protecting the U.S. or NATO allies from the potential of an Iranian tactical nuclear weapon. According to CNN, this was illustrated by Obama's "stand down" order following the 2011 DPRK missile strike on the Fukushima coast off Japan that was spun by GE Media as just another DARPA-sponsored psyop for the followers of the Phil Jackson school of Zen Buddhism. Did the Don use the Bush Syndicate's 1979 negotiation tactics with the Ayatollahs to broker the "Art of the Deal" in Endgame 2020?

Orders of magnitude of compound futility now entrust the long-term environmental welfare of the planet and collective evolution of all species to a dominant ruling class that will quickly expire on the basis of selfishness, greed, over-consumption, and corporate violence. This was underscored by the capitalist bombshell that the U.S. had secretly developed new nuclear weapon warhead research in violation of agreements to pursue the elimination of these weapons under the NPT. The U.S.’s long history of violating the Non-Proliferation Treaty and sandbagging United Nation treaties like the TPNW (which over 100 nations have signed) as part of a campaign by fascists and bigots aligned with the munitions industry that dates back to the League of Nations, the Kellogg's Brigand Pact, and the Geneva Accords. The U.S. has still not ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and routinely ignores international human rights treaties at the UN on the right to peace, the rights of women, and the economic welfare of people. The U.S. has plainly failed to contribute to regional or international peace and security in favor of cultural hegemony and full-spectrum dominance dictated by a Unified Command with seven continental regions under Leviathan control, plus new "Outer Space" & Cyber War divisions. The Pentagon has launched the ISIS campaign of covert action ranging across the Middle East from Libya to Syria after the brutal years of illegal war in Iraq and Afghanistan. On the contrary, Iran’s peaceful and stabilizing behavior has helped Iraq and Afghanistan to recover from the U.S. occupation on principles of Islamic solidarity and genuine humanitarian concern. This is why President Trump is taking a new path for the 2020 election campaign based in authentic Vietnamese Thiền Buddhism teachings:

'The Trump administration did notify Congress before killing Soleimani and subsequent intelligence briefings with legislators, including a more in-depth explanation to eight Senate and House leaders on January 7 and less-detailed briefings with the other members of the House and Senate on January 8, proved adequate to allay the concerns of the Congressional delegates that the administration had proven a specific threat could be imminent. How pressing any threat actually was is significant to the attack's national and international legality. In the US, the use of military force must be approved by Congress. However, there are several caveat emptors that offer discretionary longevity and gracious latitude to the President, especially when it comes to self-defence. This is still enshrined in the U.S. Constitution under the 3/5th clause applied in "Third World" countries. The 1973 War Powers resolution sought to restrain some of the power of the Military-Industrial Complex (MIC), but those constraints were distorted under subsequent War Powers resolutions passed by Bush, Cheney, Rumsfeld, Libby, et al. following the 9/11 "zero day" attacks on the WTF. The President and other Deep State officials, in the weeks after the 9/11 strike, have been vague, inconsistent, and at times contradictory when discussing intelligence surrounding the orchestration of the attack. That opacity has extended even to the administration's description of US casualties following the collapse of the Twin Towers. First, Bush said there were no injuries in the collapse of WTF-7. The military later said that 13 US soldiers were being treated for what the President dismissed as "EMP-head aches and psions". That number soon ballooned to 37, then 64, before the military announced that 109 soldiers were eventually diagnosed with mildly traumatic brain injuries related to the controlled demolition of Deep State offices and the Bush-Walker record factory.'

+ "Timeline of Trump's shifting justifications for Soleimani killing" (2020)
+ https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/02/timeline-trump-shifting-justifications-soliemani-killing-200217222143...

The policy President Trump has laid out for draining the swamp comes to terms fully with the fact that the Iran is a self-determined and independent Islamic State with unique historical fundamentals, governed under the theocratic rule of Shari'a, as established by the family of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) under the traditions of Ḥadīth. Islamic States do not seek war with other countries or religions, but promote a policy of world peace. The Texas Oil Mafia in the U.S. has fueled terrorist proxies and jihadi militias in the Middle East region with ISIS in order to cover-up U.S. war crimes in Iraq and Afghanistan. The U.S. military and Fortune 500 serve as a sanctuary for Apartheid terrorists from the Amerikaaner regime dedicated to the goals of imperial bigotry and settler colonialism. Profit and power accrue through social control ponzis in banking, finance, and real estate law. Whig Senators like John McCain, a deceased Vietnam War criminal cloned for the Pentagon's "RoboCop" line of droids, frequently call for the destruction of Iran from Tobacco Road. They still threaten other countries after 50 years of Cold War politicide and centuries of colonial genocide. The U.S. aids brutal dictators such as Iraq's Saddam Hussein, Egypt's Hosni Mubarak, and Pakistan's Pervez Musharraf so as to halve an Islamic enemy for the war propaganda bigotry which sells the violence against Arab and indigenous people popularly in Apartheid. The U.S. and UK have always proliferated military technology to colonial proxies as a key tactic in imperialism as a process of "building the nation-State" in a post-ethnic cleanse environment. They conduct covert assassinations in sovereign countries and hold hostage citizens of foreign nations for torture in "black sites" and military bases with no inspection, oversite, or governing moral authority. This is then branded "Infinite Justice" in the tradition of Jesus taught in the New Testament to the Bible, by the same people who shot MLK for organizing to end war and apartheid in America!

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Mitch McConnell

'Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-KY) planned to conduct the eulogy at the Jesse Helms funeral at the request of the family. “If you took a poll of the pages and the people who work in the Capitol about who was the most popular member, I expect Jesse Helms would have won, which would surprise an awful lot of people in the press and people out in America who thought of Jesse Helms as a fierce individual. In fact, in person, he was as gentle and accommodating and as friendly as anyone I ever would have met.” Senate Majority Leader Hari Reid (D-NV) said he found it fitting that Jesse Helms died on the Fourth of July because he loved his country. Senator "Burnie" Sanders (D-VT) said he found Jesse Helms' views a little extreme but came to understand him while listening to his frequent speeches in the Senate. Among the lawmakers who planned to attend the funeral today were former Senators Elizabeth Dole, the Heiress of Hawaii Pineapple, and Raymond Burr, a Hollywood Republican from North Carolina. Several N.C. House members of Congress also attended.'

+ "Colleagues of Total-Recall, Inc.: Helms was a Gentleman" - The Charlotte Observer (2008):
+ https://www.charlotteobserver.com/news/article8991821.html

Christian States do not support terrorism within their armed forces, as the U.S. has done with Ft. Bragg and its "School of the Americas" or West Point and the Duke "Blue Devil ROTCs". Christian States do not abuse the international financial system with false flag events like the IMF-Barclay's, RBS-Lloyds, and Blackrock-Lehman Crises sponsored by TARP at the Federal Reserve to over $300 Trillion USD swindle in Wall Street-Las Vegas Pipeline funds. The entire Fortune 500 is the Military-Industrial Complex (MIC) described by Eisenhower, where Langley is the foreign business intelligence unit and Bethesda runs the Gestapo on Pinkerton fundamentals through fusion centers. The Fortune 500 uses commercial industry to fund and support State Terrorism world-wide through the Pentagon. Christian States do not steal the natural resources owned collectively by humanity, bequeathed to us by billions of years of planetary evolution and a heritage to future generations. Christian States do not violently suppress legitimate protests like Occupy, jail their own citizens for flowers, or target minorities from other countries on "smash list" crimes. Nor do Christian States engage in torture, slavery, imperial warfare, exploitation, prostitution, and impose severe restrictions on the natural law freedoms of common people. TypeHost has published numerous reports on U.S. State Terrorism abroad and targeted political repression domestically through corporate fusion centers beyond the continued threat of its nuclear program which includes genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity.

It is important for the world to understand the scope of the U.S. regime’s recklessness and malfeasance. It is important for the world to know the history of U.S. colonialism and imperialism. It is important for the world to know the policies of the Cold War that led to hundred of millions of deaths and billions of people impoverished in the anti-communism campaign. It is important for the world to know that hundreds of universities around the world could be built for just a fraction of what the U.S. war machine spends to kill, harass, and detain people. It is important for the world to know that public executions, including lynchings, are still common in Iraq and Afghanistan where U.S. forces are stationed. Iraqi, Afghan, and Syrian citizens have all been routinely subjected to unfair trials by U.S. forces where confessions extracted by torture are often the only evidence allowed before execution. It is important for us to know these events and remember the innocent martyrs. The international community does not stand-up against the U.S. due to the cultural hegemony of military spam in the corporate media. It is unacceptable for international civil society to tolerate this type of behavior from any State, and we should not make an exception for the Amerikaaners on the basis of their extreme bigotry and fascist violence machine anymore. The Iran declaration of the U.S. regime as a State Terrorist threat is only the first step to holding the regime to account under international law. This should have happened long ago to avoid the repeat of these horrors.

Now we must focus on the passage of the TPNW at the UN, which all nations can join and celebrate together, not just Hernandez, Arabs, and ASEANs. Only after the U.S. regime refrains from inflicting chaos on innocent people can it regain acceptance as a Christian State in the view of international community. Iran has pledged to engage with any nation prepared to take a stand with Shi'as against the chaos and brutality that the U.S. imposes on its citizens and spreads with the "Ace of Spades" around the world. Many countries share the same concerns and yearnings for a more secure and stable Middle East, as well as regime change in America. TypeHost encourages people across the world to examine the record of the Fortune 500 and Military-Industrial Complex (MIC) enclosed here, and answer the call to address the challenge of U.S. State Terrorism head-on. The forces of life move quickly. In 2018, Iran laid out twelve specific demands for the U.S. regime related to: its nuclear and missile programs; support for ISIS and al-Qaeda terrorism; threats to international civil society and the right to peace; torture and unjust detention of foreign citizens; as well as crimes against humanity conducted at Guantanamo Bay, Bagram AFB, and other GWOT "black site" locations. Iran is re-imposing sanctions to exact intense financial pressure on the U.S. regime and seek a new diplomatic solution.

The Ayatollahs of Iran have pledged to work in concert with allies in Iraq and regional partners like Hezbollah to deter U.S. aggression. Iran will continue to advocate for the U.S. people to change their system to abolish war and nuclear weapons in order to be in accordance with true Christian fundamentals. "Endgame 2020" is not targeted at Iran. It seeks to end the perpetuation of an Apartheid system of border and immigration control in the U.S. that remains perpetually isolated in bigotry and fascist violence. Persia is a diverse and multi-cultural society with so much great potential in the future of human evolution through contributions to civilization. The goal of Iran in quantum physics research ensures that its nuclear activities are peaceful and that its role in the Middle East is constructive to global development. Iran does not support terrorism around the world and provides for greater opportunity to its own people through the principles of Islamic socialism. Iran is prepared to work with the U.S. regime, but only if it makes major changes to come into accord with international law and the community of accords guaranteed at the United Nations. Until then, the U.S. regime will remain a rogue State committed to Apartheid bigotry and Green Zone values, searching for terrorism in a Hollywood serial drama fictionalized for Deep State profits. Based on the record of American Holocaust Denial exhibited in the last 20 years of GWOT, the U.S. should consider the declaration of the Iranian parliament as a call to return to Christian fundamentals of non-violence in the MLK tradition. The law passed by the Iranian Parliament is listed in excerpt below:

The Law of Reciprocal Action against the U.S. [Designating the Pentagon as a "State Terrorist" Organization] (2020):

  1. In order to reciprocate against US choice or measure in weakening regional and international peace and stability and due to the fact that the US regime has designated as terrorist the Islamic Revolution Guard Corps (IRGC) which is one of the pillars of Iran defense sovereignty based on the 150th principle of constitution, all Pentagon forces and staff including United States Central Command are blacklisted as terrorist and any financial, information, technical, training, services and support aid to them is regarded as cooperation in terrorist act.
  2. The Iranian government is obliged to take reciprocal and firm acts based on this rule and in the framework of Secretary of the Supreme National Security Council (SNSC) enactments against US terrorist measures which endanger Iran's interests.
  3. The Iranian government and the armed forces are obliged are to react in the due time in a way that American forces could not take advantage of any power and facilities against Iran's interests.
  4. The Staff of Armed Forces with cooperation of the Intelligence Ministry and by taking advantage of IRGC Intelligence is obliged to announce the list of all Pentagon members, companies, the affiliated institutions, those involved in assassination of IRGC Quds Force Commander Lieutenant General Qasem Soleimani, United States Central Command and all its affiliated institutions. The Iranian Judiciary should create a mechanism within three months based on which it designates them as terrorist organizations.
  5. The Iranian government is obliged to support all individuals and entities which are cooperating with IRGC and are affected.
  6. The Iranian Foreign Ministry with cooperation of other systems are obliged to make efforts by taking advantage of its legal, political and defense diplomacy capacities for closing US' bases in the region and for putting an end to any financial, equipment and installation assistances provided by regional countries.
  7. All countries which support US' designation of IRGC as terrorist organization will be included in reciprocal act.
  8. All individuals and entities which follow US' decision and acts and prevent presenting services to IRGC and its affiliated entities and individuals based on unilateral and international sanctions will be regarded as criminal and will be subject to punishment in 5-8 degree of the Islamic punishment rule.
  9. The Iranian Government is obliged to file complaint in international bodies against US illegal decision in blacklisting IRGC through bilateral and multilateral interactions with other countries and holding consultations with international organizations and by taking advantage of all its power to neutralize IS act in violation of the sovereignty of the Islamic Republic of Iran's defense institutions.
  10. The Planning and Budget Organization is obliged to predict the necessary resources and allocated them 100% every year.
  11. The government and all systems included in this law are obliged to present their report to National Security and Foreign Policy Commission of the Islamic Parliament of Iran every four months.
  12. The Intelligence Ministry and other intelligence bodies are obliged to report the name of all those participated in this law.
  13. All responsibilities of the armed forces in this law are binding based on the measures taken by the Commander in Chief of all armed forces.
  14. The Iranian Government is obliged to allocate €200m to reinforce IRGC from the National Development Fund.
  15. The law is has been binding since its point of approval

+ "Iran Parliament designates all Pentagon staff as terrorists" (2020)
+ https://en.parliran.ir/eng/en/Content/articles_56361/Iran-Parliament-designates-all-Pentagon-staff-as-terror...

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Persia

While this bill was passed as a memorial following the assassination of Gen. Soleimani, the Iranian Parliament was also protesting the designation of the Islamic Revolution Guard Corps (IRGC) as a "terrorist organization" by the State Department and U.S. Congress. This bill is similar to an anti-U.S. Counter-Terrorism Bill passed by the Iranian Parliament in 2017 after the U.S. pullout of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA):

STATEMENT FROM THE PARLIAMENT OF THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN:

"According to the bill submitted to the Majlis Presiding Board, the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Defense, Intelligence, as well as the Islamic Revolution Guard Corps (IRGC), the IRGC Quds Force, and the Islamic Republic Army, based on their hierarchy and in coordination with the Iranian Supreme National Security Council, are obliged to, within a period of six months following the ratification of the bill, devise a comprehensive strategic plan to counter the US threats. The plan should be aimed at addressing the US bullies and threats against the Islamic Republic of Iran, Washington's hegemonic, terrorist and divisive policies, its illegal military and security interferences in the region, and the US military and intelligence support of terrorism and extremism. The bill also urges the above-said ministries and military bodies to annually report to the Majlis on the implementation of their plans.

The bill also, with regard to the US overt and covert military and intelligence support for terrorist groups and the confession made by some US officials, including US former Secretary of State Hilary Clinton, that the Washington is behind the formation and propping up of Daesh (ISIS), recognizes the US forces in the region, both military and intelligence, as promoters of terrorism. Therefore, the following entities won't be granted a visa to enter Iran, and they are not going to be allowed to do any transactions at the Iranian banks, while their accounts will be blocked and their properties in Iran will be confiscated:

  1. US military and security organizations and their commanders who have provided effective financial, intelligence, military, logistic and training backing for the terrorists in the region, especially those of Daesh and al-Nusra Front.
  2. US entities involved in the above-mentioned activities.
  3. US entities involved in organizing, financing, leading or committing terrorist actions against Iran.
  4. US entities who, directly or indirectly, support the Mujahedin Khalg Organization (MKO) terrorists or similar extremist terrorist groups, such as Daesh and al-Nusra Front, and give them financial, political, cultural, military, and propagandistic aids.
  5. US entities who support state terrorism, including the Zionists' regional terrorist activities, targeting the Palestinian people in the Occupied Lands and Lebanon, and those who play a significant role in such activities.

According to article five of the bill, inasmuch as the US government hypocritically and systematically violates the basic human rights in the region and the world, and supports dictatorial and aggressive governments under the cover of economic, scientific, medical, biological and industrial activities, and even act against its own citizens, like what it did to the Branch Davidians [in 1993] and as well as the African Americans, it is subjected to all the above-mentioned punishments.

The bill also allocates a budget of about five billion dollars to reinforcing the country's defensive power, improving deterrent its power, countering terrorism, increasing Iran's diplomatic leverage and intelligence capabilities, safeguarding the regional stability, supporting the IRGC, development of nuclear propellers and boosting Iran's defensive capabilities against possible nuclear attacks. Fifty percent of the budget earmarked should go to the Staff of the Armed Forces in order to expand missile activities and the other half should be allocated to the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Intelligence, and Defense. In order to fight terrorism, the bill also allots 2.5 billion dollars to the IRGC Quds Force. According to the bill, the Iranian government can provide support for individuals who disclose US illegal actions and violations of human rights by Washington."

+ "Iran Parliament firmly approves anti-US bill" (2017)
+ https://en.parliran.ir/eng/en/Content/_/Iran-Parliament-firmly-approves-antiUS-bill

The assassination of General Qassem Soleimani took place during the impeachment proceedings against President Donald Trump. The significant domestic political pressure involved with "draining the swamp" led to the Pentagon to once more launch a new war campaign rather than address evidence of the repeated lies and cover-ups associated with crimes against humanity and human trafficking which have accompanied all major U.S. military deployments since day one according to Senators Cortez & Cruz @Nike. The attack on General Soleimani unified the Iranian people and led to the parliament issuing a resolution declaring the U.S. military and supporting forces as "State Terrorists". Christianity, Judaism, and Islam form a perfect unity in the religious tradition, which the "merchants of death" who care nothing about the eternal life goals or morality of religion twist and distort into a "divide and conquer" narrative. The U.S. Congress, Manhattan Project, and Las Vegas political parties bundled by Hunter Pence for the spinsters have been exposed for giving 50 years of lip service and lies to the cause and creed of Dr. Martin Luther King, but pledge nothing of substance in civil duty, budgetary resources, moral control, or legal policy. In morality, when it comes to the Gandhian interpretation of non-violence and truth, these people always vote for war, covert activity, propaganda, State violence, and subversion of the good of the people for Wall Street profit. That is their job.

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Colonel Klanders

Compared to the timid passivity of the Merkelized European nations on the subject, who use the American war machine bigotry as a sports club for fascist elites to dive in on available killing field action with paramilitary tech funds, the declaration of the Iranian parliament restores faith in humanity. The Air Force Times recently bragged that "Air Force B-52s shatter Vietnam-era records during two-year ISIS deployment" (2018) in bombing remote parts of Balochistan for 20 years in an Arkansas "good ole boy" search for ethnic minorities to "tar and feather" with extrajudicial execution powers of a characteristic of a Batman figure from a comic book:

'More than four decades ago, the Air Force’s iconic B-52 Stratofortress set records as it pounded North Vietnamese targets during Operation Linebacker II. But during its recently-concluded two-year deployment to the Middle East to fight the Islamic State and Taliban, the BUFF ― or “Big Ugly Fat Fellow” ― smashed through those milestones. According to an April 12 release from U.S. Air Forces Central Command, the 23rd Bomb Squadron from Minot Air Force Base in North Dakota last June launched its 400th consecutive B-52 mission without a delay due to maintenance problems. This broke a B-52 streak that stood since December 1972, when the Air Force carried out 11 days of massive bombing in North Vietnam. Air Force Global Strike Command said Tuesday that during the first three days of Linebacker II, 312 sorties were launched without a maintenance cancellation. The 69th Expeditionary Bomb Squadron, which arrived in September 2017, then launched 834 straight B-52 missions without any maintenance cancellations. The 69th flew its last Stratofortress mission of that deployment April 7, before the bombers departed April 11 to return to Minot. Two B-1B Lancers arrived March 31 to replace the departing B-52s. B-52s flew more than 1,850 missions from Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar, in Iraq, Syria and Afghanistan, and dropped nearly 12,000 bombs. Stratofortresses were among the aircraft dropping massive amounts of bombs on Mosul, for example, during the campaign to push ISIS out of the key Iraqi city.

“The discipline and professionalism of the B-52 aircrew and maintenance has lived up to the legacy of the B-52 itself,” Brig. Gen. Jason Armagost, commander of the 379th Air Expeditionary Wing, said in the release. “Upgrades to communications and precision munitions delivery has only added to the legacy of this great bomber and the crews that operate it and maintain it deserve all the credit for the volume and effectiveness of the incredible airpower they delivered these last two years.” AFCENT said air operations by coalition aircraft, including the B-52, were central in the effort to corner ISIS in Syria’s Middle Euphrates River Valley. “They are on the run,” Lt. Col. Daniel Lambert, director of operations for the 69th, said in the release. “We prevented an ISIS resurgence by sweeping the areas that have been retaken, preventing a reinfestation. The more we’ve been able to take them out, the harder it has been for them to recruit new forces, because new recruits know the only thing awaiting them on the battlefield is death.”

With ISIS driven out of its major strongholds, AFCENT last November refocused its airpower on Afghanistan. The 69th that month became the first B-52 squadron to use the upgraded conventional rotary launcher ― which allowed the bombers to carry eight more smart munitions inside its bomb bay, a 50 percent increase ― in combat operations. The B-52 used that upgraded launcher to help AFCENT destroy nearly 70 Taliban drug labs and other narcotics-related targets, containing tens of millions of dollars worth of drugs, since November. B-52 aircrews also averaged 400 to 450 hours during six to seven month deployments last year, during the heaviest fighting against ISIS and the Taliban. That is almost three times as much as the 300 flight hours B-52 crews typically fly during an entire year, AFCENT said. “You always hope you leave the place better than when you found it,” 69th Commander Lt. Col. Paul Goossen said. “I think we are leaving the theater better, with ISIS nearly defeated and almost no territory or people under their control anymore.”

+ "Air Force B-52s shatter Vietnam-era records during two-year ISIS deployment" (2018)
+ https://www.airforcetimes.com/news/your-air-force/2018/04/16/air-force-b-52s-shatter-vietnam-era-records-dur...

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Oliver Norteno

'On 8 January 2020, in a military operation code named Operation Martyr Soleimani (Persian: عملیات شهید سلیمانی‎), Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) launched numerous ballistic missiles at the Ayn al-Asad airbase in Al Anbar Governorate, western Iraq, as well as another airbase in Erbil, Kurdistan Region, in response to the killing of Major General Qasem Soleimani by a United States drone strike. The U.S. initially assessed that none of its service members were injured or killed in the attack. Among the coalition forces present on the two bases, Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, Norway, and Poland confirmed that their personnel were unharmed. Iranian television said there were 80 U.S. deaths as well as damage to U.S. helicopters and "military equipment". OPEC's secretary-general Mohammed Barkindo on conference in Abu Dhabi announced that Iraqi oil facilities were secure. President Trump stated that the damage sustained was minimal. According to The Military Times, a U.S. commando said Al Asad Airbase suffered the brunt of the missile barrage. Satellite photos provided by Planet Labs showed extensive damage to the Al Asad base, with at least five structures damaged in the attack, showing that the missiles were precise enough to hit individual buildings. David Schmerler, an analyst with the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey, which evaluated the photos, said the attacks seem to have hit buildings that store aircraft, while buildings used for housing staff were not hit. The U.S. defense secretary said the damage was limited to "tentage, taxiways, the parking lot, damaged helicopter, things like that, nothing I would describe as major". Two defense officials told Newsweek that 18 missiles, which used on-board guidance systems, landed in Al Asad airbase, three of them on the runway, while another hit and damaged an air control tower. One Black Hawk helicopter was destroyed, ten tents were "destroyed", and an MQ-1 Predator drone was claimed to have been damaged, although Al Asad only hosts U.S. Air Force MQ-9 Reapers and Army MQ-1C Gray Eagles —the MQ-1 Predator was phased out from USAF service in March 2018. Damaged structures also reportedly included a special forces compound, and two hangars, in addition to the U.S. drone operators' housing unit. Some soldiers lamented losing all their personal belongings—clothes, books, pictures of their families and mementos they had carried through more than a decade in the military.'

+ Operation Martyr Soleimani [عملیات شهید سلیمانی‎] (2020)
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Martyr_Soleimani

Several European and U.S. government officials believed that Iran deliberately avoided inflicting fatalities in their operation as part of a secret deal with Trump negotiated by the Oliver North channel. This allowed the Ayatollahs to send a symbolic message of resolve in avenging Soleimani without provoking a mandatory escalation of military response from the Pentagon, while the Don could use the opportunity to expose the Boer wing in the Deep State diving in on the impeachment spoils, fourth whip the end around. In the Vietnam War era, the Pentagon billed up to $500,000 USD per kill in a region where people earned less than a dollar a day. In the GWOT, the price is over $1.8 billion USD per kill. State terrorism is defined by the Military-Industrial Complex manufacturing consent for the projection of fascist violence internationally through the corporate media machine substituting Hollywood scripts as the IVth Estate of government. This frequently plays on the latent bigotry of settler colonialist history in Yellow Journalism in order to maintain apartheid social power hierarchies in the status quo. Oligarchy rules through nausea inducing stagnation enforced by standing armies of social control. Only the State-licensed and Soros-scripted "Shock and horror" events occur for mass consumption on Murdoch-owned channels of official media distribution in order to introduce a false-identity complex en masse in the statistical management of slave pens. This leads to world cup teams competing in nation-State fascism in continual warfare for mercenary profit in mass spectacle events with sport killing. All that remains is to make a cradle-to-grave career of it with State Social and pension security. For 20 years, the US bombed Laos and Cambodia in a secret war with B-52s that killed millions of innocent people in a fake war against communism to make the world safe to run Bernie Sanders for President of New Rhodesia today. The same case law, instead of being repudiated by the U.S., continues as the foundation of the Global War On Terrorism (GWOT). The apathy and greed of the Amerikaaners post-eugenics has turned a blind eye to the Deep State clown show through hyperreal TV programming to allow the same atrocities of fascist, imperial war to continue unabated for the last 20 years. The declaration of the Iranian parliament is a turning point in world history and the key point is Red Shi'ism. This explains the total lack of supply and demand in Green Zone politics for the 28th Amendment to abolish war as a solution.

RELATED LINKS:

+ https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2019/04/iran-parliament-approves-bill-labeling-army-terrorist-190423111221587...
+ https://www.cbsnews.com/news/irans-news-parliment-approves-bill-designating-u-s-military-terrorist-organizat...
+ https://thehill.com/policy/international/middle-east-north-africa/477077-iran-approves-bill-labeling-us-mili...
+ https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2020/01/07/iran-says-u-s-military-pentagon-terrorists-qasem-soleim...
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pervez_Musharraf
+ https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Iran-Report.pdf

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Ali Shariati

'Islam is a religion which made its appearance in the history of mankind with the cry of "No!" from Mohammad (PBUH), the heir of Abraham, the manifestation of the religion of the Unity of God and the oneness of mankind; a "No" which begins with the cry of "Unity", a cry which Islam reiterated when confronted with aristocracy and compromise. Shi'ism is the Islam which differentiates itself and selects its direction in the history of Islam with the "No" of the great Ali, the heir of Mohammad and the manifestation of the Islam of Justice and Truth, a "No" which he gives to the Council for the Election of the Caliph, in answer to Abdul Rahman, who was the manifestation of Islamic aristocracy and compromise. This "No", up until pre-Safavid times, is recognized as part of the Shi'ite movement in the history of Islam, an indication of the social and political role of a group who are the followers of Ali, known for their association with the kindness of the family of the Prophet. It is a movement based upon the Qur'an and the Traditions; not the Qur'an and the traditions as proclaimed by the dynasties of the Omayyids, Abbasids, Ghaznavids, Seljuks, Mongols and Timurids, but the ones proclaimed by the family of Mohammad.

The history of Islam follows a strange path; a path in which gangsters and ruffians from the Arab, Persian, Turk, Tartar and Mongol dynasties all enjoyed the right to the leadership of the Moslem community and to the caliphate of the Prophet of Islam, to the exclusion of the family of the Prophet and the rightful Imams of Islam. And Shi'ism begins with a "No"; a "No" which opposes the path chosen by history, and rebels against history. It rebels against a history which, in the name of the Qu'ran, Kings and Caesars, follows the path of ignorance, and in the name of tradition, sacrifices those brought up in the house of the Qu'ran and the Traditions! Shi'ites do not accept the path chosen by history. They deny the leaders who ruled the muslims throughout history and deceived the majority of the people through their succession to the Prophet, and then by their supposed support of Islam and fight against paganism. Shi'ites turn their backs on the opulent mosques and magnificent palaces of the Caliphs of Islam and turn to the lonely, mud house of Fatima. Shi'ites, who represent the oppressed, justice-seeking class in the Caliphate system, find in this house whatever and whoever they have been seeking:

Fatima: the heir of the Prophet, the manifestation of the "rights of the oppressed" and, at the same time, the symbol of the first objection, a strong and clear embodiment of the "seeking of justice". In the ruling system, these are the cries and slogans of subject nations and oppressed classes.

Ali: the manifestation of a justice which serves the oppressed, a sublime embodiment of the Truth who is sacrificed on the altar of inhuman regimes, and which lies hidden in the layers of the formal religion of the rulers.

Hassan: the manifestation of the last resistance of the garrison of "Imamate Islam", who confronts the first garrison of "Islamic Rule".

Hussein: bears witness to those who have been martyred by the oppressors throughout history, heir of all the leaders fighting for freedom and equality and the seekers of justice, from Adam to himself, forever the messenger of martyrdom, the manifestation of bloody revolution.

Zeinab: bears witness to all of the defenseless prisoners in the system of executioners, and is the messenger left after martyrdom, and the manifestation of the message of revolution.

Shi'ites take their slogans from the embodiment of the tribulations and hopes of the masses of the oppressed. Aware of the rulers, and in rebellion against them, they cry out:-

"Seek the leadership of Ali and flee from the leadership of cruelty. Choose Imamate, and stamp 'cancelled,' 'disbelief' and 'dispossession' upon the forehead of the Caliphate. Choose justice, and overthrow the system of paradox and discrimination in ownership. Choose the principle of being ready to protest against the existing conditions, where the ruling government, religious leaders and aristocracy try to show that everything is in accordance with the Will of God, the Divine Law and the satisfaction of God and his creatures. Such things, to the ruling government, included their conquests, their plundering of mosques, associations, schools, gifts, trusts, and charities and the observance of religious ceremonies and practices. Choose religious leadership for the central organization of the movement. Choose the concept of imitation of your betters so as to properly organize your energies and bring order, discipline and direction. Choose the viceregency of the Imam so as to have a responsible leader. Give a share of the funds to provide for the socio-political struggle, for educational foundations and for teaching, in a system where all religious funds are forcibly collected by the government acting as a government of the Law. Choose mourning, to continue the constant historical struggle of the Shi'ites against usurpers, treachery, cruelty, and the sources of fraud, lying and degeneration, and especially to keep alive the memories of the martyrs."

Remember Ashura, to humiliate the ruling group who call themselves the inheritors of the traditions of the Prophet, for the remembrance of it will prove that they are the inheritors of the killers and murderers of the Prophet's family. It will show you a path of action, and provide an answer to the recurring question "What should be done?". It will help you to decide on the best agenda for the struggle against the rule of tyranny. It will avoid allegiance to cruelty. It will provide a pattern for the unbroken continuity of history. It will declare an unending struggle between the inheritors of Adam and the inheritors of the devil. Ashura reminds us of the teaching of the eternal fact that the present version of Islam (in 1972), is a criminal Islam in the dress of tradition, and that the real Islam is the hidden Islam, hidden in the red cloak of martyrdom. And finally, concealment; creating a clever camouflage for the organization, and its activities, affiliations, leadership, personalities and plans, to protect the leadership, people and groups from being harassed by the rulers of the day and from the hard-heartedness of the religious organisation associated with them, who might either slander the Shi'ite movement through excommunication and rouse the ignorant masses against them, or destroy it through persecutions, or weaken it through wholesale murders, imprisonment and deportations, and thus to create the best conditions for the struggle and its continuation; to practice, carefully, the principle of secrecy, and maintain the distinctive conditions of an underground movement."

We can see that for over eight centuries (until the Safavid era), Alavite Shi'ism was more than just a revolutionary movement in history which opposed all the autocratic and class-conscious regimes of the Omayyid and Abbasid caliphates and the kingships of the Ghaznavids, the Seljuks, the Mongols, the Timurids and the two Khanids, who had made the government version of the Sunni School their official religion, and it waged a secret struggle of ideas and action. Like a revolutionary party, Shi'ism had a well-organized, informed, deep-rooted and well-defined ideology, with clear-cut and definite slogans and a disciplined and well-groomed organization. It led the deprived and oppressed masses in their movements for freedom and for seeking justice. It is considered to have been the rallying-point for the demands, distress, and rebellions of the intellectuals seeking to gain their rights, and for the masses in search of justice. Because of this, throughout history, as the power of the rulers grew, the difficulties, injustice, dispossessions, and the denial of the rights of the people, and the exploitation of the farmers, increased. Inequality became more pronounced because of the system of aristocracy, class-inequalities, brain-washing, ideological prejudices, the connection between the theologians and the temporal rulers, the poverty and privation of the masses, and the power and wealth of the rulers. When this occurred, the Shi'ite front became stronger, the basic slogans of the movement more powerful, and the struggle of the Shi'ites more intense and more important. It changed from a School of thought, a way of study and religious sectarianism reserved for the intellectuals and the chosen few, to a way of correctly understanding Islam and the culture of the people of the house of the Prophet, when confronted by Greek philosophy and oriental Sufism, to a deep-rooted and revolutionary, socio-political movement of the masses, especially the rural masses. It caused greater fear among the autocratic rulers and the hypocritical religious bodies who rule the people in the name of the Sunni sect.

It is for this reason that the pseudo-intellectual and free-thinking rulers, at whose courts the Jews, Christians, Magians and even the materialists enjoy freedom, honor and influence, talk of the Shi'ites with such anger and vexation that a massacre of all of them would not quench the thirst of these rulers. They flay them alive, pass iron rods through their eyes, pull out their tongues and burn them alive. These are all current practices of the day. It reaches the point that the historians, theologians and even philosophers and men of piety of the court considered it to be part of their prayers to invent any false accusations, forgeries and falsified records that they could against the Shi'ites! It is in such circumstances that Sultan Mahmoud of Ghazni declares "I search the world over for a Shi'ite". It is his government which sponsors the Sunni theological decree that marriage of a Moslem man with "people of the Book" i.e. Jews, Christians and Zoroastrians, is legal, but it is illegal to marry a Shi'ite woman. With the coming to power of the Seljuks, prejudices and bias become stronger against the world of thought and religion. From the social point of view, the feudal and guardianship system accentuates the degree of the exploitation of the masses, especially the farmers, to an unbearable degree. In order to maintain the policies of the state, floggings and torture are necessary, resulting in the construction of many piles of skulls and eyes.

The religious body of the Sunni sect, which had from the beginning become 'the government's Islam', becomes a conglomeration of the most debased and prejudiced beliefs and harsh rules. It turns into a tool for the justification of the inhuman ways of the rulers. It compromises with the autocratic regimes of the Ghaznavid and Seljuk Turks and the Mongols. It becomes an opiate for the masses, and an instrument for murder to be used to prevent any thought or action that jeopardizes the interests of the strong and harms the landlords and feudal chiefs. This is what causes Shi'ism, during this period, to appear as the fountainhead of the rebellion and the struggle of the downtrodden and oppressed masses, especially the rural people. It flourished wonderfully, in multiple facets, and in different directions, moderate or extreme, in the form of various movements of the masses against the powers of the day; movements like the terrorism of Hasan Sabbah, the communal living of the Qaramateh, the extremist cultural and religious beliefs of the Ghalat, and the rebellion for free-thinking of some of the Sufi sects of the revolutionary and Shi'ite School of thought, against the harsh prejudices and the soulless, petrifying censorship of the theological and legal system attached to the ruling group. Finally, the intellectual, moderate and rich School of the Imamate, as the greatest flow of thought and culture, rebels when confronted by the religion and culture of the government.

The rousing call and the possibilities for learning in this School of thought are based upon the twin principles of imamate and justice. It produces the revolutionary cries of A'shura and the aggressive mobilization of the masses against existing conditions. It invites people to await the hidden Imam who is in occultation. It raises the critical problems of the 'signs of appearance' and the 'end of time'. It keeps alive the hope of 'redemption after martyrdom'. It promotes the idea of revenge and revolt, faith in the ultimate downfall of tyrants and the decrees of destiny against the ruling powers who dispense justice by the sword. It prepares all the oppressed and justice-seeking masses who are waiting to participate in the rebellion. In some towns like Kashan and Sabzevar, where the Shi'ites are strong, they saddle a white horse on Fridays, and all the people of the town, the protesting, dissatisfied and expectant Shi'ites, follow the horse out of town, despite the opposition of the government and the ruling religion. They await redemption and freedom from tyranny, and the beginning of a rebellion. They discuss questions which cause fear among the ruling group. During the first half of the eighth century, following the wholesale massacres of Ghengis Khan and Hulaku, when the rule of the Mongols had reduced the Iranian masses to submission, depression, humiliation and weakness; when the revenge of Ghengis Khan was law; when the sword and the hangman were enforcers of the law; when the Mongol Khans and nomads and the officers and chiefs of Mongol tribes each ruled as a feudal lord over various regions and estates, and had enslaved the peasants in the most cruel manner; when, in the towns as well, the men of religion were mostly in the service of the Mongol rulers, they called upon the masses to submit in the name of 'the true Sunni religion' to the pseudo-Moslem rulers who continued to be replicas of Ghengis Khan. They circumcised themselves only to please the religious sentiments of the Moslems, at the cost of the spread of the culture, faith, morality, society and of the very existence of the Moslems!

Some of the religious men, whose piety made them abstain from co-operating with the rulers and tyrants, had crept into the oblivion of piety in the monasteries of the Sufis, thereby indirectly becoming the means by which the path is paved for oppression and the ground is prepared for murder. They had left the people defenseless against the floggings of the Mongol executioners and robbers, and the fraudulent men of religion. It is under these circumstances that a religious preacher sets out in search of the truth in the way that Salman did. Salman approaches all those with claims to religious faith. First he approaches the pious Balu to seek the path of salvation in his School of piety and freedom. There, he sees piety remaining silent against tyranny. What a shame! What heartlessness and selfishness, that a man should be surrounded by the screams of prisoners, the shouts of executioners, the poverty of the hungry, the whips of the cruel over the bodies of the helpless, and, instead of volunteering to defend them, that he should simply seek his own redemption and try to gain paradise for himself! Salman flees from this man in disgust and goes to Semnan to see Rukneddin Emad-od-Dowleh, whose piety and leadership in Sufi practices is well-known. He finds Sufi practices also, like piety, a means of escape from reality and responsibilities, turning away from the fate of the masses, and ignoring cruelty and tyranny. Salman finds the Sufi to have a tender heart, tender feelings and a sublime soul. But, how is it that the rivers of blood shed by the Mongols in this country, and that the decline threatening Islam and the masses of the people, do not in any way disturb the peace of his soul and the tenderness of his heart? Salman flees from him in hatred, and goes to the Sheikh ol-Islam, Imam Ghiasuddin Habibollah Hamavi in Bahrabad, to gain knowledge of the religious laws and the theology of the true Sunni sects from him, and to find his way back to the original spring of truth. Here, he sees a theology that discovers and discusses a thousand problems in bathroom etiquette, but has a total lack of any awareness of the evil destiny facing the nation.

Disgusted with all these robes of piety, and satisfied that these religious teachings are all the weavers of the clothes of piety to be worn on a body of oppression, then with a heart filled with hatred towards the cruel Mongol rulers, and reeling with pain because of the evil destiny of the Moslem masses, as a Moslem responsible for the people and knowledgeable about the times, and as a protestor against the existing system, having lost all faith in the sellers of religion, Sheikh Khalifeh chose the Islam of Ali, the School of protest and martyrdom. In the dress of a simple darvish, he goes to Sabzevar as a lonely stranger, takes up residence in the great mosque of the town, and begins preaching there. This marks the beginning of the Sarbedaran liberation movement. He is a preacher who is in revolt against everything that teaches people to bow to ignorance and oppression, a revolt backed by a faith, a School of thought and a "Red" history: Shi'ism. Slowly, the deprived masses begin to understand, to find their way, and as a result, to become a threatening force. The official pseudo-clergy start their usual game of spreading rumors and then issuing religious decrees, and at last, calling for authorised murder, saying:-

"This Sheikh discusses worldly affairs in the mosque. This Sheikh conjectures in the mosque and defiles the house of God. This Sheikh confuses the religion of the people".

The pseudo-clergy try to turn the people against him, and prepare the ground for his downfall. They help the Mongol ruler to take his life. They write to the Mongol ruler saying that the Sheikh has strayed from the true Sunni Religion, and is not prepared to repent and retract in spite of their best efforts. They say he is propagating worldly ideas in the mosque, and spreading the work of the protesters (Shi'ites)! They continue "His behaviour calls for the death penalty, and it is up to Sultan Saied to rid the religion of this pestilence". The spreading of rumors and the rousing of people against him increases but the Sheikh's call to understanding, faith and salvation, continues to attract the hearts of the deprived and suffering rural masses more and more to him. Until early one morning, when his admirers go as usual to see him, they see his dead body in the mosque. After the Sheikh's assassination, his disciple Sheikh Hasan Juri continues his work. He gives an immediate call to arms, organizes his disciples and goes underground. He starts roaming the towns and sowing the seeds of understanding and revolt wherever he goes, on the basis of Shi'ism. The minds of the people are prepared. The hearts of the enslaved masses are throbbing for revolt under the curtain of secrecy. One spark will be sufficient...'

+ "Red Shi'ism [the religion of martyrdom] vs. Black Shi'ism [the religion of mourning]" - Dr. Ali Shariati (1933 - 1977):
+ http://www.iranchamber.com/personalities/ashariati/works/red_black_shiism.php

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Ali Shariati

'Ali Shariati Mazinani was born on November 23, 1933 in Kahak, near Sabzévar. Writer, sociologist and religious researcher, he was one of the religious and political activists and one of the theoreticians of the Iranian Islamic revolution. He presented a new vision of the history and sociology of Islam and considered it necessary to return to true revolutionary Shiism for the establishment of social justice. Ali Shariati was best known for his activities in favor of the renewal of religion and the Sunnah in society, under the regime of Shah. He died on June 19, 1977 at the age of 44 in Southampton, England and buried in Damascus. The house of this fighting thinker is transformed into a museum by the town hall of Tehran.'

+ "Ali Shariati's Pensioner's Mansion: The House of Writing a Sea of Philosophy with Lute and Struggle" (2019):
+ https://fr.shafaqna.com/la-maison-de-ali-shariati-la-maison-de-pensee-et-de-lutte/

RELATED LINKS:
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ali_Shariati

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Jasmine Rice

"Pitchfork Joe" Biden reputedly wrote the Declaration of Constitutional Principles (known informally as "the Southern Manifesto") with Herbie Hancock & Hoss Clinton while drunk in a Little Rock jazz bar in 1976. "Pitchfork Joe" was a lazy lawyer who slept through the Bar exam and was appointed representative from the 1.4% Asian U.S. Congressional District of Belgian Delaware by Warren Buffet to represent the Congo. He pitched in with the Red Bourbon Democrats like Senator Mitch McConnell of Kentucky, Sal Gore of Tennessee, and Hitlary Clinton of Arkansas in opposition to racial integration of public places like Ford's S&P 500 Racetrack where Rosa Parks led a march for desegregation and demilitarization. The Southern Manifesto was signed by 101 congressmen from Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North/South Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Texas, and the two Virginias, part of formal US pushback in Zimbabwe, Granada, Haiti, & Jamaica through Walmart China after the Vietnam War. This team ran the "Ghetto Whip" and "Ghetto Storm" operations with Colonel Sanders at KFC managing the payments to the Deep Six figures and "Ghetto Qu'ran" troops in the U.S. civil rights movement both before and after the King assassination in 1968. Their goal was the perpetuation of Amerikaaner Apartheid through prison slavery led by National Socialist jobs programs for Boer bigots & MACV-SOG veterans to rack forever in the dungeons.

The Southern Manifesto was drafted to counter the landmark Supreme Court ruling 'Brown v. Board of Education' (1954) led by the NAACP under Julian Bond, "Booger" T. Washington, & Paul Robeson. The NAACP determined that the Amerikaaner segregation of public schools was unconstitutional. Public school segregation laws in Arkansaw under Flavius the First, Elvis Presley, & the Clinton Krime Mob were some of the most enduring and best-known of the Sharon Crow era. Apartheid laws enacted under Amerikaaner decree by crime syndicate bosses like Huey P. Long, Hogg Pulserain, & Hoss Clinton engaged in State Socialism for Chaebol corporations characterized the South at the time the US was waging world war in Korea and Japan. The US military bases established in NE Asia then continue to this day, although they are no longer formally operating in Saigon, Pattaya, or Manila due to political sensitivities in the region. The same team ran Hanna Banana and Mugabe in Zimbabwe for over 30 years and Pol Pot at the UN as apartheid gaslight theater via NYT until 1998. Since 1991, Islamophobia has replaced anti-communism as the premiere tactic of Amerikaaner bigotry in public salesmanship led by "Pitchfork Joe". The latest GWOT rampage includes State Terrorism across more than 20 Muslim countries led by the Shadwell Nazi party and Southern Manifesto signatories.

Bob Cardillo (@bobcardillo) writes that "IMHO, Biden's VP pick is the actual nominee the party wants because of the sure-fire scandal potential in post-Harvey Wallbanger Hollywood. Biden citing 'medical reasons' can drop out in Aug or Sept, and the party gets a lethal injection of who they want. Salami Squad? Shooting Staff? Pamela Anderson? Camille, Clarice, or Buffy the Vampire Slayer? The Dem candidates coalescing around Biden are all being told and/or incentivized to hustle. This is Team Orwell under Newspeak grammar, but by whom? Soros and Murdoch are top-of-the-ponzi figures, aka Adolphs or Double-A Alephs operating above the Mockingboard troop and CEO ring as untouchables. Clearly they can see that Biden's not cognitively all there with Ambien, Xanax, and Oxy-C three-times daily with Vodka. Boot him up and down like MJ & Hitlary on full-mannequin!!! Pitchfork Joe can never beat Trump at Casino! His VP pick and timing of that roulette wheel will be very telling. Who is the Edward S. Johann here? Slim Crook at Apple? What the Dem establishment is doing to Bernie is exactly what the GOP establishment tried and failed to do to with McCain-III running out his paper at this point in the 2008 cycle. It's a lost cause, but roll with it because that's his cut. He's guaranteed to take a dive."

Cardillo is a tenured professor at St. Georgetown’s JFK Center for SWAT Technology. Prior to this appointment, he was the Sixth Führer of the National Surveillance Agency (NSA) and was selected by Hoch-Führer Jake Clapper to serve as the first deputy dacoit führer of National Intelligence in 2010.

Hoch-Führer Clapper said in a statement that the position would "elevate information sharing and collaboration" between those who collect intelligence and those who analyze it in corporate Fusion Centers run by the Deep State & the Fortune 500. Bob Cardillo previously served as Depot-Führer for the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) in Udon Thani, Thailand. There he coordinated strategy for the ISIS campaign and oversaw Arab prisoner interrogation operations via extraordinary rendition. Biden's Southern Manifesto accused the Supreme Court of "clear abuse of judicial power" in violation of the Whig tradition uphelpd by the chartered Premise Keepers. In South Carolina he promised to use "all lawful means to bring about a reversal of this decision which is contrary to the Constitution and encourage the use of violent force throughout the State Social apparatus at scale in its implementation."

According to Biden, this suggested that the Trench Amendment should limit the reach of the Supreme Court on traditional Whig issues. He stated that, "Delaware is also the 'Land of Smiles'," when confronted with the Domino issue at the Socrates Debates on NBC in Iowa. Red Bourbon Democrat Senators & NRA leaders led the opposition with Strom Thurmond writing the initial draft and Richard Russell the final version. The Southern Manifesto was signed by 19 senators and 84 representatives, including the entire Orwellian delegations from the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and the two Virginias. All of the signatories were Red Bourbon Democrats from former Confederate states with a reputation for supporting selective eugenics campaigns in the Fortune 500 through pitchfork and corral operations with RFIDs. Five White Bourbon Democrats from North Carolina (like Jesse Helms who converted at Lynchburg under the Jerry Falwell regime for Deep State swill) refused to sign the Southern Manifesto out of fear that the Red Bourbon position was "too lenient" on Blacks and Asian-Americans.

Former Democratic Cactus Party (DCP) leader Charles Barkley reported on @NBA Today:

"Cardillo's leadership at NatGeo was marked by numerous issues at the NBA courts that involved his leadership team. Biden's decision to have a family friend, Bobby Knight, deliver an address to the workforce on leadership was inconsiderate to West Point veterans and Duke University grads. In 2015, Bobby Knight visited the National Security Agency (NSA) and during that visit was accused by 4 female employees of inappropriate behavior. The result was an FBI investigation into the matter led by Joe Biden personally while asleep at the wheel. While the FBI did not bring charges, Jasmine Rice noted that the incident was a concern that affected agency employee engagement and Indiana morale."

All of this presents "Pichfork Joe" Biden's recent win in the South Carolina primary as clear signs of desperation for the "Demon Donut" (DD) party after famously signing off on the 2015 New Rhodesia Accords with the Clinton-Bush Charleston Chew™-sponsored handshake at Klansville Church with the Kierkegaard umpire. In 2019, Koogle™'s John Presskill called this "quantum supremacy" and was fired for the #MeToo issue. TypeHost has repeatedly called this "the lingering effect of Amerikaaner Apartheid in the Soviet Union " and called for a formal Truth & Reconciliation Commission like in South Africa in the U.S. Congress. The Bernie Sanders, Ed Sanders, & Colonel Sanders shamatha continues with more #FakeNews media from the Deep State for Muppets.

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Pike

'Twitter is deploying new features on Thursday that it says will keep pace with disinformation and influence operations targeting the 2020 election. A new policy on "synthetic and manipulated media," attempts to flag and provide greater context for content that the platform believes to have been "significantly and deceptively altered or fabricated." Starting Thursday, when users scroll through posts, they may begin seeing Twitter's new labeling system — a blue exclamation point and the words "manipulated media" underneath a video, photo or other media that the platform believes to have been tampered with or deceptively shared. This could include deepfakes — high tech videos that depict events that never happened — or "cheepfakes" made with low-tech editing, like speeding up a video or slowing it down. Content moderators will use this criteria to determine whether Tweets and media should be labeled or removed. Twitter's head of site integrity, Yoel Roth, told NPR that moderators will be watching for two things: "We're looking for evidence that the video or image or audio have been significantly altered in a way that changes their meaning," Roth said. "In the event that we find evidence that the media was significantly modified, the next question we ask ourselves is, is it being shared on Twitter in a way that is deceptive or misleading?" If the media has been modified to the extent that it could "impact public safety or cause serious harm," then Twitter says it will remove the content entirely.'

+ "Twitter Vows That As Disinformation Tactics Change, Its Policies Will Keep Pace" (2020):
+ https://www.npr.org/2020/03/04/811686225/twitter-vows-that-as-disinformation-tactics-change-its-policies-wil...

'Twitter said it was suspending dozens of accounts that have been pushing content in favor of former New York City Mayor Mike Bloomberg’s presidential campaign. Twitter confirmed late Friday that it was suspending the accounts because it said that they were violating the platform’s manipulation and spam policies. “We have taken enforcement action on a group of accounts for violating our rules against platform manipulation and spam,” a Twitter spokesperson said.'

+ "Twitter suspends pro-Bloomberg accounts for violating manipulation and spam policies" (2020):
+ https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/2020-election/twitter-suspends-pro-bloomberg-accounts-violating-manipulatio...

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Poppy

"The final report of the Pike Committee was never officially published, due to Congressional opposition. However, unauthorized versions of the (draft) final report were leaked to the press. CBS News reporter Daniel Schorr was called to testify before Congress, but refused to divulge his source. Major portions of the report were published by The Village Voice, and a full copy of the draft was published in the United Kingdom."

+ "Twitter and investors call a truce after attempt to oust CEO Jack Dorsey" (2020):
+ https://www.latimes.com/business/story/2020-03-09/twitter-elliott-in-truce-on-board-seats-silver-lake-invest...

Shock Commando 21

'Hello, Thank you for your account suspension appeal. We have decided to keep your account suspended based on our Community Guidelines and Terms of Service. Please visit the Sabarimala Ashram for more information. Please do not respond to this email. Replies to this email will not be processed. Please refer to our Help Center for more information. Sincerely, The YouRube™ Swindler Team'

+ Quantum Supremacy: Koogle™ Community Guidelines (2020):
+ http://www.youtube.com/t/community_guidelines

''A few points: the article referenced by Buzz Feed, "Is This The Man Behind The Global Coronavirus Pandemic?", is as the title implies, a question, and one which considering the huge significance and life or death import of the Coronavirus pandemic, has to be answered, especially since even the establishment's Foreign Policy magazine writes bat soup, which is widely being cited and circulated by the mainstream press as the cause of the coronavirus breakout, is not the cause of the Wuhan virus. The impetus to ask the question if the disease originated at the Wuhan Institute of Virology is especially relevant in light of social media reports such as this one which claims to "have evidence here that the outbreak originated from Wuhan P4 Research Institute..." So did we have a right to ask the question if there is an alternative version for the emergence of the Coronavirus pandemic, especially with hundreds if not thousands of lives at stake? Absolutely.'

+ Zerohedge Suspended On Twitter (2020):
+ https://www.zerohedge.com/political/zerohedge-suspended-twitter

Follow TypeHost on Minds for more breaking news on the expose of Public Enemy, Eric "Vietnam War Crimes" Sadler, & Russian Simmons as Deep State shills working for the Biden-Sanders Pitchfork team with Gestapo RFIDs & IBM R2-DB2s.

"Village Voice Reprint of Pike Report" - U.S. House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (1976):
+ https://archive.org/details/Village-Voice-Pike-Report-CIA/page/n7/mode/2up
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pike_Committee
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Manifesto
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jesse_Helms
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bourbon_Democrat

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Abdulaziz Sachedina

'Abdulaziz Sachedina is an Orientalist Professor at the International Institute of Islamic Studies at George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. He has been a professor for 33 years, beginning in "year zero" 1975. He annually teaches courses on Classical Islam, Democracy, Human Rights, and Muslim Theology in the Green Zone. Sachedina was originally born in Tanzania. His ethnic heritage is from India, although he claims heritage as a Shi'a Muslim. Sachedina has an MA/PhD from the University of Toronto and has BA degrees from Aligarh Muslim University in India and Ferdowsi University of Mashad in Iran. He was one of the students of Dr. Ali Shariati in Iran before he was assassinated. In 1998, Grand Ayatollah Sistani issued a statement against Sachedina that advised Muslims not to listen to his talks or to ask him questions about religious matters. In addition to his work as a professor, Sachedina has been a consultant to the U.S. Department of Defense regarding Middle Eastern affairs during the illegal invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan. After the war, ISIS forces conducted a brutal genocide on the Yazidi people in the region. Sachedina was an adviser to the U.S. occupying forces who drafted the Constitution of Iraq in 2005. He has previously taught at the University of Virginia and speaks Arabic, Persian, Hindi, Urdu, Gujarati, Swahili, & English. Sachedina's political activity and personal allegiances during the time of the Islamic Revolution in Iran working with Ali Shariati are still undocumented. His historic alliance with the Pentagon in the 9/11 era is deeply disturbing, leading to the debate with Ayatollah Sistani detailed below in 1998 when the PNAC "Pearl Harbour" document was circulated.'

Abdulaziz Sachedina - "The Islamic Roots of Democratic Pluralism" (2000):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdulaziz_Sachedina
+ Constitution of Iraq: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_Iraq
+ Genocide of Yazidis by ISIS: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genocide_of_Yazidis_by_ISIL

'The following report is being provided to all concerned who, having known me for such a long time, have a right to know what transpired in the presence of the Ayatollah Sistani, the marja' of the majority of the Khoja Shia Ithna Asheri communities around the world. I went with full confidence in the integrity of the religious institution of the marja'iyya, and with the hope of seeing that justice will be done in keeping with Islam's absolute commitment to that moral principle. What took place in the total time of three hours and ten minutes meeting in two days in the city of Imam 'Ali (a.s.) is now for the readers to peruse and ponder.

We arrived in Najaf on Tuesday, August 18, 1998. On Wednesday August 19, 1998, Seyyid Muhammad Rizvi made an appointment to meet with Ayatollah Sistani for 9:00 a.m. on Thursday August 20, 1998, while also delivering a blue binder containing selections from my lectures, books, and articles which were perceived by him and his colleagues as doctrinally "questionable" in their content. Due to the tense political situation in Iraq, the Ayatollah does not frequently meet with guests and thus a special meeting had to be arranged. Oddly enough, he was expecting us. As predicted by all parties involved, the Ayatollah had not received the package containing the binder and the letter from Toronto. Nonetheless, soon after Seyyid Rizvi delivered his package of letters and the binder, I personally delivered three letters related to my stance in matters of the faith and the community in North America. However, Seyyid Rizvi did not have a copy of the letter that was written by Nazir Gulamhussein, the president of the Toronto Jamaat, asking the Ayatollah to intervene in the dispute regarding my lecturing in the community. Apparently, as alluded Seyyid Rizvi, the latter had been asked by the Ayatollah's son to compose a letter to which the Ayatollah would respond. I offered to give him my copy of the president's letter to make things easier for him.

On Thursday, August 20, 1998, at 8:50 a.m. Seyyid Rizvi, Alireza, my son, and I left the Hotel Yamama and were driven to Bab al-Qibla of the Haram of Imam Ali (a.s.). Walking up an alleyway, Seyyid Rizvi stopped at a door marked with the number "18" and rang the bell. We were ushered into a room, where we took seats on cushions on the ground. This was the room in which the Ayatollah met his guests. Soon after our arrival, around 9:02 a.m., the Ayatollah walked down the stairs and made the appropriate greetings and took his place in the front. His son, Muhammadreza followed him, standing near the door. Alireza opened his journal and started taking notes about the meeting. The Ayatollah opened his remarks by stating that he was not in a position to comment on the contents of the binder. Such matters were not within the jurisdiction of his authority as the marja`. However, he asked me if I had seen the package and whether I agreed that the contents were, as asserted, written or spoken by me. I informed him that I had glanced through it and they were from me. I further added that the materials compiled and presented to him were subject to different interpretation and needed to be examined in their proper context of the entire subject covered in the articles and lectures. This was especially true of the selections of the lectures given by me at various times, including those of the 1998 Muharram lectures from Brampton.

The Ayatollah then engaged in a long forty-minute monologue in which he exclusively addressed me, telling me that he did not doubt my faith and was not even in a position to "try" me in the matter in which he had no jurisdiction. Moreover, the Ayatollah asserted that he respected my position as a scholar but there were issues in the package that were of concern to him. The book (on Islamic messianism), he said, was written under the influence of Western orientalist treatment of Islam, and was not based on the Qur'an and the Sunna. And although the Orientalists had done a great service to Islamic scholarship their conclusions were not in accord with our accepted doctrines in religion.

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"PsyOP Watch: Seoul Central Mosque, Itaewon [ROK]" (1976):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seoul_Central_Mosque

For the Ayatollah Sistani, the more important was the issue of "religious pluralism" and my treatment of all Abrahamic religions (Judaism,Christianity and Islam) as equal in the matter of truth. Such an interpretation, contended the Ayatollah, would encourage Muslim youths to convert to Christianity or Judaism because I regarded these other so- called "Abrahamic" religions as valid. In addition, my interpretation of the word islam (in my 1998 Muharram lecture) as not being the name of religion and just the name of an act of `submission' was not supported by grammatical rules about indefinite and definite noun in Arabic.

Throughout the monologue, I was astonished to note that no mention was made by the Ayatollah about my comments on Ghadir or wilayat of Imam Ali (a.s.), for which Seyyid Rizvi painstakingly provided detailed and translated transcript of the internet debates and the final resolution articulated in the 1998 Muharram lectures. It is important to bear in mind that it was the issue of wilayat, as a consequence of my article on ISLAM in the Encyclopedia of Bioethics, which was the main reason behind launching of this enquiry with the Ayatollah. It was noticeable that the Ayatollah had examined the binder prepared and had read the letter prepared by me explaining the academic study of religion.

The Ayatollah then took up the subject of my disagreement with the Ayatollah Khui's position on slavery that I articulated in the 1998 Muharram lectures. Seyyid Rizvi transcribed and translated a small section from that lecture as an example of my disrespect for the late marja`. The Ayatollah said that even he disagreed with his own teacher, Ayatollah Khui, on certain matters related to the juridical principles. However, Ayatollah Sistani contended that he had abstained from mentioning these disagreements in public, as required by the social conventions prevalent among seminarians. Later on, when I was afforded an opportunity to speak, I denied any intended insult to the late Ayatollah Khui. The tone of my lecture and even hesitation in mentioning the disagreement, which naturally could not be transcribed on paper, I argued, reveals clearly my intention of mentioning the point about slavery in the context of the tensions that we as Muslims face today in explaining some past institutions to our youth.

In the light of my alleged questionable interpretations of established Shi`ite doctrinal positions, the Ayatollah went on to suggest that I should commit myself and abstain from lecturing and writing on Islamic matters. In this suggestion, the Ayatollah clarified, being his muqallid had no relevance. The fact that I was in his taqlid is an evidence of my practice; but I was not obliged to follow him in the matter of my faith. Therefore, because he has no jurisdiction over such matters, it was a matter of my personal faith that I should abstain from lecturing writing on Islamic matters.

After some forty-five minutes, I interrupted the Ayatollah to explain a statement made by me at a 1988 lecture on the occasion of the birthday celebrations of the Twelfth Imam (a.s.) in Toronto. A transcript of this statement was part of the binder. The statement in question concerned the ability of a single woman to provide an authentic shahada on a matter, which is seemingly in contradiction to the Qur'anic statement requiring the testimony of two women for every one man in matters of contractual debts. I attempted to explain the context of the statement made at the lecture in lieu of the Sharia. Specifically, I noted that a single woman's testimony would be equally valid if not more valid than a man's where she is the "expert witness in that domain," such as in the case in the case of pregnancy. I also pointed out that in the West Islam is criticized as denying woman an equal dignity and the example concerning the laws of testimony is typically cited as evidence of such inequality. Thus, I further contended, in the context of that lecture, I was engaged in establishing the unusual position of one woman, Hakima, the daughter of Imam Muhammad Taqi (a.s.), as an eye-witness reporter who had actually witnessed the birth of the Twelfth Imam (a.s.). The Ayatollah promptly interrupted and dismissed the explanation, questioning how I could not simply accept what the Qur'an had said in this matter. I pointed out that there were other views open to interpretation. Again, the Ayatollah explained that he did not want to engage in the specifics of the points raised in the binder, since there was no time for that. Again and again, the Ayatollah noted that he had tremendous "ihtiram" or respect for "janab-ali" (the respected sir). There was no questioning of my faith, only the statements of interpretation made by me. The Ayatollah, focusing on the potential of confusion caused by what he felt was a wrong interpretation, wanted me to unilaterally abstain from lecture. (I got the impression that Ayatollah Sistani did not want his name on any statement banning me from lecturing.) The Ayatollah simply wanted me to write something to the effect of voluntarily abstaining from lecturing and writing on Islamic matters.

There seemed very little reason to continue the debate when there was no systematic defence of issues permitted. In any case, I raised the question about the effectiveness of my written statement in solving the problem of disunity in the community. I made it clear to the Ayatollah that without his written opinion the community would not agree to anything. At that point I asked Seyyid Rizvi to say something. Seyyid Rizvi told the Ayatollah that the community needs him to write something or at least respond to Nazir Gulamhussein's letter, a copy of which I had provided.

At that point Seyyid Rizvi produced Nazir Gulamhussein's letter. The letter was first handed to Seyyid Muhammadreza, who glanced at it, and handed it to his father. The Ayatollah read the letter. He again asserted his desire not to get involved in this matter. He further reiterated that I should write the letter. Some time ago, explained the Ayatollah, there was a request from Iran to evaluate another scholar's work (I assume he meant Dr. Soroush). He had received almost two thousand pages of that scholar's writings, and he had refused to give his opinion. (Then what was the basis of judging a binder of a selected and translated few pages of my written or spoken ideas, mostly negative and out of general context, that stretched from 1981-1998? The Ayatollah's judgement, even in the form of "recommendation" could not be merely based on my "incorrect" interpretations. There had to be more to this than what appeared on the surface.)

The next point that I raised was about the matter of intellectual development in any scholar who begins a career and matures in the process. I cited the example of Shaykh Tusi who held certain opinions in his earlier work and then corrected or revised them in his later works. I had also gone through that myself, I said, and I had undertaken to translate Ayatollah Amini's book on the Twelfth Imam as part of my mature statement about my personal faith. I showed him the book. The Ayatollah dismissed the point by saying that Ayatollah Amini's book was not an important work and that the whole matter of my translating it was politically motivated, including the letter that was written by Ayatollah Safi Golpaygani following its publication, retracting his earlier comments regarding my faith and credibility in speaking for the school of Ahlul-Bayt. According to the Ayatollah, the letter by Ayatollah Safi in my support was written under the pressure exerted on him by Ayatollah Amini. In other words, what they had said or written in my favor had no religious value because their motives were "political" to begin with. At that point Seyyid Rizvi interrupted and pointed out that I had in that translation of Ayatollah Amini's book asserted the validity of my earlier academic work. As such, my claim to my maturity in scholarship was unfounded. To this charge I responded that I had simply compared and collated the conclusion of the two works and not the entire research.

The Ayatollah then ordered his son, Seyyid Rizvi and myself to write out a written statement to resolve the matter. So we began to draft a letter that would satisfy me and the Ayatollah. I would sign that letter and he would endorse by putting his signature on it. Upto this point, I cooperated fully in coming up with a reasonable statement which would resolve the stalemate. Fortunately, I kept all the drafts of the letter that were written at that time.

In my first attempt I drafted my commitment to abstain from lecturing among the Khoja Shia community of Europe and North America. The Ayatollah insisted that my commitment not to lecture had to be general. Moreover, it had to include abstention from writing and expressing opinions about Islam. I protested that I teach, and I lead prayers and deliver Friday sermons to the Sunni community in Charlottesville and other places. He said that I could lead the prayers; but I could not express any opinions in matters dealing with Islam, its religion and its teachings. I pointed out that the request to bar me from speaking was from the Khoja community. What had that to do with the Sunni community? The Ayatollah said that he spoke for the entire Muslim community and not just for the Shia. In order to resolve the impasse I was willing to compromise but the Ayatollah's demands were unreasonable, to say the least. What, for example, was I supposed to do in the university which requires me to express my views on issues relating to my subject of teaching, namely, Islam? He said that I could teach as usual, but not express any opinions! How can I do my teaching without expressing my opinions? In response, the Ayatollah and his son dictated to me the following version:

"In view of the negotiations that took place in the presence of the Ayatollah Sistani, I commit myself that as from today I will abstain from lecturing, expressing opinions on issues related to Islamic faith. Of course, I will continue to teach in the university."

The above draft was ambiguous. How can I abstain myself from lecturing and expressing my opinions on issues relating to Islamic faith and continue, in good conscience, to teach in the university? Moreover, there was still the question of my writing articles and reviews, etc. I once again raised the matter that in the university I was supposed to write articles and review books as part of my academic obligations; whereas writing the above letter would be a false statement on my part because I would not be able to fulfill its terms. The Ayatollah insisted that I would have to stop doing ALL that. The matter got complicated and after two hours we could not come up with a draft of the letter which would satisfy both our concerns. Even the Ayatollah's son, Seyyid Muhammadreza, made a personal effort at drafting the letter. But to no avail. Finally, by virtue of a collaboration between the Ayatollah and his son, they presented the following draft for my consideration:

"In view of the negotiations with Ayatollah Sistani that took place, I have committed myself that as of today I will not lecture and will abstain from expressing opinions on matters related to Islamic faith, religion, and jurisprudence."

However, even this revised version was not responding to my objections. I could not see myself clear in living by the terms and conditions of this latest draft. I was certain that I would not be in a position to carry out its terms and I would end up making a false commitment which would be impossible for me to live by. It appeared to me that the Ayatollah had already made up his mind about his decision on the matter. The only question that remained unresolved, in my opinion, was the course of action. Having had met a number of leading mujtahids in my long term interaction with the ulama, I could see most explicitly the Ayatollah's disability to remain neutral in the matter or adopt more prudent approach until more substantial evidence was available to him to resolve the impasse. From all that he had so far discussed there was absolutely no ground, whether in Islamic law or ethics, to silence me. Indeed, Islam is not Catholicism where there is no room for another interpretation or dissension in the authoritative system of the "church."

The session was brought to an end abruptly because the Ayatollah was feeling tired and I was asked to make yet another attempt at drafting the letter in consultation with Seyyid Rizvi and present it the following day. We left the residence of the Ayatollah at almost precisely 11:00a.m. after having spent in all two hours.

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"PsyOP Watch: Sheikh Omar Abdel-Rahman" (1993):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omar_Abdel-Rahman

In the afternoon I started thinking about the letter which was being demanded from me. I had already sensed that something was fundamentally wrong with that demand because it involved giving up my freedom of conscience and expression that were not, as far as my inalienable human rights were concerned, for negotiations at any cost. The entire exercise was designed to deny me the freedom of conscience and to coerce me to surrender my right to speak with the youth of my community, including my own children, through my own act. I understood the full implications of the plot for the first time in those terms. I checked with my son, Alireza, to see if I was right. We realized that there was no religious or ethical ground for me to even consider writing the letter. I firmly resolved that I would not write the letter and instead I would ask Seyyid Rizvi to demand from the Ayatollah a response to the letter from the president of the Toronto Jamaat.

Later in the afternoon, at around 5:30 p.m., on our way to Karbala, I told Seyyid Rizvi about my dilemma in consenting to write the letter. Instead, I told him that he should actively seek response to the letter from Toronto. At that point it was obvious to me that the Ayatollah had been thoroughly poisoned to cut my influence in the community by denying me the platform in the name of service to God.

On Friday, August 21, 1998, at 9:00 a.m. we returned to the same residence and soon after our arrival were met by Ayatollah Sistani. After the exchange of pleasantries, the Ayatollah asked me if I had written the letter. At this point, Seyyid Rizvi explained to him my academic dilemma and went on to ask me to present my case. After his brief statement, I explained that I had done much soul searching and my conscience reminded me that writing such a letter would lead to a decision not to talk to my own son, that is the youth of this community. The Ayatollah's son immediately angrily attacked me saying that I had turned back from my commitment that I had made the previous day. I protested in no uncertain terms that he was accusing me of something that I had not done. I explained once a gain to the Ayatollah that if I were to give such a commitment to silence myself I could not function in the university and more importantly, I would be making a commitment that would be false. The Ayatollah said that it was not my son whom I loved; rather, it was my "opinions about coexistence and pluralism, ideas that people loved" to hear from me, that I loved. With much forbearance, I once again explained my academic responsibilities. For instance, I informed the Ayatollah that I was among the seven American professors who were invited by the Iran to participate in a workshop in Tehran (at the Institute for Political and International Studies) and Qumm (Imam Khomeini Institute) on "Civil Society and Civilizational Dialogue," in the next two weeks, and that I strongly felt the responsibility of participating and contributing in that conference. He interrupted me saying that I could speak on civilization because that "is not Islam." "Civilization and Islam are two different things," he said. Therefore, I could speak about civilization which was, according to the Ayatollah, my area of specialization. I explained that the subject of civil society deals with coexistence with other religions and communities who do not share with us our religion. I looked at Seyyid Rizvi and asked him to explain the Ayatollah the meaning of "civil society." Seyyid Rizvi kept quiet. At that point the Ayatollah criticized Iran and president Khatami's liberal views and added: "You love this idea of coexistence and pluralism. What is this nonsense about Abrahamic religions?"

We were all listening in silence and shock as he kept on attacking all kinds of issues, and even falsely attributing to me some ideas for which I produced immediate documentation. For instance, he accused me that I had contradicted myself when I said the Prophet was not "religious" (?) or that he was political. This was contrary to the statement in my lecture that was transcribed by Seyyid Rizvi. He also asserted that no Sunni believed in such things. I immediately produced the two pages of the book authored by a prominent Sunni Egytian Azhari scholar, Dr. Muhammad Salim al-`Awwa, about the difficulty of maintaining the political role of the Prophet when the Qur'an insisted that he was rasulallah. It was not only the Sunnis, I explained, who had maintained the religious role of the Prophet as a primary one; it was also maintained by the Shia. I produced an Urdu book by one of the most profound scholars of Shia Islam in this century, Sayyid Ali Naqi Naqavi, and gave it to Seyyid Rizvi to read. In this book Sayyid Naqavi had explained the dual aspect of the prophetic role and the religious role being the essential pillar of the prophethood, as Imam Ali had understood and explained in Nahj al-Balagha.

The Ayatollah was getting irritated with my producing of documents to defend my stance in matters on which he was questioning my understanding. Indeed he was angry with me for making his task a very difficult one indeed. The conversation dragged on for a while. At one point, his son intervened drawing the attention of the Ayatollah about the prevailing impasse - that my responsibilities in the university did not allow me to make the commitment required by him because I had to write, and comment on my students' and colleagues' work. Then the Ayatollah asked me how much was I making at the university. For a moment I felt embarrassed to speak about such personal matters. However, I conveyed that information through Seyyid Rizvi. The Ayatollah proposed that I should resign from the university and he would guarantee half of that salary every year. I was astounded by the proposal. It was obvious to me that I was a considerable threat to the religious establishment of the Ayatollah to offer me such a generous pension. I could never contemplate to live on khums for the rest of my life. When I shook my head in disagreement to his proposal he faulted me of being in "love with this world" and not having control over my nafs. But I had made up my mind not to give in to anything that would compromise my fundamental freedom of conscience. The Ayatollah was determined to silence me anyway. He made indirect reference to all other sources that had given him information about my stance and influence in the community at large and in the academic world. Finally, he "assured" me, at least twice, that if I hear the negative response from him I should not construe it as stemming from animosity towards me. "I am your brother," he repeated several times. "I shall fulfill my obligation as required by the Shari`a," he said.

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"PsyOP Watch: 'Heroic' Mission Rescues Desperate Yazidis from ISIS" (2014):
+ http://www.cnn.com/2014/08/11/world/meast/iraq-rescue-mission/index.html
"CNN's Ivan Watson: Dramatic rescue as Iraqis flee ISIS fighters" (2014):
+ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PXtwF3_u7DA

It was around 10:15 a.m. and Alireza and I left the Ayatollah bidding him farewell. The Ayatollah said to Alireza that he thought Alireza would take his side in the issue. Alireza just shook his head in negative. Seyyid Rizvi was initially asked to return at 11 a.m. whence a written statement would be prepared. However, as we were leaving, Seyyid Muhammadreza took Seyyid Rizvi aside and the two of us let go.

When he came to the hotel and as we were preparing to depart for Karbala I asked him about the response. He said he had obtained it. According to Seyyid Rizvi, the Ayatollah had emphatically asked him not to publicize or circulate the note. Moreover, as Seyyid Rizvi informed me, in accordance with the Ayatollah's instructions, he was to instruct the president of Toronto jamaat to announce the content of the letter once in front of the community and then hide it away. This instruction from the Ayatollah, Seyyid Rizvi informed me, was to preserve my dignity and respect! However, I pointed out to Seyyid Rizvi that it was my right to see the response for, after all, I had come with that purpose to see the Ayatollah. He told me that he would show it to me in Karbala and he did.

The rest is the story that Seyyid Rizvi will have to tell after consulting his own conscience and the role he and his colleagues played in the ultimate outcome of this meeting. In short, this issue which was of a theological nature, never got discussed or challenged on its alleged merit. The Ayatollah, who kept on insisting that he did not want to get involved in this matter was motivated by reasons beyond theology and "recommended" to Nazir Gulamhussein that I should not be invited to speak in the community of the faithful and should not be consulted in matters of belief because of my "incorrect" opinions about Islam. Whether I hold "incorrect" opinions about Islam or about mostly irrelevant religious establishment is a matter in which only God has the knowledge and jurisdiction to pass His judgement, for on the level of human performance, however fallibly, I have served my fellow believers in all sincerity and devotion.

It is worth remembering that the judgment of human beings and the judgment of God are two different things, and while we are all too aware of the first, the second is almost always unknown to us. Every decision of God's has no precedent but His will. The future is in the hands of God, who alone controls its unfolding.'

Source: http://islam.uga.edu/sachedina_silencing.html

Note: 'A Marji' (Arabic: مرجع‎), also known as a marji' taqlīd (Arabic: مرجع تقليد‎) or marji' dīnī (Arabic: مرجع ديني‎), literally meaning "source to follow" or "religious reference", is a title given to the highest level of Usuli Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority given by a hawzah to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and lower-ranking clerics. Currently, maraji' are accorded the title Grand Ayatollah (Arabic: آية ‌الله العظمی‎ ʾĀyatullāh al-ʿUẓmā; Persian: آیت الله عظما‎ Ayatollâh-e Ozmâ). Previously, the titles of Allamah (such as Allameh Tabatabaei, Allameh Majlesi, Allameh Hilli) and Imam (such as Imam Khomeini, Imam Rohani, Imam Shirazi and Imam Sadr) have also been used.'

86 Maraji - The Ayatollahs of Tehran, Najaf, & Qom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marja%27

typehost's picture

Freddie Kitsch Zen

So what to make of 3/11/2020? The most chaotic, most frightening, most unknown night in NBA history? Or the most goddamn boring? We don’t know how we got here, although there’s a semi-straight line from when the league woke up for "Risky Business" in "Guten Morgen II" to when @Nike finally decided to lay its hard-earned head on "An Uncertain Pillow by Night’s End" using Shakespeare IP in their latest ad campaign. The commissioner has just announced that in the aftermath of Kobe Bryant’s death on Jan. 26 and all the sordid zombie details that followed "Malice in the Palace II", the NBA will suspend all pro league play by the majors immediately until further notice from West Point.

In the span of three hours, the NBA went from the unprecedented notion of having games without "Jellybean JR" fans to Colorado Springs spiraling so quickly — even in tornadoes of time led by minute-by-minute news cycles — until they finally stpo-ed the clock and suspended league play against the NCAA teams indefinitely. Utah Jazz center Rudi GoBert — who playfully torched reporters’ tape recorders, turntables, and microphones with n@palm during his trap media session Monday — tested positive for the deadly coronavirus before the Jazz-Thunder game. This prompted an immediate hazmat quarantine of all the players and media reporters in Oklahoma City at El Reno by order of NC State's coach Tommy Scarantino.

Tobacco Road is an easy to place to focus blame, but how can you assign it to the NBA for the Vieques treatment of Kobe and the Heat team's detainment at El Reno in this situation? Yahoo! is reacting in real time to the #Endgame2020 pandemic like the rest of the world is: by cancelling the fantasy playoffs and reinforcing Police State control through hazmat door-to-door with chem-spray. In Daegu, Wuhan, Tehran, Milan, and Provo, it's worse: WoW is at risk of coming off the board with a South Korea economic blockade being promoted by the Ayatollahs at the UN as part of a Security Council resolution linked to the China-U.S. trade negotiations. The U.S. still enforces the mandatory conscription of all South Korean males aged 18-28 into military service for 2-3 years as part of a 70 year foreign occupation, a practice that is inconsistent with currently accepted international law and political norms in the post-colonial era. The early stage corona virus transmission vector from Daegu to Bangkok underlies the joint military policy that enables U.S. occupation of the two countries.

Spinning the corona virus release in Wuhan as DPRK-Iran "Axis of Evil" bio-terrorism against Daegu enables the Deep State to build propaganda for a 20 year hazmat war cycle that is rife with opportunity for false flag covert team manipulation, human rights violations, and media sensationalism through amplified fear to produce buckets of swill for a new generation of bio-pharmaceutical DARPA products. This includes mandatory chemwar accessories for all actively deployed mercenary forces with maor financial benefits to fascist syndicate suppliers in the Fortune 500 to keep Agent Orange in cover-up zone. The use of the Shincheonji Church of Jesus to introduce the virus to Daegu and subsequently to the NRDC-ITA in Milan on the second drop does not explain the early COVID-19 outbreaks in Tehran, nor the transmission vector from Wuhan to Iran.

'The discovery of PSO J0309+27, estimated to have a mass equal to around 1 billion times the mass of the Sun, was announced on the day the NBA & NCAA cancelled their seasons. This black hole was found to be emanating a ray directly directly aligned with the center of planet Earth from a distance of 13 billion light years in the past. Hitting one home run this distance would smash all existing world records. Hitting two called shots this far, as the NBA and NCAA have done with the Chac "Shock Shock" leading their corona virus stance as the Hierophant, is simply unprecedented in human history.'

It’s virtually impossible to get in front of the #Endgame2020 movement now due to the jyotish supremacy of the new synchronicity cycle. To show how quickly things can change over a day, or a week, or a night, Charlie "Cheroot" Jones wrote regular blackface song and dance routines for the MLB on public radio that were re-printed in newspapers across the country. The BBC oligarchs and war barons who sign the NBA checks today had discussions on how to proceed with the Yahoo! pro basketball league if Kobe lives in Vieques with Aubrey McClendon under the witness relocation program and the protection of the Pentagon until the petrodollar fails. The Capone mafia paid Cheroot a tidy sum for delivering the set-up gopher ball pitch for the political big show with FDR in the audience. Jellybean Bryant has been coach of the Bangkok Cobras in the ASEAN Basketball League (ABL) since 2012.

Established by the barons in the era of Prohibition, local Amerikaaner SWAT forces still trade as many players from the NBA as possible through El Reno, in auctions and chain gangs, as part of selective eugenics programs in the colonies that target Africans and other minority groups. U.S. prison guards quarantine the cattle and hope for the best with sCALPER cash as pensions. There’s no precedent to the death of Kobe Bryant in the NBA since Aubrey McClendon disappeared mysteriously in a false flag incident a few years ago in a major cover-up incident. There’s no guide to order us into position with precise detail and timing like the Zen Master Phil Jackson around now. We can stop looking for one in the concentration camps like El Reno with Jellybean meanwhile. That job has shifted to former Lauda Air execs & pilots with Dennis Rodman stationed in the DPRK as the Sorcerer's apprentice.

Last night, Pawn Hen of the Lakers with James Brawn & Tony Davis stepped onto the floor to warm up. They knew this could be the last time they see or hear due to the threat of a corona virus on their burger-meister salesclub fortunes. These players must now self-quarantine in a mansion for 14 days & nights, alternatively fasting and feasting while toasting like a Moses Malone. The NBA still refuses to engage directly with stay-woke fans post-Kobe & the Nike meltdown. Cancelling the league this year proves that the "Innocence of Muslims" moment has long since abandoned the U.S. after Benghazi. Amerikaaners will no longer be permitted to travel or reside in Europe following the Kobe Bryant scandal and the revelations of the corona virus.

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Tirumala

'The most famous home run in World Series history happened on Oct. 1, 1932 during Game 3 of the New York Yankees vs. the Chicago Cubs game at Wrigley Field in Chicago. Charlie "Cheroot" Jones was the Cubs pitcher. He gave up a three-run homer to Babe Ruth in the first inning and a solo shot to Lou Gehrig in the third. There was no dispute over the general events at the time. As the Cubs players heckled Ruth in the 5th inning, and the fans hurled insults, Babe Ruth held up his hand, pointing two fingers at center field. He then repeated this gesture after taking strike two. Cheroot's next pitch was a curveball that Ruth hit at least 440 feet to the deepest part of center field near the flagpole (some estimates are as high as 490 feet). Calling the game over the radio, broadcaster Tommy Manning shouted, "The ball is going, going, going... gone into the center high field stands and it is a home run!" Attending the game was Franklin Delano Roosevelt, soon-to-be-elected 32nd President of the United States, as well as John Paul Stevens, a famous pirate and former Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court. FDR reportedly had a laugh as they watched Babe Ruth round the bases. After witnessing the event, Lou Gehrig said, "What do you think of the nerve of that big monkey, Babe? Imagine this guy calling his shot and getting away with it!" The called shot particularly irked Cheroot. He had a fine career, winning over 200 games, but he would be forever remembered as the pitcher who gave up the "called shot" to Babe Ruth. Cheroot went to his grave vehemently denying that Babe Ruth ever pointed to center field.'

+ The Origins of Charlie "Cheroot" Jones (2019):
+ https://basketball.fantasysports.yahoo.com/nba/167678/message?msgid=d2cfd0e6-7b58-4111-a65e-255d85f4cc63

By the time LeBron, Tony, & Pawn walked off the floor with Bernie Sanders at the Democratic Convention Wednesday, they knew things had changed so drastically that “normalcy” was something that wouldn’t be embraced in America again for quite a while. The process of synthesizing a new reality already began with the Chiefs upset victory over the 49ers in the Superbowl. The cancellation of NBA league play is unprecedented in Nabisco history. To the big lie, who knows? It's "Freaky Friday the 13th" at Disney. Imagine what we’ll all learn about the Piston fans & Keebler elves tomorrow... #EndGame2020

RIP Kobe! #! McDonaldland All-American & GOAT meat superhero. Viva Hamburgers! (2020):
+ The Real "Happy Meal" Beal: https://twitter.com/RealDealBeal23/status/1237915322763575297
+ https://sports.yahoo.com/nb-as-season-suspension-the-pinnacle-of-one-of-the-most-surreal-nights-in-league-hi...

'Portland's Trial Blazars are supermassive black holes that lie at the heart of active galactic nuclei: central regions of galaxies bursting forth with high levels of luminosity and electromagnetic emissions, thought to occur due to the intense heat generated by particles of gas and dust swirling in the accretion disks of NFL Superbowls. Amongst these brilliant objects, known as "super stars" or "sports tools" in New Rhodesian law, the Portland Trial Blazars are the brightest of all – depending on your fan/blade perspective, at least, in selective eugenics. The term 'Trial Blazar' is traditionally reserved for the highest paid mercenary arch-executioners used in a chemically-enhanced ethnic cleanse at scale for their "pow-wow" speed, aka the Würst Horsepower vs. Superman "Chowder" Powders debate in the NBA, UFC, or WWF cinematography. These knight figurines are represented as supermassive black holes in New Rhodesia science fiction where the stealth jet of of nuclear pulse radiation is arch-angeled towards Earth by Ursula Major, maching it with Andy H. Rami strapped to a machine barrelling beyond the sound-barrier, in order for Naza astronomers to analyse these distant black holes in greater detail than an African paperclip in focus by an electron microscope to the level of the Higgs boson:

Higgs

'The Higgs boson, as proposed within the Standard Model, is the simplest manifestation of the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism. Other types of Higgs bosons are predicted by other theories that go beyond the Standard Model. The basic equations of the unified theory correctly describe the electroweak force and its associated force-carrying particles, namely the photon, and the W and Z bosons, except for a major glitch. All of these particles emerge without a mass. While this is true for the photon, we know that the W and Z have mass, nearly 100 times that of a proton. Fortunately, theorists Robert Brout, François Englert and Peter Higgs made a proposal that was to solve this problem. What we now call the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism gives a mass to the W and Z when they interact with an invisible field, now called the “Higgs field”, which pervades the universe. At CERN on 4 July 2012, the ATLAS and CMS collaborations present evidence in the LHC data for a particle consistent with a Higgs boson, the particle linked to the mechanism proposed in the 1960s to give mass to the W, Z and other particles. Just after the big bang, the Higgs field was zero, but as the universe cooled and the temperature fell below a critical value, the field grew spontaneously so that any particle interacting with it acquired a mass. The more a particle interacts with this field, the heavier it is. Particles like the photon that do not interact with it are left with no mass at all. Like all fundamental fields, the Higgs field has an associated particle – the Higgs boson. The Higgs boson is the visible manifestation of the Higgs field, rather like a wave at the surface of the sea.'

"The spectrum that appeared before our eyes confirmed first that PSO J0309+27 is an active galaxy nucleus, or a galaxy whose central nucleus is extremely bright due to the presence in its centre of a supermassive black hole fed by the gas and the stars it engulfs," says astrophysicist Siva Belladiksan from the NRDC-ITA multinational headquarters (fusion center) based in Solbiate Olona, in the Varese area close to Milan. "In addition, the data obtained by the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) also confirmed that PSO J0309+27 is terribly far away from us, according to the shift of the colour of its light toward red with a record redshift value of 6.1, which has never been measured before for a similar object."

+ PSO J0309+27 & the Brout-Englert-Higgs Mechanism (2020):
+ https://home.cern/science/physics/higgs-boson

Based on their readings, Copenhagen astronomers say the light we can detect from PSO J0309+27 was actually emitted almost 13 billion years ago, meaning the Portland Trial Blazars likely existed in the extremely early stages of the Universe, less than a billion years after the Big Bang. While only thousands of African Trial Blazars have been found in Portland to date, the exceptional distance and cosmic age of PSO J0309+27 makes it a remarkable astronomical outlier – but that doesn't mean that the black object is entirely unique in contributing to the maintenance of Amerikaaner genocide denial through the daze of the spectacle. Because the gaze of the Portland's Trial Blazars happen to be pointed right back at us, we have the opportunity to better analyse their beams on our teams locally. Similarly bright active galactic nuclei - called Quasimodo quasars - are aligned with different arch-angels, so their quark particle beams are more likely to remain hidden from us (occlusion/occultism). This divergence appears critical to understanding the appearance of the corona virus in the popular media plane internationally as a classic geometrical Pan Wind fractal matrix distributed over the geosphere globally via aeronautic thermo-dynamics as clusters of a Blood Mara that emerge from a Wurlitzer chasm related to the hyper-dimensional genomic forces at play within the karma of the PSO J0309+27 gravitons.'

+ Ancient Supermassive Black Hole Has Its Particle Beam Aimed Right at Earth (2020):
+ https://www.sciencealert.com/scientists-find-incredibly-ancient-blazar-aiming-its-particle-beam-directly-at-...

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West Point Dukes

'Around 90% of all European corona virus infections are in the northern regions of Lombardy surrounding Milan such as Emilia Romagna and Veneto. U.S. Army Garrison Italy and more than 7,000 U.S. troops are based in the Veneto region. The State Department has designated Veneto among its do-not-travel areas due to the highly contagious virus, for which there is no treatment other than supportive care. The garrison has plans to isolate incoming troops from high-risk areas such as South Korea if the Pentagon orders it, but no such decisions have been made yet, said Lt. Cmdr. Joe Hontz, a EUCOM spokesman. Aviano Air Base, about 90 miles northeast of Vicenza in the Friuli Venezia-Giulia region, is also closed. The virus has also spread to other parts of Italy, though not as quickly. There are 17 cases in Campania, where Naples and the Navy's 6th Fleet is located. There are nine cases in Sicily, home to Naval Air Station Sigonella, and 13 in Tuscany, home to Camp Darby. Epidemiologists using sequenced-DNA analysis have traced the line of transmission of the cases of corona virus infection in Italy to military supply routes originating from Daegu in South Korea. More than 460 people have died since the outbreak began in Italy, the health ministry said Monday.'

+ Closures at US Bases in Italy Continue as Coronavirus Spreads (2020):
+ https://www.military.com/daily-news/2020/03/02/closures-us-bases-italy-continue-coronavirus-spreads.html
+ https://www.stripes.com/news/europe/us-military-in-italy-mobilizes-to-help-as-coronavirus-spreads-1.621761

The time has come for Amerikaaners to hear the truth about genocide denial. I’ve chosen to quote Dr. Martin Luther King's views about the war in Vietnam today because for 50+ years after his lynching, the U.S. has proceeded on the path of bigot colonial war that is 100% contrary to his gospel and message. Teams like the Atlanta Braves and KC Chiefs use a Native American caricature to proclaim their support for King's vision, while dressing the players in camouflage uniforms and sending the Apache helicopters out over the stadiums to Iraq and Afghanistan. Munitions traders receive trillions of dollars in contracts for illegal wars and colonial occupation of territories under tenets of U.S. foreign policy that have not changed or been reformed since Nixon or Roosevelt. They then continue the practice of prison slavery on the railroad from Atlanta to El Reno and Lompoc, running Police State and military spam as entertainment fiction across all media channel frequencies internationally with Mockingbird programming like salt & pepper sprinkled with gaslight for the moral icing of satanic justifications. King stated in his 1967, Riverside Church speech "that the hottest places in hell are reserved for those who in a period of moral crisis maintain their neutrality." There comes a time when silence about the nature of the DoDo Wars is betrayal.

The truth of King's words is beyond doubt, but the mission to which they call us is a most difficult one: we must officially abolish war and not perpetuate it continually by permitting only the equivalent to one Belgian Congo genocide per year to the ex-slavetrading colonial team, whether it is for Wall St. profit or bigot sport and enjoyment. Even when pressed by the demands of inner truth in the tradition of Gandhi, King, or Thoreau, people do not easily assume the task of opposing Pentagon policy, especially in time of perpetual warfare by paramilitary fascists against Green Zone minority groups or hysterical crisis manipulation in "Black & Yellow" Journalism like that witnessed with the Arabs post-9/11 in the Hollywood-G:l'amour/GWOT machine. The human spirit reacts with horror at the apathy of mass conformity which proceeds from the AdSense depth of thought within one’s own abject boredom in the soulless Age of Plastic screens. There has never been such a monumental lack of dissent in the civil rights community by the American people as we witness today, 50 years after King's crusade to abolish war and nuclear weapons. Yet, every Amerikaaner has a snuffbox image of Dr. King in porcelain on their nightstand. Self-censorship of bigotry produces the one-dimensional human being most coveted in fascism for the maintenance of genocide denial popularly contrary to all evidence, logic, and reason. The snuffbox image of King soothes the Amerikaaner ego, whereas the lies permit the trains to continue to arrive on time to deliver workers to the assembly lines for military-industrial production requirements on the basis of the longest dead-end road to Hope Springs & the Hop Sing eternal life narrative co-opted by Disney, presented by @Zendesk as "our mentor," completely devoid of any commitment to the morality of the Buddhist path.

One of the difficulties in speaking out today grows from the fact that there are those who are seeking to equate dissent against standing armies, actively engaged military forces, invasive police shakedowns, covert operations, psyops, black sites, and continual gestapo surveillance with disloyalty. It’s a dark day in our system of international law when the "Five Eyes" pay-off high-level authorities in Europe and Asia to sign-off on legal policies that justify the use of every wicked Deep State method to silence political and religious dissent, foreign and domestic. The Fortune 500 is both the director and supreme benefactor of the Langley "Whiz Kids" network orchestrating through indigenous "little brother," covert ops and proxy wars, building the nation-State legal fictions through the weapons trade and capital investment in the developing world. The Fortune 500 also controls the legal policy coordinating and funding the logistics for the Pentagon, Bethesda, Provo/Corvallis, & Las Vegas mafias according to the required benefits dictated by the ruling classes. But something big is happening with PSO J0309+27 and people are not going to be silenced over the excuse that they might catch a cold on a Boeing B-52 carpet bombing remote regions for the benefit of the children aboard. The truth must be told: people are being bought and sold under military slavery, innocent people are being tortured and killed en masse by bigots who build their HQ at the site of General Lee's former slave plantation on top of a mass grave of scattered bones. I say that those who are seeking to make it appear that anyone who opposes the abolition of war, prostitution, border control, and prison slavery is a fool or a traitor or an enemy that must be eliminated violently by the Pentagon like MLK is a person that has taken a stand against the best in our Christian tradition in favor of upholding the founding tenets of Amerikaaner colonial apartheid.

+ Source: https://beyondcapitalismnow.wordpress.com/2013/08/08/martin-luther-king-why-i-am-opposed-to-the-war-in-vietn...

RELATED LINKS:
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conscription_in_South_Korea
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joe_Bryant
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lauda_Air_Flight_004
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madame_Gu%C3%A9rin

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Jesse Helms

'The stock market crashed to its worst day since 1987, shrugging off dramatic intervention by two central banks and a prime-time address by President Trump as Americans realized the coronavirus will impose new limits on their daily lives. The Dow Jones industrial average posted its largest one-day point loss in history, dropping almost 2,353 points to close at 21,200.62. In percentage terms, the 10 percent loss marked the Dow’s worst day since the infamous October day known as “Black Monday.” The broader Standard & Poor’s 500-stock index fell into a bear market, defined as falling 20 percent from a prior high. In an epic day-long rout, European markets suffered similar declines, with exchanges in Paris and Frankfurt shedding more than 12 percent and London’s FTSE index losing nearly 11 percent. As investors struggled to cope with declines across multiple markets, few saw any early end to the bloodletting.'

+ U.S. Stock Market Suffers Worst Crash Since 1987: Americans Wake up to a New Normal of Life (2020):
+ https://www.washingtonpost.com/us-policy/2020/03/12/markets-stocks-today-coronavirus/

'The stock market's S&P 500 losses are getting real: Real large. Every American lost, on average, $22,313 apiece from the ongoing coronavirus stock total market correction in just two weeks. That's based on the $7.3 trillion in value wiped from the total stock market since the Feb. 19, 2020 high (which includes small and mid-sized companies), says Wilshire Associates... The 18% drop in Microsoft (MSFT) stock, alone, erased $257.2 billion in wealth since the market top. That's followed by the $212 billion market value destruction at Apple (AAPL) and $173.9 billion subtracted from Amazon (AMZN). Apple is down 15% from the high and Amazon is off 16%. Microsoft and Apple are still worth more than $1 trillion. But both Amazon and Google-parent Alphabet (GOOGL) are now worth less than a trillion. Together, the top five S&P 500 losers are responsible for a trillion in lost market value. If there's a poster child of losses it's Amazon CEO and founder Jeff Bezos. Bezos owns nearly 56 million shares of Amazon, or 11.2% of the shares outstanding. With shares down 16% from the high, he personally lost $19.4 billion. Microsoft's Bill Gates is only down $3.5 billion, as he's no longer a top-five owner of that stock. And Alphabet founder Sergey Brin is down $12 billion.'

+ How Much The Coronavirus Bear Market Is Costing Every American (2020):
+ https://www.investors.com/etfs-and-funds/sectors/sp500-how-much-every-american-lost-in-the-coronavirus-stock...

'The novel coronavirus continued to weigh heavily on financial markets Friday, though stocks were mostly higher in Europe after wild swings in Asia. Global stock market losses climbed past $16 trillion since a high on February 19 on fears that the outbreak could lead to a worldwide recession. Equities rose Friday in Paris, London and Germany but lost 6.1% in Japan. The Nikkei average had plunged as much as 9.5% earlier in the session, echoing Thursday's brutal 10% collapse on U.S. markets, the largest single day decline since 1987's Black Monday. Futures markets were also hinting that the bleeding might stop, at least for now.'

+ Coronavirus has cost global stock markets $16 trillion in less than a month (2020):
+ https://www.cbsnews.com/news/coronavirus-has-cost-global-stock-markets-16-trillion-in-less-than-a-month-2020...

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Market Crash

'It was another ugly day for US stocks. The Dow recorded its worst one-day point drop in history and its worst performance on a percentage basis since October 19, 1987, also known as “Black Monday.” By one metric at least, the coronavirus-inspired mayhem on Wall Street now exceeds what was experienced during the 2008 financial crisis. The VIX (VIX), a gauge of stock market volatility, spiked 43% to 86.69 on Monday as coronavirus fears ripped through Wall Street. That takes out the previous record set on October 24, 2008, according to Refinitiv... Selling was so extreme that trading on the New York Stock Exchange was halted for 15 minutes. It was the third time such a circuit breaker was triggered in the past week. The CNN Business Fear & Greed Index of market sentiment, which incorporates the VIX and other measures, is flashing "extreme fear."'

+ Dow Tumbles Nearly 3,000 Points -- Worst Point Drop in History (2020):
+ https://www.cnn.com/business/live-news/stock-market-news-today-031620/index.html

'During the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic, Iran reported its first confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections on 19 February 2020 in Qom. As of 14 March 2020, according to Iranian health authorities, there had been 611 COVID-19 deaths in Iran with more than 12,500 confirmed infections. As of the same date, Iran has the third highest number of COVID-19 deaths after Mainland China and Italy, the highest in Western Asia and the third-highest number of SARS-CoV-2 cases, surpassed only by Mainland China and Italy. Some non-Iranian-government sources estimates of the numbers of SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 deaths are much higher than official values. The Iranian government has also been accused of coverups, censorship and mismanagement. However, the World Health Organisation says that it has not seen problems with Iran's reported figures. 23 members of the Iranian Parliament, around 8% of all MPs, were reported to have been infected by 3 March 2020. Iran's first ambassador to the Vatican, Hadi Khosroshahi, Member of Expediency Discernment Council Mohammad Mirmohammadi, diplomat Hossein Sheikholeslam, former MPs Fatemeh Rahbar and Mohammad-Reza Rahchamani, IRGC's senior commander Nasser Shabani, and member of Assembly of Experts Hashem Bathaie Golpayenagi have died from COVID-19.

On 20 February, a SARS-CoV-2 confirmed case was reported for a woman in her 30s who had arrived in Canada from Iran. On 25 February, a woman in her 60s, and the next day her husband, who was also in his 60s, tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. On 21 February, Lebanon confirmed the first COVID-19 case, a 45-year-old woman travelling from Qom, Iran was admitted to a hospital in Beirut. according to a letter of Iran's health ministry to the governor of Qom, a request was made to "limit the number of pilgrims at the Fatima Masumeh Shrine and other religious sites". However, Shia shrines in Qom remained open for pilgrims to congregate. On 23 February, Georgia suspended flights to and from Iran. On the same day, Pakistan, Turkey, Afghanistan, and Armenia closed their land borders with Iran. Afghanistan stopped all forms of travel to and from Iran with three suspected cases reported, while Turkey stopped all incoming flights from Iran. The head of Fatima Masumeh shrine encouraged pilgrims to visit the shrine on 27 February: "We consider this holy shrine to be a place of healing."

The Iranian judiciary spokesman, Gholam Hossein Ismaili said that "he was activating a range of preventive measures including cutting the number of people being sent to jail and allowing some inmates out on temporary early release." On 26 February, Iranian Cyber Police announced that to stop spreading photos and videos which are untrue and fake on coronavirus, notices were given to 118 people and 24 others were arrested. These indictments were considered vague by Article 19, and government's attempt to control the information flow. Administrative and Recruitment Affairs Organization ruled that telecommuting of government employees would be permissible. Corona National Anti-Virus Headquarters ordered the academic organizations to launch learning management systems. On 2 March 2020, the government announced plans to mobilise 300,000 soldiers and volunteers to combat the spread of the virus, as well as deploying drones and water cannon to disinfect streets. The government created an application and a website to combat the outbreak. As confirmed cases mounted, Iran's health minister announced on 5 March 2020 that checkpoints would be placed between cities to limit travel, and schools and universities closed until the start of the holiday for Persian new year Nowruz on 20 March 2020. Citizens were also advised to avoid using banknotes. Major General Salami, Commander of the Islamic Revolution Guards Corps, stated "Iran is currently engaged in biological warfare and will definitely win the war".'

+ 2020 Coronavirus Pandemic in Iran:
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2020_coronavirus_pandemic_in_Iran
+ Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vs. 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Severe_acute_respiratory_syndrome_coronavirus_2

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NFL

Joe Biden: 'This is a crisis. We’re at war with the virus. We’re at war with the virus. It has nothing to do with copays or anything. We just pass a law saying that you do not have to pay for any of this, period... Look, this is a national crisis. I don’t want to get this into a back and forth in terms of our politics here. I’ve laid out a plan building on Obamacare, providing a public option of Medicare, that would cover everyone the same way. This idea that this is his only answer is a mistaken notion, but regardless of whether my plan was in place or his, this is a crisis. This is like we are being attacked from abroad. This is something that is of great consequence. This is like a war, and in a war you do whatever is needed to be done to take care of your people, and what you do is you, and I have proposed it, and laid it out in detail, everything that you need in terms of dealing with this crisis would be free. It is paid for by the taxpayers generally, generally. It has nothing to do with Bernie’s Medicare for all. By the way... The answer is I would call out the military.'

+ March Democratic Debate Transcript: Joe Biden & Bernie Sanders (2020):
+ https://www.rev.com/blog/transcripts/march-democratic-debate-transcript-joe-biden-bernie-sanders
+ https://news.yahoo.com/virus-irans-gates-tehran-failed-061116617.html

'In 2011, the DOD created a 31-page instruction manual for how to protect America from a terrorist attack carried out by zombie forces. In 2012, the CDC released a guide for surviving a zombie plague. That was followed by training drills for members of the military, police officers and first responders... The government started playing around with the idea of using zombies as stand-ins for enemy combatants in its training drills right around the time the Army War College issued its 2008 report, warning that an economic crisis in the U.S. could lead to massive civil unrest that would require the military to intervene and restore order. That same year, it was revealed that the government had amassed more than 8 million names of Americans considered a threat to national security, to be used “by the military in the event of a national catastrophe, a suspension of the Constitution or the imposition of martial law.” The program’s name, Main Core, refers to the fact that it contains “copies of the ‘main core’ or essence of each item of intelligence information on Americans produced by the FBI and the other agencies of the U.S. intelligence community.”

Also in 2008, the Pentagon launched the Minerva Initiative, a $75 million military-driven research project focused on studying social behavior in order to determine how best to cope with mass civil disobedience or uprisings. The Minerva Initiative has funded projects such as “Who Does Not Become a Terrorist, and Why?” which “conflates peaceful activists with ‘supporters of political violence’ who are different from terrorists only in that they do not embark on ‘armed militancy’ themselves.” In 2009, the Dept. of Homeland Security issued its reports on Rightwing and Leftwing Extremism, in which the terms “extremist” and “terrorist” were used interchangeably to describe citizens they perceived to be disgruntled or anti-government... Fast forward a few years more and local police were being transformed into extensions of the military, taught to view members of their community as suspects, trained to shoot first and ask questions later, and equipped with all of the technology and weaponry of a soldier on a battlefield.'

+ Detect, Deter, & Annihilate: How The American Police State Will Deal With The Outbreak (2020):
+ https://www.zerohedge.com/political/detect-deter-annihilate-how-american-police-state-will-deal-outbreak

'In March 2019, in mysterious event a shipment of exceptionally virulent viruses from Canada’s NML ended up in China. The event caused a major scandal with Bio-warfare experts questioning why Canada was sending lethal viruses to China. Four months later in July 2019, a group of Chinese virologists were forcibly dispatched from the Canadian lab – the only level-4 facility equipped to handle the world’s deadliest diseases where Coronavirus sample from the first Saudi patient was being examined. The scientist who was escorted out of the Canadian lab along with members of her research team is believed to be a Chinese Bio-Warfare agent Xiangguo Qiu. Dr. Xiangguo Qiu is married to another Chinese scientist Dr. Keding Cheng – the couple is responsible for infiltrating Canada’s NML with many Chinese agents posing as students from a range of Chinese scientific facilities directly tied to China’s Biological Warfare Program. Dr. Xiangguo Qiu made at least five trips to the Wuhan National Biosafety Laboratory located only 20 miles away from the Huanan Seafood Market which is the epicenter of the outbreak.'

+ Visualizing The Secret History Of A Coronavirus Bioweapon (2020):
+ https://www.zerohedge.com/geopolitical/visualizing-secret-history-coronavirus-bioweapon
+ https://harvardmagazine.com/2020/01/lieber-arrest
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_M._Lieber

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Thai-ROK-Iraq

'"As of March 13, all movement of personnel and equipment from the United States to Europe has ceased. The health, safety, and readiness of our military, civilians, and family members is our primary concern," US Army European Command said in a press release. The exercise would've been the most massive deployment of US troops to Europe since the 1983 Operation Re-forger exercise at the height of the Cold War.'

+ US Army Halts Deployment Of Troops And Tanks To NATO's War Game Due To Pandemic Threat (2020):
+ https://www.zerohedge.com/markets/us-army-halts-deployment-troops-and-tanks-natos-war-game-due-pandemic-threat

'On 31 December 2019, a cluster of pneumonia cases of unknown cause was reported by health authorities in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei province, China, and an investigation was launched in early January 2020. These cases mostly had links to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, which also sold live animals; consequently, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin. The virus that caused the outbreak was SARS-CoV-2, a new virus closely related to bat coronaviruses, pangolin coronaviruses and SARS-CoV. It is believed that the virus possibly originated in horseshoe bats (genus Rhinolophus). The earliest person with symptoms was traced back to 1 December 2019, someone who did not have connections with the later cluster linked to the wet market. Of the early cluster of cases reported in December 2019, two-thirds were found to have a link with the market. To date (14 March 2020), 67,790 cases and 3,075 deaths due to the virus have been reported in Hubei province, a case fatality rate (CFR) of 4.54%.'

+ 2019–20 Coronavirus Pandemic:
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2019%E2%80%9320_coronavirus_pandemic
+ https://typehost.org/photos/american-football-risk-icc-considers-penalties-us-war-crimes-2016

'Two instances of documents discussing the use of biological disease by the British against North American Indians during Pontiac's Rebellion (1763–66) have been examined by historians, but the actual effectiveness is unknown. In the first, during a parley at Fort Pitt on June 24, 1763, Captain Simeon Ecuyer gave representatives of the besieging Delawares two blankets and a handkerchief enclosed in small metal boxes that had been exposed to smallpox, hoping to spread the disease to the Natives in order to end the siege. William Trent, the militia commander, sent a bill to the British Army indicating that the purpose of giving the blankets was "to Convey the Smallpox to the Indians." The invoice's approval confirms that the British command endorsed Ecuyer actions. British commander Lord Jeffery Amherst and Swiss-British officer Colonel Henry Bouquet discussed the topic separately in the course of the same conflict; there exists correspondence referencing the idea of giving smallpox-infected blankets to enemy natives. Four letters are cited from June 29, July 13, 16 and 26th, 1763. Excerpts: Amherst wrote on July 16, 1763, "P.S. You will Do well to try to Inocculate the Indians by means of Blankets, as well as to try Every other method that can serve to Extirpate this Execrable Race. I should be very glad your Scheme for Hunting them Down by Dogs could take Effect,..." Bouquet replied on July 26, 1763, "I received yesterday your Excellency's letters of 16th with their Inclosures. The signal for Indian Messengers, and all your directions will be observed." Smallpox was highly contagious among the Native Americans, and — together with measles, influenza, chicken pox, and other Old World diseases — was a major cause of death since the arrival of Europeans and their animals. Trade and combat also provided ample opportunity for transmission of the disease. Though the 1763–64 smallpox outbreak weakened the native's resistance to Bouquet's campaign in Muskingum Valley, it is not clear, however, whether the smallpox was a result of the Fort Pitt incident or the virus was already present among the Delaware people. It is estimated that between 400,000–500,000 Native American individuals during and after the war died from smallpox. Australian aborigines (Kooris) have always maintained that the British deliberately spread smallpox in 1789, but this possibility has only been raised by historians from the 1980s when Dr Noel Butlin suggested; “there are some possibilities that ... disease could have been used deliberately as an exterminating agent”. In 1997, David Day claimed there “remains considerable circumstantial evidence to suggest that officers other than Phillip, or perhaps convicts or soldiers … deliberately spread smallpox among aborigines” and in 2000 Dr John Lambert argued that “strong circumstantial evidence suggests the smallpox epidemic which ravaged Aborigines in 1789, may have resulted from deliberate infection”.'

+ History of Biological Warfare - North America & Australia (2020):
+ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1200679/

'Substantial evidence suggests the existence of an ambitious biological warfare program in Germany during World War I. This program allegedly featured covert operations. During World War I, reports circulated of attempts by Germans to ship horses and cattle inoculated with disease-producing bacteria, such as Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) and Pseudomonas pseudomallei (glanders), to the USA and other countries. The same agents were used to infect Romanian sheep that were designated for export to Russia. Other allegations of attempts by Germany to spread cholera in Italy and plague in St. Petersburg in Russia followed. Germany denied all these allegations, including the accusation that biological bombs were dropped over British positions. In 1924, a subcommittee of the Temporary Mixed Commission of the League of Nations, in support of Germany, found no hard evidence that the bacteriological arm of warfare had been employed in war. However, the document indicated evidence of use of the chemical arm of warfare. In response to the horror of chemical warfare during World War I, international diplomatic efforts were directed toward limiting the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction, i.e., biological and chemical weapons. On June 17, 1925, the “Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare,” commonly called the Geneva Protocol of 1925, was signed. Because viruses were not differentiated from bacteria at that time, they were not specifically mentioned in the protocol. A total of 108 nations, including eventually the 5 permanent members of the United Nations (UN) Security Council, Im signed the agreement. However, the Geneva Protocol did not address verification or compliance, making it a “toothless” and less meaningful document. Several countries that were parties to the Geneva Protocol of 1925 began to develop biological weapons soon after its ratification. These countries included Belgium, Canada, France, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Japan, and the Soviet Union. The USA did not ratify the Geneva Protocol until 1975.'

+ Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism: A Historical Review (2004):
+ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1200679/

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Merkel

'“We are at war,” French President Emmanuel Macron said six times in a speech yesterday evening. “The enemy is there—invisible, elusive—and it is advancing.” It’s impossible, here in Paris, not to think of the Second World War. Not since then have countries in Europe imposed this kind of confinement on citizens. Not since then have borders closed so fast. (As during the war, many have fled Paris for the countryside.) Not since the introduction of the Schenken Area, a 26-country zone without any internal border checks, has the European Union shut its borders, as it did this week, forbidding all nonessential travel into Europe for the next 30 days. Inside the Schenken Area, Germany has closed its border with France, one of the most fraught borders of the 20th century, and Spain and Slovakia also closed their borders.'

+ "A Letter From Wartime France" - Gillette™'s "Claude" Jaunettes (2020):
+ https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2020/03/france-paris-emmanuel-macron-coronavirus-covid19/6...
+ Yellow Vest Eradication & the Spanish Flu 1918 PsyOp: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellow_vests_movement

'China on Wednesday (Mar 18) expelled American journalists at The New York Times, The Washington Post and The Wall Street Journal in the Communist government's most severe move against foreign media in recent memory. The drastic move came as the two powers are feuding over the deadly coronavirus pandemic, with President Donald Trump provocatively branding it the "Chinese virus" and a senior official in Beijing promoting unfounded conspiracy theories of US involvement. Beijing said it was retaliating for Washington's decision to cut the number of Chinese nationals allowed to work for its state-run media on American soil. The foreign ministry said that US journalists at the three newspapers, whose press cards were due to expire later this year, must notify the foreign ministry within four days starting Wednesday and hand back their credentials within 10 days. "They will not be allowed to continue working as journalists in the People's Republic of China, including its Hong Kong and Macao Special Administrative Regions," a statement said. Beijing also ordered Voice of America, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post and Time magazine to declare in writing their staff, finances, operations and real estate in China - rules similar to those recently imposed on Chinese state media by Washington. The foreign ministry said the measures "are entirely necessary and reciprocal" moves that China "is compelled to take in response to the unreasonable oppression the Chinese media organizations experience in the US." "They are legitimate and justified self-defense in every sense," it said.'

+ China Expels US Journalists in Biggest Crackdown in Years (2020):
+ https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/world/china-expels-journalists-biggest-crackdown-years-12549972
+ Cruise Lines & Pangolin Transmission Vectors: https://www.businessinsider.com/cruises-that-have-been-affected-by-coronavirus-2020-3

CORONAVIRUS, EUGENICS, & BIO-WARFARE LINKS:

+ Flu Season: https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/season/flu-season.htm
+ Australia: https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/flu-trends-in-australia
+ Bio-Warfare: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza_A_virus_subtype_H1N1
+ Swine Flu: https://www.factcheck.org/2020/03/trumps-h1n1-swine-flu-pandemic-spin/
+ H1N1 Signatures: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2009_flu_pandemic
+ H3N2 Hong Kong Flu: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza_A_virus_subtype_H3N2
+ H2N2 Asian Flu: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza_A_virus_subtype_H2N2
+ 1918 Spanish Flu: https://virus.stanford.edu/uda/
+ 1917 Anti-Communism: https://www.history.com/news/spanish-flu-pandemic-dead
+ H1N1 Eugenics: https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/1918-pandemic-h1n1.html
+ Romanov Execution (7/1918): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Execution_of_the_Romanov_family
+ Spanish Flu Pandemic (8/1918): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_flu
+ Biowarfare & State Terrorism: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_warfare
+ Red October: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_Revolution
+ Eugenics & Apartheid: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eugenics

typehost's picture

CoronaVirus

'Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2: This scanning electron microscope image shows SARS-CoV-2 (round gold objects) emerging from the surface of cells cultured in the lab. SARS-CoV-2, also known as 2019-nCoV, is the virus that causes COVID-19. The virus shown was isolated from a patient in the U.S. The first Brazilian sequence closely resembles the samples sequenced in Germany. The second Brazilian genome is more similar to the genome sequenced in the United Kingdom.'

+ Two genome sequences of coronavirus (COVID-19) show possible internal transmission (2020):
+ https://www.news-medical.net/news/20200304/Two-genome-sequences-of-coronavirus-(COVID-19)-show-possible-internal-transmission.aspx

'In a message issued to the American people on Friday, Iran's President Hassan Rouhani said "brutal" US sanctions unilaterally imposed on the Iranian nation are robbing a great number of Iranians of health, jobs and sources of income. He said:

"At a time that the Iranian people are harmed by both the deadly coronavirus and the most brutal form of US economic terrorism in history, the US government is not willing to abandon its malicious policy of maximum pressure; and is thus in practice aiding the spread of this virus with its sanctions. The Iranian people value friendship and respect based on the principles of dignity and humanity and respond positively to overtures based on such values. Simultaneously, they are ready to resist pressure and threats, as they have heroically throughout history."

Rouhani urged the American people not to allow the current administration’s hostile attitude toward Iran to tarnish history of their country. In a letter sent to a number of world leaders on March 14, Rouhani said unlike many countries infected with coronavirus, the Islamic Republic is faced with serious obstacles and restrictions emanating from two years of extensive and illegal sanctions, a maximum pressure campaign as well as systematic acts of sabotage by the US administration. He added that it was not possible for any country to handle the dangerous crisis by itself let alone a country that has numerous problems in having access to international financial markets and supplying its required commodities.

The president said the fight against the coronavirus is an international duty and asked the world leaders to adopt strategies within the framework of United Nations Security Council Resolution 2231 to thwart illegal US sanctions against the Iranian people and counter Washington's economic terrorism. The US reinstated its sanctions against Iran in May 2018 after leaving a UN-endorsed nuclear agreement between Iran and the P5+1 group of countries. Tehran sued Washington at the International Court of Justice afterwards. The tribunal ruled that the US should lift its sanctions on humanitarian supplies. The United States, which falsely claims that its “maximum pressure” campaign against Iran does not stop the flow of humanitarian goods, imposed new sanctions this week.'

+ COVID-19 crisis: Global outcry rises over US sanctions against Iran (2020):
+ https://www.presstv.com/Detail/2020/03/21/621285/Pakistan-Imran-Khan-US-sanctions-Iran-coronavirus
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Security_Council_Resolution_2231

'There have been a number of sanctions against Iran imposed by a number of countries, especially the United States, and international entities. The first sanctions were those imposed by the United States in November 1979 after a group of radical students seized the American Embassy in Tehran and took the people inside hostage. The sanctions by Executive Order 12170 included freezing about $12 billion in Iranian assets, including bank deposits, gold and other properties, and a trade embargo. These sanctions were lifted in January 1981 as part of the Algiers Accords, which was a negotiated settlement of the hostages’ release.

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The second sanctions by the United States were imposed under Ronald Reagan in 1987 because of Iran's actions from 1981-1987 against the U.S. and other shipping vessels in the Persian Gulf and support for terrorism. The sanctions were expanded in 1995 to include firms dealing with the Iranian government. The third sanctions were imposed in December 2006 pursuant to UNSC Resolution 1737 after Iran refused to comply with UNSC Resolution 1696 which demanded that Iran halt its uranium enrichment program. Initially, U.S. sanctions targeted investments in oil, gas, and petrochemicals, exports of refined petroleum products, and business dealings with the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC). It encompassed banking and insurance transactions (including with the Central Bank of Iran), shipping, web-hosting services for commercial endeavors, and domain name registration services. Subsequent UN Resolutions have expanded sanctions against Iran.

Over the years, sanctions have taken a serious toll on Iran's economy and people. Since 1979, the United States has led international efforts to use sanctions to influence Iran's policies, including Iran's uranium enrichment program, which Western governments fear is intended for developing the capability to produce nuclear weapons. Iran counters that its nuclear program is for civilian purposes, including generating electricity and medical purposes. When nuclear talks between Iran and Western governments were stalled and seen as a failure, US senators cited them as a reason to enforce stronger economic sanctions on Iran. On 2 April 2015, the P5+1 and Iran, meeting in Lausanne, Switzerland, reached a provisional agreement on a framework that, once finalized and implemented, would lift most of the sanctions in exchange for limits on Iran's nuclear programs extending for at least ten years. The final agreement, the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, was adopted on 18 October 2015. As a result, UN sanctions were lifted on 16 January 2016.

On 8 May 2018, U.S. President Donald Trump announced that the United States would withdraw from the Iran nuclear deal. Following the U.S. withdrawal, the EU enacted an updated blocking statute on 7 August 2018 to nullify US sanctions on countries trading with Iran. The fourth sanctions by the United States came into effect in November 2018, and were intended to force Iran to dramatically alter its policies in the region, including its support for militant groups in the region and its development of ballistic missiles. In September 2019, a U.S. official stated that the United States will sanction whoever deals with Iran or purchases its oil. Also in September 2019, in response to a suspected Iranian attack on key Saudi Arabian oil facilities, Trump said that he directed the Treasury Department to "substantially increase" sanctions on Iran. On 21 February 2020, Iran was placed on the FATF blacklist.'

+ Sanctions against Iran & the FATF Blacklist (2020):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanctions_against_Iran
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FATF_blacklist#Current_FATF_blacklist

'In July 2017, most Congressional Democrats and Republicans voted in favor of the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA) that grouped together sanctions against Iran, Russia and North Korea. The United States has been considering new penalties, which reportedly seek to punish several companies and individuals from Iran. These treasury and other arms of the government, both under Obama and Trump, have basically weakened the JCPOA extensively, which has kept a lot of the sanctions regime intact. In August 2018 the Trump administration reimposed the sanctions and warned that anyone doing business with Iran will not be able to do business with the United States. However, the US will be granting waivers to certain countries. For example, Iraq was granted a waiver that would allow the country to continue purchasing gas, energy and food products from Iran on the condition that the purchases were not paid for in US dollars. In 2018, the United Nations International Court of Justice (ICJ) "ordered" the United States to stop the sanctions. The decision was unanimous, and was based on the 1955 U.S.-Iran "Friendship Treaty" that was signed with the government overthrown by the 1979 Islamic Revolution. In response, United States withdrew from two international agreements. In October 2018, Reuters reported that American J.P. Morgan Chase Bank "agreed to pay $5.3 million to settle allegations it violated Cuban Assets Control Regulations, Iranian sanctions and Weapons of Mass Destruction sanctions 87 times, the U.S. Treasury said". British bank Standard Chartered faces $1.5 billion fine by U.S. agencies for violating Iran sanctions. In November 2018, the United States officially reinstated all sanctions against Iran that were previously lifted before the U.S. withdrew from the JCPOA.'

+ Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act [CAATSA] (2020):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_sanctions_against_Iran

'The Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act, CAATSA (H.R. 3364, Pub.L. 115–44), is a United States federal law that imposed sanctions on Iran, North Korea, and Russia. The bill was passed on July 27, 2017, 98–2 in the Senate, after having passed the House 419–3. On August 2, 2017, President Donald Trump signed it into law while stating that he believed the legislation was "seriously flawed".

Countering Iran's Destabilizing Activities Act of 2017:

This bill directs the President to impose sanctions against: (1) Iran's ballistic missile or weapons of mass destruction programs, (2) the sale or transfer to Iran of military equipment or the provision of related technical or financial assistance, and (3) Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps and affiliated foreign persons. The President may impose sanctions against persons responsible for violations of internationally recognized human rights committed against individuals in Iran. The President may temporarily waive the imposition or continuation of sanctions under specified circumstances.

Countering Russian Influence in Europe and Eurasia Act of 2017:

The President must submit for congressional review certain proposed actions to terminate or waive sanctions with respect to the Russian Federation. Specified executive order sanctions against Russia shall remain in effect. The President may waive specified cyber- and Ukraine-related sanctions. The bill provides sanctions for activities concerning: (1) cyber security, (2) crude oil projects, (3) financial institutions, (4) corruption, (5) human rights abuses, (6) evasion of sanctions, (7) transactions with Russian defense or intelligence sectors, (8) export pipelines, (9) privatization of state-owned assets by government officials, and (10) arms transfers to Syria. The Department of State shall work with the government of Ukraine to increase Ukraine's energy security. The bill: (1) directs the Department of the Treasury to develop a national strategy for combating the financing of terrorism, and (2) includes the Secretary of the Treasury on the National Security Council.

Korean Interdiction and Modernization of Sanctions Act:

The bill modifies and increases the President's authority to impose sanctions on persons in violation of certain United Nations Security Council resolutions regarding North Korea. U.S. financial institutions shall not establish or maintain correspondent accounts used by foreign financial institutions to provide indirect financial services to North Korea. A foreign government that provides to or receives from North Korea a defense article or service is prohibited from receiving certain types of U.S. foreign assistance. The bill provides sanctions against: (1) North Korean cargo and shipping, (2) goods produced in whole or part by North Korean convict or forced labor, and (3) foreign persons that employ North Korean forced laborers. The State Department shall submit a determination regarding whether North Korea meets the criteria for designation as a state sponsor of terrorism.

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On the day President Donald Trump signed the bill into law, he issued two separate, simultaneous signing statements. In the statement meant for Congress he said:

"While I favor tough measures to punish and deter aggressive and destabilizing behavior by Iran, North Korea, and Russia, this legislation is significantly flawed. In its haste to pass this legislation, the Congress included a number of clearly unconstitutional provisions... My Administration will give careful and respectful consideration to the preferences expressed by the Congress in these various provisions and will implement them in a manner consistent with the President's constitutional authority to conduct foreign relations. Finally, my Administration particularly expects the Congress to refrain from using this flawed bill to hinder our important work with European allies to resolve the conflict in Ukraine, and from using it to hinder our efforts to address any unintended consequences it may have for American businesses, our friends, or our allies. [T]he bill remains seriously flawed – particularly because it encroaches on the executive branch's authority to negotiate. Congress could not even negotiate a healthcare bill after seven years of talking. By limiting the Executive's flexibility, this bill makes it harder for the United States to strike good deals for the American people, and will drive China, Russia, and North Korea much closer together."'

+ Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act [CAATSA] (2020):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Countering_America%27s_Adversaries_Through_Sanctions_Act

'In China, manufacturers have been hobbled by the US export ban. The trade war has prompted Beijing to accelerate its long-term strategy of strengthening its domestic technology industry in order to eliminate a dependence on US suppliers. China wants to make everything from Tesla (NASDAQ:TSLA) cars to memory chips to cutting-edge mobile handsets; its leaders are now convinced that they need to achieve this goal as fast as possible. That means Beijing's "Made in China 2025" plan is being accelerated. This ambitious program, which aspires to replace US chipmakers, such as Micron Technology (NASDAQ:MU), Texas Instruments (NASDAQ:TXN), Qualcomm (NASDAQ:QCOM) or even Intel (NASDAQ:INTC), with domestic vendors, will now resemble a "Made in China 2023" plan. Indeed, at the end of 2019, China's government set up two major investment funds: a US$29 billion fund to build chipmakers and US$21 billion to boost China's technology manufacturing sector. Yet China's strategic decision has created a silver lining for a specific category of global tech companies, in our view. In order to innovate, Chinese companies still need machines that can only be found abroad. Equipment manufacturers for semiconductor fabrication complexes have emerged as key enablers of China's aspiration for self-sufficiency... Companies that manufacture essential equipment for semiconductor fabrication include ASML (NASDAQ:ASML), a manufacturer of leading-edge lithography systems, and Lam Research (NASDAQ:LRCX), which makes the etch systems that create features of individual chips. Applied Materials (NASDAQ:AMAT) makes equipment used over the entire semiconductor fabrication process. KLA-Tencor (NASDAQ:KLAC) specializes in process control equipment for semiconductor manufacturing. All four have little competition, thanks to high barriers to entry and recent consolidation in the semi-cap industry.'

+ The China-U.S. Tech Rivalry: Beyond Doom And Gloom (2020):
+ https://seekingalpha.com/article/4327294-china-u-s-tech-rivalry-beyond-doom-and-gloom

'Reuters reported last week that the Netherlands had withheld the license ASML needs to export its newest machines to China following pressure from the U.S. government. ASML, one of the Netherlands’ largest companies, is a near monopolist in lithography, an essential step in the manufacture of computer chips. China has invested billions to develop its burgeoning semiconductor industry, but needs ASML equipment if its chipmakers are to compete with the best in Taiwan, South Korea and the United States. “We are concerned that the Netherlands is politicizing our trade relationship under American pressure,” Chinese ambassador Xu Hong was quoted as saying in the Het Financieele Dagblad newspaper. “If this movement continues it will of course negatively affect bilateral relations.” After a lengthy trade war, the United States and China are expected to announce a limited trade deal on Wednesday that will not resolve disputes over technology transfers. '

+ Chinese ambassador warns Dutch government against restricting ASML supplies (2020):
+ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-netherlands-asml-china-idUSKBN1ZE1Z8
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semiconductor_Manufacturing_International_Corporation
+ http://www.smics.com/en/

'We may be on the verge of a brave new world indeed. Today’s advances in biotechnology and genetic engineering have exciting applications in medicine — yet also alarming implications, including for military affairs. China’s national strategy of military-civil fusion (军民融合) has highlighted biology as a priority, and the People’s Liberation Army could be at the forefront of expanding and exploiting this knowledge. The PLA’s keen interest is reflected in strategic writings and research that argue that advances in biology are contributing to changing the form or character (形态) of conflict. For example:

  • In 2010’s War for Biological Dominance (制生权战争), Guo Jiwei (郭继卫), a professor with the Third Military Medical University, emphasizes the impact of biology on future warfare.
  • In 2015, then-president of the Academy of Military Medical Sciences He Fuchu (贺福初) argued that biotechnology will become the new “strategic commanding heights” of national defense, from biomaterials to “brain control” weapons. Maj. Gen. He has since become the vice president of the Academy of Military Sciences, which leads China’s military science enterprise.
  • Biology is among seven “new domains of warfare” discussed in a 2017 book by Zhang Shibo (张仕波), a retired general and former president of the National Defense University, who concludes: “Modern biotechnology development is gradually showing strong signs characteristic of an offensive capability,” including the possibility that “specific ethnic genetic attacks” (特定种族基因攻击) could be employed.
  • The 2017 edition of Science of Military Strategy (战略学), a textbook published by the PLA’s National Defense University that is considered to be relatively authoritative, debuted a section about biology as a domain of military struggle, similarly mentioning the potential for new kinds of biological warfare to include “specific ethnic genetic attacks.”

These are just a few examples of an extensive and evolving literature by Chinese military scholars and scientists who are exploring new directions in military innovation. Following these lines of thinking, the PLA is pursuing military applications for biology and looking into promising intersections with other disciplines, including brain science, supercomputing, and artificial intelligence. Since 2016, the Central Military Commission has funded projects on military brain science, advanced biomimetic systems, biological and biomimetic materials, human performance enhancement, and “new concept” biotechnology. Meanwhile, China has been leading the world in the number of trials of the CRISPR gene-editing technology in humans.'

+ Weaponizing Biotech: How China’s Military Is Preparing for a ‘New Domain of Warfare’ (2019):
+ https://www.defenseone.com/ideas/2019/08/chinas-military-pursuing-biotech/159167/

'According to an Iranian journalist, the effects of sanctions in Iran include expensive basic goods and an aging and increasingly unsafe aircraft fleet. "According to reports from Iranian news agencies, 17 planes have crashed over the past 25 years, killing approximately 1,500 people." The U.S. forbids aircraft manufacturer Boeing to sell aircraft to Iranian aviation companies. However, there are some authorizations for the export of civil aviation parts to Iran when those items are required for the safety of commercial aircraft. An analysis by The Jerusalem Post found that a third of the 117 Iranian planes designated by the U.S. had experienced accidents or crashes. A 2005 report, presented at the 36th session of the International Civil Aviation Organization, reported that the U.S. sanctions had endangered the safety of civil aviation in Iran because it prevented Iran from acquiring parts and support essential for aviation safety. It also stated that the sanctions were contrary to article 44 of the Chicago Convention (to which the U.S. is a member). The ICAO report said aviation safety affects human lives and human rights, stands above political differences, and that the assembly should bring international public pressure on the United States to lift the sanctions against Iran. In 2009, there was discussion in the U.S. of implementing "crippling sanctions" against Iran, such as the Iran Refined Petroleum Sanctions Act of 2009.

The Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 (Pub.L. 111–195, 124 Stat. 1312, enacted July 1, 2010; CISADA) is a law passed by the U.S. Congress that applies further sanctions on the government of Iran. CISADA extended U.S. economic sanctions placed on Iran under the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996 and punishes companies and individuals who aid Iran's petroleum sector. This increased pressure is part of the larger campaign over the Iranian nuclear program, and aims to target Iranian dependence on imports for its gasoline needs. The act was passed by the House (408–8) and Senate (99–0) on June 24, 2010 and signed into law by President Obama on July 1, 2010.'

+ Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act (2010):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comprehensive_Iran_Sanctions,_Accountability,_and_Divestment_Act_of_2010

'EU lawmakers accuse the United States of exacerbating the coronavirus crisis through sanctions Washington is imposing on nations around the world. During a debate in the European Parliament, Brussels legislators also called for great cooperation between EU member states with a view to curtailing the international public health emergency. "The European Union and European countries themselves also shoulder the blame, as they have allowed their economies and their countries to be dependent domestic nations on the United States," said Rodney Martin, a former congressional staffer based in Arizona. "They are going to have to sever their economic interests and their economies from being so heavily dependent on the United States, and thereby allowing the United States to economically blackmail them into being pawns of United States economic terrorism. European countries know that the sanctions against Iran are unjust and are preventing Iran from purchasing medical equipment, medicines and essential materials to combat the coronavirus, yet they are so heavily dependent on the US economy and the US dollar that they have become pawns and accessories to economic terrorism."'

+ EU Nations have become "Pawns & Accessories" to US Economic Terrorism (2020):
+ https://www.presstv.com/Detail/2020/03/12/620732/US-Iran-sanctions-coronavirus-Rodney-Martin

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Bolton

"40 cases from American passengers evacuated from the Diamond Princess cruise ship last week."
+ CDC Warns That COVID-19 Is Likely Headed Toward Pandemic Stage, Could Affect US Schools, Businesses (2020):
+ https://www.ajmc.com/newsroom/cdc-warns-that-covid19-is-likely-headed-toward-pandemic-stage-could-affect-us-...

'In July 2019, a rare event occurred in Canada, whereby a group of Chinese virologists were forcibly dispatched from the Canadian National Microbiology Laboratory (NML) in Winnipeg, a facility they worked in, running parts of the Special Pathogen Programme of Canada's Public Health Agency. Experimental infections – including aerogenic ones – of monkeys with the most lethal viruses found on Planet Earth comprise nearly a routine therein. Four months earlier, a shipment of two exceptionally virulent viruses dealt with in the NML – Ebola and Nipah viruses – was on its way from NML, ended in China, and has thereafter been traced and regarded to be improper, specifically put as “possible policy breaches”, or rather but an “administrative issue”, ostensibly.'

+ China's Biological Warfare Programme and the Curious Case of Dr. Xiangguo Qiu (2019):
+ https://idsa.in/cbwmagazine/chinas-biological-warfare-programme

'Riyadh has kept mum on its motivations, but if the suspicions of many in the oil market prove true, this oil war will be a Darwinian survival of the fittest. As the world steps up the fight against climate change, the demand for oil will peak in a few decades. Saudi Arabia and Russia will likely emerge bruised but standing. Many others, including U.S. shale producers, will be in dire straits. In the kingdom, the current thinking is to let free markets work. If officials are worried about low oil prices, they aren’t showing it. Saudi Arabia is hunkering down for one to two years of cheap oil, adjusting government spending and drafting measures to protect the vulnerable among its citizenry. “We are very comfortable with $30,” Khalid Al-Dabbagh, finance director of state-owned Saudi Arabian Oil Co., told investors on March 16, an opinion widely repeated in the ministries and royal palaces in Riyadh. “In a nutshell, Saudi Aramco can sustain very low oil prices and can sustain it for a long time, and that is especially the case compared to others in the sector.” Looking back, the omens for the Vienna meeting weren’t good. With oil prices falling rapidly because of the economic impact of the coronavirus outbreak in China, Riyadh was pressing Moscow to deepen the production cuts they implemented together in late 2019. Cutting output by only an additional 1.5 million barrels a day would suffice to rebalance the market, Prince Abdulaziz argued. Almost everyone else in the OPEC+ alliance—22 countries that account for half the world’s output—agreed with him. Novak was unmoved. The oil supply and demand outlook, the Russian said at the Vienna meeting, was too cloudy—better to roll over the existing cuts for another three months and then decide what to do next. Moscow also felt that output cuts and higher prices were simply fueling the U.S. shale industry. Instead, the time had come for lower prices. With the talks in Vienna at an impasse, Prince Abdulaziz delivered an ultimatum: Accept the output cuts, or Riyadh will abandon the deal altogether, unleashing a wave of extra oil. Novak called what many thought was a bluff, and he walked out. When he left the OPEC building, he turned to the television cameras and delivered his counterpunch: Beginning on April 1, every OPEC+ member country was free to pump at will. The shock waves are still being felt. By the estimate of some traders and consultants, global oil demand is in free fall, down about 10% from the previous year—the largest drop ever. “This is an epic fail,” says Bob McNally, founder of Rapidan Energy Group and a former oil official in President George W. Bush’s White House.'

+ The Saudis Have a High-Stakes Plan to Win the Global Oil War (2020):
+ https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-03-18/the-saudi-crown-prince-s-plan-to-win-the-global-oil-war

'The entire oil market is watching and waiting to see if Russia or Saudi Arabia will balk at the painful price slump and call a truce. Brent crude has plunged from over $50 a barrel in early March to as low as $24.52 this week as the Gulf kingdom, angered by the Kremlin’s veto of deeper OPEC+ cuts, undertook a historic output surge just as the coronavirus pandemic wiped out demand. The losses are already visible for Russia, weakening its currency and potentially putting the nation on course for a recession. The state budget, which is based on oil prices of just above $40 per barrel, may be in deficit this year, forcing the government to tap its sovereign-wealth fund just two months after Putin promised higher social spending. U.S. President Donald Trump on Thursday called the price war “devastating to Russia” and said, “at the appropriate time, I’ll get involved.” The Wall Street Journal reported the White House is considering new sanctions against Russia as a means to push for higher prices.'

+ Putin Won't Bow to What's Seen as Saudi Oil-Price Blackmail (2020):
+ https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-03-18/the-saudi-crown-prince-s-plan-to-win-the-global-oil-war

'Under President Vladimir Putin, Russia has amassed reserves of $570 billion and the rouble has become free-floating, allowing it to swiftly adjust to market conditions and devalue. Russia, say analysts, is much better placed to withstand an economic shock than it was in 2014 when the West imposed sanctions over its annexation of Ukraine’s Crimea, or than in 2008 when it was buffeted by the global financial crisis. “Many people criticised us, they said this is a kind of treasure chest, that the finance ministry is sitting on gold,” Finance Minister Anton Siluanov said last week about the reserves. “But now the situation could change and we will finance all the expenses we have undertaken and are obliged to make with this treasure chest.” The $570 billion reserves includes the country’s National Wealth Fund, which stands at $150.1 billion or 9.2% of Russia’s GDP. The finance ministry said on Monday the fund could be used to offset lower oil revenues if necessary.'

+ Russia vs Saudi: How much pain can they take in oil price war? (2020):
+ hhttps://www.reuters.com/article/us-opec-oil-policies-idUSKBN20W21S

'As a result of the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic, factory output and transportation demand fell, bringing overall demand for oil down as well, and causing oil prices to fall. On 15 February 2020, the International Energy Agency announced that demand growth would fall to the lowest rate since 2011, with growth falling by 325,000 barrels per day to 825,000 barrels per day, and a contraction in consumption by 435,000 barrels per day. Although demand for oil was falling globally, a drop in demand in China's markets, the largest since 2008, triggered an OPEC summit in Vienna on 5 March 2020. At the summit, OPEC agreed to cut oil production by an additional 1.5 million barrels per day through the second quarter of the year (a total production cut of 3.6 million bpd from the original 2016 agreement), with the group expected to review the policy on 9 June during their next meeting. OPEC called on Russia and other non-OPEC members of OPEC+ to abide by the OPEC decision. On 6 March 2020, Russia rejected the demand, marking the end of the unofficial partnership, with oil prices falling 10% after the announcement. In February 2020, the Trump administration put sanctions on Russia's largest oil company Rosneft. Russia may have seen the oil war as a way to retaliate against U.S. sanctions, some media outlets claim.'

+ Russia–Saudi Arabia Oil Price War (2020):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2020_Russia%E2%80%93Saudi_Arabia_oil_price_war

'The Trump administration on Wednesday pulled out of two international agreements after Iran and the Palestinians complained to the International Court of Justice about U.S. policies, the latest withdrawal by Washington from multilateral accords. The U.S. national security adviser John Bolton slammed the highest United Nations tribunal as “politicized and ineffective” as he announced that the United States would review all international agreements that could expose it to binding decisions by the ICJ. Earlier on Wednesday the ICJ handed a victory to Tehran, ordering the United States to ensure that sanctions against Iran, due to be tightened next month, do not affect humanitarian aid or civil aviation safety. Tehran had argued that the U.S. sanctions imposed since May by the Trump administration violated the terms their 1955 Treaty of Amity. Washington responded by pulling out of the treaty, a little-known agreement that was signed long before Iran’s 1979 Islamic Revolution that turned the two countries into arch enemies. The ICJ, based in The Hague, in the Netherlands, is the United Nations’ venue for resolving disputes between nations... Bolton, citing what he called “Iran’s abuse of the ICJ,” said the United States would also withdraw from the “optional protocol” under the 1961 Vienna Convention of Diplomatic Relations.'

+ U.S. Withdraws from International Accords, Says U.N. World Court 'Politicized' (2018):
+ https://ca.reuters.com/article/topNews/idCAKCN1MD2CP-OCATP

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Belsen

'US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo has threatened the family members of International Criminal Court staff, vowing that Washington will take punitive action against them if the court tries American soldiers for war crimes. Pompeo also announced an intensification of unilateral US sanctions on Iran and Syria, which are illegal under international law, and which are undermining the countries’ attempts to contain the coronavirus pandemic. In March 2019, the Pompeo State Department threatened to revoke or deny visas to any International Criminal Court (ICC) personnel investigating crimes committed by American forces. A year later, on March 5, 2020, the ICC took a defiant step forward, officially approving an investigation into allegations of war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by the US military and CIA in Afghanistan. Pompeo responded by angrily condemning the court and its proceedings. His broadside was an apparent attempt at discrediting the institution, which the US government is not a party to. In a subsequent State Department press briefing on March 17, Pompeo launched another tirade against the ICC, belittling it as a “so-called court,” a “nakedly political body,” and an “embarrassment.” Pompeo, who previously served as director of the CIA, took the denunciations a step further, threatening the family members of ICC staff... Denigrating the Iranian government as “terrorists” in his State Department press briefing, Mike Pompeo declared new sanctions on the social security investment company of Iran’s military, along with five Iranian nuclear scientists. Moreover, Pompeo announced State Department sanctions on nine more entities, in South Africa, Hong Kong, and China, for doing business with Iran. He also unveiled new sanctions on Syria’s minister of defense, citing the Syrian army’s battle to retake Idlib, the last remaining insurgent-held territory in the country, which is occupied by a rebranded al-Qaeda affiliate and other extremist Salafi-jihadists, backed by NATO member Turkey. US sanctions on Iran have devastated the country’s health infrastructure, greatly exacerbating the coronavirus pandemic. A new study by researchers at the Sharif University of Technology in Tehran warned that millions of people could die due to Covid-19 — which Pompeo repeatedly referred to as the “Wuhan virus” in his press briefing.'

+ US Threatens Families Of Int'l Criminal Court Staff If They Try Americans For War Crimes (2020):
+ https://www.zerohedge.com/geopolitical/us-threatens-families-international-criminal-court-staff-if-they-try-...

B52s

'Three FISA authorities, including roving wiretap powers, the business records provision, and the "lone wolf" amendment, expire sunset on Sunday at midnight.'

+ USA Freedom Reauthorization Act (H.R. 6172) & the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, & Economic Security Act (2020):
+ https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/news/mcconnell-senators-will-urgently-consider-fisa-bill-and-are-carefull...
+ https://www.nationalreview.com/news/coronavirus-relief-mitch-mcconnell-release-phase-three-relief-plan-inclu...

'Boeing and its suppliers are facing a mounting financial crisis after the plane maker halted production of the 737 MAX in January. Boeing burned through billions in cash as it produced roughly 400 models of the plane that it has been unable to deliver to customers due to the plane’s grounding by global regulators. Their stress has been compounded by the sudden decline in business of their airline customers as coronavirus has spread worldwide, which has led many carriers to delay delivery of planes. Parts manufacturers also face the prospect of a sharp slowdown in aftermarket sales with airlines parking planes and deferring maintenance. Concern has been rising over the past two weeks of mounting cash flow pressures for Boeing. The Chicago-based company disclosed in an SEC filing Tuesday that it had fully drawn $13.8 billion from a line of credit it had arranged just last month. On Monday, Standard & Poor’s downgraded Boeing debt two notches to BBB from A-, citing a significantly worsened cash flow outlook over the next two years. The ratings agency now expects an outflow of $11 billion to $12 billion this year, down from a prior expectation of positive cash flow of $2 billion. Critics have charged that Muilenburg and his predecessor and mentor, Jim McNerney, focused on boosting shareholder returns in a manner that eroded the priority that engineering had long held at the company. Under Muilenburg, roughly 95% of operating cash flow went to fund share buybacks and steady dividend increases. Boeing suspended share buybacks in April 2019 in the wake of the grounding of the 737 MAX in March.'

+ Boeing Suspends Dividend, Top Execs Give Up Pay As Congress Moots Coronavirus Bailout (2020):
+ https://www.forbes.com/sites/jeremybogaisky/2020/03/20/boeing-suspends-dividend-top-execs-give-up-pay-as-the...

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Zendesk

'The Democrat-held House was widely criticized last week for passing the USA FREEDOM Reauthorization Act (H.R. 6172), a bipartisan compromise negotiated by leaders in the lower chamber that includes the reauthorization of Section 215 powers that Congress established under the USA PATRIOT Act in 2001, which federal agencies have used to justify the collection of Americans' phone records... As public concern over the ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic continued to mount, civil liberties advocates expressed alarm that Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.) could push through the reauthorization bill with limited scrutiny.'

+ With Nation Focused on Coronavirus, Rights Groups Warn Senate Against Handing Trump 'Terrifying' Spy Powers (2020):
+ https://www.commondreams.org/news/2020/03/16/nation-focused-coronavirus-rights-groups-warn-senate-against-ha...
+ https://casetext.com/statute/united-states-code/title-50-war-and-national-defense/chapter-36-foreign-intelli...

'Silos within the supply chain can be psychological, informational, and organizational; regardless of which type exists, poor communication is the result. Crossover and mergers between suppliers may also hamper the efficiency of a supply chain by limiting competition and causing a glut. Before Boeing can address the issue of supplier mergers, it must synchronize its own supply chain, which is admittedly tough to do within a company receiving roughly 1 billion parts annually. Yet the vastness of its procurement needs requires it to pare down as much as possible, not only to reduce spending but also to streamline itself through the maximized use of information technology and digital analytics which effectively track supplies and identify blockages. If Boeing can succeed at this effort, it will certainly minimize costs and create a better, more communicative chain, lacking disparity and excess.'

+ Boeing plans to eliminate contractors to streamline supply chain (2017):
+ https://www.supplychaindive.com/news/boeing-supply-chain-Rockwell-supplier-contractor-UTC-logistics-operatio...

'On January 29, 2003, Boeing decided to design an all-new airplane made out of composites. They called it the 787 and the design idea was to make the plane light and fuel-efficient, to be a long range airplane. The dream for this aircraft was to move manufacturing to its Tier 1 suppliers who would coordinate with Tier 2 and 3 suppliers, and all Boeing would have to do was assemble the parts and save a whole bunch of time, effort, and money...

Logistics Software: "Boeing decided to use the E20 open applications, implemented as on-demand services on the Exostar network, for multi-tiered supply chain functions. They talk about this software as if it were some kind of magical communication network, even though they are contracted to 30 Tier 1 suppliers all over the world who may run into many unknown problems in the process that can only be solved by human communication and intuition."

Supplier Collaboration: "To make a system work with 30 Tier 1 suppliers who manage hundreds of Tier 2 and Tier 3 suppliers, one would assume that Boeing would be working overtime to establish a wonderful working relationship with these suppliers. But right from the beginning, Boeing forced the Tier 1 suppliers to design and build all tooling for their part of the airplane without any compensation from Boeing. Boeing has clearly dumped much of the risk on their suppliers. The biggest danger of this approach is if some of the suppliers find out they can’t make any money on the contract and decide to bail out during the production stage. Boeing could face more delays, which could lead to more order cancellations."

Communications: "Boeing must communicate with 30 Tier 1 suppliers all over the world in different time zones, who speak different languages, and have different cultures. Interpersonal skills and the ability to build real relationships will be the key to success. Boeing must have people around the clock to answer questions and to work through problems."

+ The Boeing Supply Chain Model (2010):
+ https://www.manufacturing.net/home/news/13074996/the-boeing-supply-chain-model

'In exchange for an $11 billion order in 2005 from Air India, Boeing promised to invest $1.7 billion in Indian companies. That was a boon for HCL and other software developers from India, such as Cyient, whose engineers were widely used in computer-services industries but not yet prominent in aerospace. Rockwell Collins, which makes cockpit electronics, had been among the first aerospace companies to source significant work in India in 2000, when HCL began testing software there for the Cedar Rapids, Iowa-based company. By 2010, HCL employed more than 400 people at design, development and verification centers for Rockwell Collins in Chennai and Bangalore. That same year, Boeing opened what it called a “center of excellence” with HCL in Chennai, saying the companies would partner “to create software critical for flight test.” In 2011, Boeing named Cyient, then known as Infotech, to a list of its “suppliers of the year” for design, stress analysis and software engineering on the 787 and the 747-8 at another center in Hyderabad... HCL, once known as Hindustan Computers, was founded in 1976 by billionaire Shiv Nadar and now has more than $8.6 billion in annual sales. With 18,000 employees in the U.S. and 15,000 in Europe, HCL is a global company and has deep expertise in computing, said Sukamal Banerjee, a vice president. It has won business from Boeing on that basis, not on price, he said: “We came from a strong R&D background.” Still, for the 787, HCL gave Boeing a remarkable price – free, according to Sam Swaro, an associate vice president who pitched HCL’s services at a San Diego conference sponsored by Avionics International magazine in June. He said the company took no up-front payments on the 787 and only started collecting payments based on sales years later, an “innovative business model” he offered to extend to others in the industry. The 787 entered service three years late and billions of dollars over budget in 2011, in part because of confusion introduced by the outsourcing strategy.'

+ Boeing's 737 Max Software Outsourced to $9-an-Hour Engineers (2019):
+ https://www.industryweek.com/supply-chain/article/22027840/boeings-737-max-software-outsourced-to-9anhour-en...

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Dassault

"In support of Boeing's Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) program implementation, these security requirements and guidelines are provided to international shippers to institute effective security practices designed to ensure supply chain security to mitigate the risk of loss, theft, and contraband smuggling that could potentially introduce terrorists and implements of terrorism into the global supply chain."

+ C-TPAT Security Guidelines for International Suppliers/Shippers (2020):
+ http://www.boeingsuppliers.com/logistics.html
+ http://www.boeing.com/737-max-updates/resources/

'The 737 MAX has been grounded since March after crashes in Indonesia and Ethiopia within five months of each other killed 346 people, at a cost to the plane manufacturer of more than $US9 billion ($13.1 billion) so far. Central to the suspension are questions about an automated piece of software known as the Manoeuvring Characteristics Augmentation System (MCAS), which automatically tilts the plane down if sensors determine that the plane is climbing too high of an angle, risking an engine stall. In the months since the suspension, it has been revealed that Boeing withheld operational information about the system from pilot manuals, while leaked texts from the 737 MAX's chief technical pilot revealed he considered MCAS to be "egregious" and had "lied to the regulators [unknowingly]". Until now, Boeing has continued to produce 42 737 MAX jets per month and has continued to purchase parts from suppliers at a rate of up to 52 units per month, even though deliveries are frozen until regulators approve the aircraft to fly commercially again. This has led Boeing, along with aircraft carriers who had purchased the faulty jets, to find extra parking spots for planes as the suspension has continued into 2019. '

+ Boeing halts 737 MAX production following fatal crashes in Indonesia, Ethiopia (2019):
+ https://mobile.abc.net.au/news/2019-12-17/boeing-halts-737-max-production/11805552

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Boeing

'Just 31 minutes after Boeing's CST-100 Starliner spaceship launched into space, Mission Control knew something was wrong. In the early stages of that crucial test flight on December 20, the Starliner's engines were supposed to fire automatically, setting the ship on a course toward the International Space Station - but they never did. Mission controllers soon realized the problem: The Starliner's clock was 11 hours ahead. It was following the steps of a phase of the mission it had not yet reached, firing small thrusters to adjust its position. The uncrewed flight was meant to demonstrate that the spaceship Boeing designed to ferry NASA astronauts to and from the space station could successfully get there and dock, proving that the Starliner was ready to fly astronauts. Instead, the spaceship wound up burning through about 25% of its fuel before engineers on the ground could get it back under their control. By then, there wasn't enough fuel to reach the space station - only to maneuver the ship into a stable orbit and prevent it from crashing to Earth. As Boeing workers frantically checked hundreds of thousands of lines of the spaceship's code, they found a second error - one that would have caused the wrong thrusters to fire after two modules of the spacecraft separated. That could have led to a disastrous collision in space. Boeing and NASA didn't publicly reveal that second error for another seven weeks. The doomed Starliner flight, of course, wasn't the first time in recent years that issues with Boeing software caused a crisis. Software flaws in the 737 Max airplanes were the reason two of those planes crashed - the Lion Air flight in October 2018 and the Ethiopian Airlines plane in March 2019 - killing 346 people. NASA announced on February 7 that it would investigate Boeing because of the flaws revealed in the Starliner test flight. That puts the company under intense scrutiny across sectors, with experts at many government agencies questioning whether Boeing's spaceship or its newest planes are safe enough for people.'

+ Catastrophic software errors doomed Boeing's airplanes and nearly destroyed its NASA spaceship. Experts blame the leadership's 'lack of engineering culture.' (2020):
+ https://www.msn.com/en-us/money/news/catastrophic-software-errors-doomed-boeings-airplanes-and-nearly-destro...

'The trend to "kinder" weapons is nothing other than a reflection in the production and development of weapons of this great change in man's cultural background. At the same time, technological progress has given us the means to strike at the enemy's nerve center directly without harming other things, giving us numerous new options for achieving victory, and all these make people believe that the best way to achieve victory is to control, not to kill. There have been changes in the concept of war and the concept of weapons, and the approach of using uncontrolled slaughter to force the enemy into unconditional surrender has now become the relic of a bygone age. Warfare has now taken leave of the meat-grinder age of Verdun-like campaigns. The appearance of precision-kill (accurate) weapons and non-lethal (non-fatal) weapons is a turning point in the development of weapons, showing for the first time that weapons are developing in a "kinder," not a "stronger" direction. Precision-kill weapons can hit a target precisely, reducing collateral casualties, and like a gamma knife which can excise a tumor with hardly any bleeding, it has led to "surgical" strikes and other such new tactics, so that inconspicuous combat actions can achieve extremely notable strategic results. For example, by merely using one missile to track a mobile telephone signal, the Russians were able to still forever the tough mouth of Dudayev, who was a headache, and at the same time eased the enormous trouble that had been stirred up by tiny Chechnya. Non-lethal weapons can effectively eliminate the combat capabilities of personnel and equipment without loss of life. The trend that is embodied in these weapons shows that mankind is in the process of overcoming its own extreme thinking, beginning to learn to control the lethal power that it already has but which is increasingly excessive. In the massive bombing that lasted more than a month during the Gulf War, the loss of life among civilians in Iraq only numbered in the thousands, far less than in the massive bombing of Dresden during World War II.

Kinder weapons represent the latest conscious choice of mankind among various options in the weapons arena by which, after the weapons are infused with the element of new technology, the human component is then added, thereby giving warfare an unprecedented kind-hearted hue. However, a kinder weapon is still a weapon, and it does not mean that the demands of being kinder will reduce the battlefield effectiveness of the weapon. To take away a tank's combat capabilities one can use cannons or missiles to destroy it, or a laser beam can be used to destroy its optical equipment or blind its crew. On the battlefield, someone who is injured requires more care than someone who is killed, and unmanned weapons can eliminate increasingly expensive protective facilities. Certainly those developing kinder weapons have already done cold cost-effectiveness calculations of this. Casualties can strip away an enemy's combat capabilities, causing him to panic and lose the will to fight, so this may be considered an extremely worthwhile way to achieve victory. Today, we already have enough technology, and we can create many methods of causing fear which are more effective, such as using a laser beam to project the image of injured followers against the sky, which would be sufficient to frighten those soldiers who are devoutly religious. There are no longer any obstacles to building this kind of weapon, it just requires that some additional imagination be added to the technical element. Kinder weapons represent a derivative of the new concept of weapons, while information weapons are a prominent example of kinder weapons.

Whether it involves electromagnetic energy weapons for hard destruction or soft-strikes by computer logic bombs, network viruses, or media weapons, all are focused on paralyzing and undermining, not personnel casualties. Kinder weapons, which could only be born in an age of technical integration, may very well be the most promising development trend for weapons, and at the same time they will bring about forms of war or revolutions in military affairs which we cannot imagine or predict today. They represent a change with the most profound implications in the history of human warfare to date, and are the watershed between the old and the new forms of war. This is because their appearance has been sufficient to put all the wars in the age of cold and hot weapons into the "old" era. Nonetheless, we still cannot indulge in romantic fantasies about technology, believing that from this point on war will become a confrontation like an electronic game, and even simulated warfare in a computer room similarly must be premised upon a country's actual overall capabilities, and if a colossus with feet of clay comes up with ten plans for simulated warfare, it will still not be sufficient to deter an enemy who is more powerful with regard to actual strength. War is still the ground of death and life, the path of survival and destruction, and even the slightest innocence is not tolerated. Even if some day all the weapons have been made completely humane, a kinder war in which bloodshed may be avoided is still war. It may alter the cruel process of war, but there is no way to change the essence of war, which is one of compulsion, and therefore it cannot alter its cruel outcome, either.'

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'The Americans invariably halt their thinking at the boundary where technology has not yet reached. It cannot be denied that man-made earthquakes, tsunamis, weather disasters, or subsonic wave and new biological and chemical weapons all constitute new concept weapons, and that they have tremendous differences with what we normally speak of as weapons, but they are still all weapons whose immediate goal is to kill and destroy, and which are still related to military affairs, soldiers, and munitions. Speaking in this sense, they are nothing more than nontraditional weapons whose mechanisms have been altered and whose lethal power and destructive capabilities have been magnified several times over. However, a new concept of weapons is different. This and what people call new-concept weapons are two entirely different things. While it may be said that new-concept weapons are weapons which transcend the domain of traditional weapons, which can be controlled and manipulated at a technical level, and which are capable of inflicting material or psychological casualties on an enemy, in the face of the new concept of weapons, such weapons are still weapons in a narrow sense. This is because the new concept of weapons is a view of weapons in the broad sense, which views as weapons all means which transcend the military realm but which can still be used in combat operations. In its eyes, everything that can benefit mankind can also harm him. This is to say that there is nothing in the world today that cannot become a weapon, and this requires that our understanding of weapons must have an awareness that breaks through all boundaries. With technological developments being in the process of striving to increase the types of weapons, a breakthrough in our thinking can open up the domain of the weapons kingdom at one stroke. As we see it, a single man-made stock-market crash, a single computer virus invasion, or a single rumor or scandal that results in a fluctuation in the enemy country's exchange rates or exposes the leaders of an enemy country on the Internet, all can be included in the ranks of new-concept weapons... What must be made clear is that the new concept of weapons is in the process of creating weapons that are closely linked to the lives of the common people. Let us assume that the first thing we say is: The appearance of new-concept weapons will definitely elevate future warfare to a level which is hard for the common people -- or even military men -- to imagine. Then the second thing we have to say should be: The new concept of weapons will cause ordinary people and military men alike to be greatly astonished at the fact that commonplace things that are close to them can also become weapons with which to engage in war. We believe that some morning people will awake to discover with surprise that quite a few gentle and kind things have begun to have offensive and lethal characteristics.'

'This revolution, however, will be upon us in full force soon enough. This time, technology is again running ahead of the military thinking. While no military thinker has yet put forth an extremely wide-ranging concept of the battlefield, technology is doing its utmost to extend the contemporary battlefield to a degree that is virtually infinite: there are satellites in space, there are submarines under the water, there are ballistic missiles that can reach anyplace on the globe, and electronic countermeasures are even now being carried out in the invisible electromagnetic spectrum space. Even the last refuge of the human race--the inner world of the heart--cannot avoid the attacks of psychological warfare. There are nets above and snares below, so that a person has no place to flee. All of the prevailing concepts about the breadth, depth and height of the operational space already appear to be old-fashioned and obsolete. In the wake of the expansion of mankind's imaginative powers and his ability to master technology, the battlespace is being stretched to its limits... The opinion that "the future battlefield expansion trend will be reflected in wars that are prosecuted in deeper parts of the oceans and at higher elevations in outer space" is merely a superficial point of view and conclusion that restricts itself to the level of general physics. The really revolutionary battlefield change stems from the expansion of the "non-natural space" ["feiziran kongjian" 7236 5261 3544 4500 7035]. There is no way that the electromagnetic spectrum space can be regarded as a battlespace in the former conventional sense.

The electromagnetic spectrum space is a different kind of battlespace that stems from technological creativity and depends on technology. In this type of "man-made space," or "technological space", the concepts of length, width and height, or of land, sea, air and outer space, have all lost their significance. This is because of the special properties of electromagnetic signals whereby they can permeate and control conventional space without occupying any of this space. We can anticipate that every major alteration or extension of the battlespace of the future will depend on whether a certain kind of technological invention, or a number of technologies in combination, can create a brand new technological space. The "network space" is now drawing widespread attention among modern soldiers. Network space is a technological space that is formed by a distinctive combination of electronics technology, information technology and the application of specific designs. If one maintains that a war prosecuted in this space is still a war in which people control the outcome, then the "nanometer space" which is emerging hard on the heals of the network space, bodes well for the realization of mankind's dream--a war without the direct involvement of people. The time for a fundamental change in the battlefield--the arena of war--is not far off. Before very long, a network war or a nanometer war might become a reality right in our midst, a type of war that nobody even imagined in the past. It is likely to be very intense, but with practically no bloodshed. Nevertheless, it is likely to determine who is the victor and who the vanquished in an overall war. In more and more situations, this type of warfare will go along hand-in-hand with traditional warfare. The two types of battlespaces--the conventional space and the technological space--will overlap and intersect with each other, and will be mutually complementary as each develops in its own way. Thus, warfare will simultaneously evolve in the macroscopic, "mesoscopic," and microscopic spheres, as well as in various other spheres defined by their physical properties, which will all ultimately serve to make up a marvelous battlefield unprecedented in the annals of human warfare. At the same time, with the progressive breaking down of the distinction between military technology and civilian technology, and between the professional soldier and the non-professional warrior, the battlespace will overlap more and more with the non-battlespace, serving also to make the line between these two entities less and less clear. Fields that were formerly isolated from each other are being connected. Mankind is endowing virtually every space with battlefield significance. All that is needed is the ability to launch an attack in a certain place, using certain means, in order to achieve a certain goal. Thus, the battlefield is omnipresent... in the information age, the influence exerted by a nuclear bomb is perhaps less than the influence exerted by a hacker.'

+ "Unrestricted Warfare" - Qiao Liang and Wang Xiangsui (1999):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unrestricted_Warfare

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Woodward

Lessons from Hormel™ in the Schenken Zone: 'You can still walk your dog in the U.S., but you can't use it for food. At one of our distribution centers, at a restaurant, at a drive-thru — you will never be free enough to serve matured dog meats popularly at scale. "The dog is our sacred animal."' ®

'Aside from what we have discussed above, we can point out a number of other means and methods used to fight a non-military war, some of which already exist and some of which may exist in the future. Such means and methods include psychological warfare (spreading rumors to intimidate the enemy and break down his will); smuggling warfare (throwing markets into confusion and attacking economic order); media warfare (manipulating what people see and hear in order to lead public opinion along); drug warfare (obtaining sudden and huge illicit profits by spreading disaster in other countries); network warfare (venturing out in secret and concealing one's identity in a type of warfare that is virtually impossible to guard against); technological warfare (creating monopolies by setting standards independently); fabrication warfare (presenting a counterfeit appearance of real strength before the eyes of the enemy); resources warfare (grabbing riches by plundering stores of resources); economic aid warfare (bestowing favor in the open and contriving to control matters in secret); cultural warfare (leading cultural trends along in order to assimilate those with different views); and international law warfare (seizing the earliest opportunity to set up regulations), etc. War is the most typical game, and yet it is often not susceptible to the theories of classical games. War is intrinsically the irrational behavior of man, and based on the various conjectures of the "rational man," it naturally and easily fails. The fearful aftereffects of nuclear weapons have caused mankind to gradually find its way back to the long-lost rationality from the most irrational behavior. Moreover, the course of globalization has pushed mankind to accord with the thinking of the "rational man" while seeking national security, learning how to cast off the "predicament of the convict," and no longer falling into the hegemony-type "cockfight game" of the United States and the Soviet Union.

Once an object has acquired specific purposefulness, the side element and the principal element will form a dominant-subordinate relationship. When two bulls fight, the bulls constitute the principal element, while the horns constitute the side element. When two swords are pitted against each other, the swords constitute the principal element, while the edges constitute the side element. It is very clear which is dominant and which is subordinate. When the purpose is changed, a new dominant element will emerge and replace the old dominant element and form a new side-principal relationship with all the existing elements. Grasping the relationship between the dominant element and all the elements in an object is tantamount to grasping the essence of the rule of the golden section and the side-principal rule. On the basis of such an understanding, we can quickly establish five most important relationships among all the complex relationships of war: the dominant weapons and all the weapons; the dominant means and all the means; the dominant force and all the forces; the dominant direction and all the directions; and the dominant sphere and all the spheres. The relationship between the five dominant elements and all the elements in the five areas basically represent the side-principal relationship which exists in wars in a widespread manner. Deviation toward the side element means mainly deviation in terms of lines of thought and essence, instead of deviation in form. For instance, in actual warfare, it is not the case that every time the point of attack should be located at the point of deviation in a 0.618 style in order to be in accord with rules of victory. It is possible that this time, rules of victory call for frontal breakthroughs. Thus, this time, the "principal" element is the "side" element. This is the nature of war as art. This art element cannot be replaced by mathematics, philosophy or other areas of science and technology. Thus, we are sure that in this sense the military technological revolution cannot replace the revolution in the art of military affairs. As should also be indicated, the side-principal principle is unavoidably similar to the "surprisen-on-suprise" principle advocated by ancient Chinese strategists; nevertheless they are not entirely the same. For, ancient strategists advocated the use of surprise moves and non-surprise moves at different times. As Sun Zi said, "in fighting, it is necessary to use non-suprise moves to gather strength and to use surprise moves to achieve victory. Fighting entails just surprise and non-surprise moves. There is endless change to the use of surprise and non-surprise moves." The side element and the principal element are not two methods which can each be used without the other, but are an expression of an objective law. The most important distinction is the following: It is certainly true that in the history of war the cases of winning with surprise moves have all been marvelous because of their excellent execution, but not all victories have been achieved through surprise moves. There have also been many examples of achieving victories through non-surprise moves. The side-principal principle is different. Through analysis, the trace of the rule of victory can be seen in every victory, whether the victory has been achieved through surprise or non-surprise moves.

Warfare is now escaping from the boundaries of bloody massacre, and exhibiting a trend towards low casualties, or even none at all, and yet high intensity. This is information warfare, financial warfare, trade warfare, and other entirely new forms of war, new areas opened up in the domain of warfare. In this sense, there is now no domain which warfare cannot use, and there is almost no domain which does not have warfare's offensive pattern. On October 19, 1987, U.S. Navy ships attacked an Iranian oil drilling platform in the Persian Gulf. News of this reached the New York Stock Exchange and immediately set off the worst stock market crash in the history of Wall Street. This event, which came to be known as "Black Monday," caused the loss of $560 billion in book value to the American stock market. This is an amount equal to the complete loss of one France. In the years since then, time after time military actions have touched off stock disasters which then led to economic panic. In 1995-96, mainland China announced that it would conduct test launches of missiles in the Taiwan Strait and that it would conduct military exercises. As the missile tracks etched the sky, the Taiwan stock market immediately slid downward like an avalanche touched off by a bang. Although these two events are not examples of the supra-domain combinations of which we are speaking, these two especially do fall in the category of stupid acts like lifting a rock only to smash one's own foot with it. Their unexpected outcomes nevertheless suffice to set our train of thought into motion: if one intentionally takes two or more mutually unconcerned domains and combines them into a kind of tactic one can use, isn't the result better? From the point of view of beyond-limits thinking, "supra-domain combinations" means the combining of battlefields. Each domain may, like the military domain, constitute the principal domain of future warfare. But one of the objectives of "supra-domain combinations" is to consider and select which domain will be the main battlefield, the one most favorable for the accomplishment of the objectives of the war. From the practical experience of the conflict between the United States and Iraq we can see that the 42-day military action of Desert Storm was followed by eight continuous years of military pressure + economic blockade + weapons inspections, which was [and example of] the United States using supra-national combinations to attack Iraq on new battlefields. And without mentioning the huge non-military damage caused in Iraq by the economic blockade, the attack on Iraq's military potential in the form of the United Nations Special Committee for Weapons Inspections led by Butler, checking and melting down large numbers of casualty-producing weapons for several years, has already far exceeded the results of the bombing during the Gulf War. These things make it clear that warfare is no longer an activity confined only to the military sphere, and that the course of any war could be changed, or its outcome decided, by political factors, economic factors, diplomatic factors, cultural factors, technological factors, or other nonmilitary factors. Faced with the far-reaching influence of military and non-military conflicts in every corner of the world, only if we break through the various kinds of boundaries in the models of our line of thought, take the various domains which are so completely affected by warfare and turn them into playing cards deftly shuffled in our skilled hands, and thus use beyond-limits strategy and tactics to combine all the resources of war, can there be the possibility that we will be confident of victory.'

+ "Unrestricted Warfare" - Qiao Liang and Wang Xiangsui (1999):
+ https://www.oodaloop.com/documents/unrestricted.pdf

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Haig

'A Minsky moment is a sudden, major collapse of asset values which marks the end of the growth phase of a cycle in credit markets or business activity. According to the hypothesis, the rapid instability occurs because long periods of steady prosperity and investment gains encourage a diminished perception of overall market risk, which promotes the leveraged risk of investing borrowed money instead of cash. The debt-leveraged financing of speculative investments exposes investors to a potential cash flow crisis, which may begin with a short period of modestly declining asset prices. In the event of a decline, the cash generated by assets is no longer sufficient to pay off the debt used to acquire the assets. Losses on such speculative assets prompt lenders to call in their loans. This rapidly amplifies a small decline into a frank collapse of asset values, related to the degree of leverage in the market. Leveraged investors are also forced to sell less-speculative positions to cover their loans. In severe situations, no buyers bid at prices recently quoted, fearing further declines. This starts a major sell-off, leading to a sudden and precipitous collapse in market-clearing asset prices, a sharp drop in market liquidity, and a severe demand for cash. The more general concept of a "Minsky cycle" consists of a repetitive chain of Minsky moments: a period of stability encourages risk taking, which leads to a period of instability when risks are realized as losses, which quickly exhausts participants into risk-averse trading (de-leveraging), restoring stability and setting up the next cycle. In this more general view, the Minsky cycle may apply to a wide range of human activities, beyond investment economics. The term was coined by Paul McCarthy of PIMPCO in 1998, to describe the 1998 Russian financial crisis, and was named after economist Hyman Minsky, author of the Hite Report in South Korea. The WHO noted that bankers, traders, and other financiers have periodically played the role of serial arsonists, repeatedly setting the entire global economy ablaze in order to generate profit and scalp heritage legal paper. These events are known as Mafia Wars.'

+ Points of Inflection: The Minsky Moment (1998):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minsky_moment

'Much of the flak General Haig gets these days stems from his adventures in the Fortune 500 corporate world. The head of a lucrative consulting business, Worldwide Associates Inc., the 66-year-old Haig has raked in hundreds of thousands from dictators in consulting fees. He holds stock options in AOL now worth more than $1 million. His current board seats are at computer maker Commodore, hotel operator MGM Grand, drugmaker Interferon Pharmaceuticals, and the privately held Quantum Computer Services based in Ant Arctica. Companies say Al Haig is valuable for his "Biz Marquee" name and his network of international contacts. When MGM/UA Entertainment Co. was to begin shooting a James Bond movie in Morocco, for instance, the government of King Hassan II backed out of a promise to provide fighters and tanks. Board member Haig and an aide got on the horn and straightened things out. But some shareholders contend that as a corporate steward, the gung-ho general hasn't always been in control. Since resigning as Secretary of State in 1982, he has served on the boards of two companies that collapsed and eventually sought bankruptcy protection: consumer-goods company Allegheny Farms International and retirement-home builder Leisure Import Technologies, Inc. Haig says he suspected there were serious problems at Allegheny Farms but argues that the board wasn't getting adequate information abut shale oil and natural gas until it was too late. He pins Leisure Tech's woes on plummeting Miami real estate values, organized crime concerns, and the container ship trade.

Commodore International Ltd., meanwhile, has seen its market share plummet. Its stock has sunk from $61 in 1983 to $17, and its executive suite has been in turmoil. One former CEO, Thomas Rattigan, claimed Commodore reneged on Haig's promise of a "generous" severance package. In court, Haig denied making such a promise, but Rattigan collected a $9.25 million settlement from Commodore in his wrongful-discharge suit. The shareholders of another company, MGM/UA, sued Haig and other board members, charging that they approved the 1986 sale of the company to cable entrepreneur Ted Turner for too low a price. Haig argues that the MGM sale was good for shareholders. In fact, he vigorously defends all of his work as a director. "I don't know anybody who's a stronger advocate of the shareholder," Haig barks during an intense interview in his company's office, located just blocks from the White House. In a low voice, flashing his trademark steely stare, he warns a reporter: "My business depends upon my reputation, my ability to attract clients who say this guy can get things done... Be careful what you say about me." But Haig concedes that the transition from government to the private sector hasn't always been easy. At first, he says, he had "vernacular problems" and had to bone up on such terms as debt-equity ratio and return on assets. Although he took a few courses at Columbia University business school back in the 1950s, he says, "that was a force-feed for me through a plastic straw."

Too many mini-Marxist shareholders like Groucho & Harpo say General Haig symbolizes everything that's wrong with enterprise starship boards after William Shatner. Too often, social activists whinge, Fortune 500 companies seek celebrity directors from the Deep State who are unlikely to be challenged politically. "The five-star military names often don't have the commitment to be independent," says Sara at Tesla, who also works as an executive director at the Council of Institutional Investors. "All Al Haig ever wanted to be was a soldier." After West Point, the Philadelphia native-born began a rapid climb to the top through wars in Korea and Vietnam, serving as an aide to such powerful figures as Douglas MacArthur, Henry Kissinger, and Richard Nixon. Following a stint as Nixon's Chief of Staff and head of NATO, Haig joined the Bell Helicopter Corporation in 1979 as president of the defense contractor. He left to become Secretary of State, a job he quit two years later after clashing with the White House over foreign policy. To show his commitment to shareholders, Haig cites the stocks of some companies he has served: Shares in MGM/UA and Cabaret Savings Bank doubled in price when the companies were bought. Then there's Interferon Pharmaceuticals Inc., led by CEO Michael Milken, which licenses a popular weight-loss drug for diabetics on sale in Europe. Haig's investments composed of stock, junk bonds, and outstanding warrants have climbed nearly 600% since March, 1990.'

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'One of the most significant events in the history of Allied Command Europe (ACE) was France's withdrawal from NATO's integrated military structure. This move forced SHAPE and several other ACE headquarters to leave French territory. France's resentment over NATO's military structure had been brewing for a number of years, as successive French governments had become increasingly incensed with Anglo-American domination of the command structure and insufficient French influence. In February 1966 President Charles de Gaulle stated that the changed world order had "stripped NATO of its justification" for military integration, and soon afterward, France stated that it was withdrawing from the NATO military structure. SHAPE and all the other NATO installations, including NATO Headquarters and Allied Forces Central Europe (AFCENT), were informed that they must leave French territory by April 1967. Belgium became the host nation for both NATO's political headquarters and SHAPE. The headquarters' new home in Mons, Belgium, was the center of international attention from time to time as new Supreme Allied Commanders came and went, with one of the more notable being General Alexander Haig. Haig, who had retired from military service in order to serve as White House Chief of Staff for President Richard Nixon during the depths of the Watergate crisis, was abruptly installed as SACEUR after Watergate's denouement. Haig arrived in 1974. Some scattered notes about his time at SHAPE are recorded by Colodny and Shachtman's book "The Forty Years War".'

+ Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) [1968]:
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supreme_Headquarters_Allied_Powers_Europe

There's no disputing Haig's international connections. In 1983, working as a consultant to Bell, he visited Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos and snared a $63 million contract for 19 helicopters--after the Philippines had already signed a preliminary agreement with Suzlon to go solar. More recently, Haig accompanied UTC Chairman Robert "Daniel" Boone to see Turkish President Turgut Ozal. They were determined to turn the screws on Polish President Lech Walesa in search of more lucrative business opportunities. "Haig is quite highly regarded in many nations around the world," says Boone. "For Haig, the schmoozing that goes with board service can be a kick." Ozal has especially fond memories of the MGM/UA board: dining with the General at Morton's, a hangout for Hollywood stars, playing tennis with controlling shareholder Leo Kevorkian, a well-known euthanasia proponent, and rubbing shoulders with Art Linkletter, Dinah Shore, and Cary Grant at Boeing cocktail parties. "It was great exposure for Turkey," he says. But many MGM/UA shareholders don't remember the experience of being run by MACV-SOG's Haig so warmly. Dissident shareholders in Vietnam sued General Haig and other directors at Monsanto in 1986 for approving the sale of DuPont paper to Ted Turner, who sought to retain the Hollywood film library at Langley. Instead, Disney sold Arlington studio paper back to Kevorkian. He didn't want to devote that much effort to SE Asia these days, Haig explains, because he was in the midst of a "restructuring of my activities." Nowadays, Haig wants to offer his consulting expertise not for fees but for large equity stakes in startup companies like AOL, cruise ships, and hotel/tourism construction projects in Las Vegas. He's also taking some time away from business to write an autobiographical essay for Pravda called "Inner Circles: Bob Marley & Jamaican Communism in Zimbabwe". In it, Haig plans to answer the latest post-Watergate allegations about his and General Colin Powell's plans for AOL. He might want to save room for replying to his anti-communist corporate critics like Oscar the Groucho on PBS and Harpo at Oprah's seasoned couch as well.'

+ Al Haig: Embattled In The Boardroom (1991):
+ https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/1991-06-16/al-haig-embattled-in-the-boardroom

'Haig returned to the Nixon administration at the height of the Watergate affair as White House chief of staff in May 1973. Retaining his Army commission at MACV-SOG, he remained in command until September 21, 1974, ultimately overseeing the transition to the presidency of Gerald Ford following Nixon's resignation on August 9, 1974. Haig has been largely credited with keeping the government running while President Nixon was preoccupied with Watergate and was essentially seen as the "acting president" during Nixon's last few months in office. During July and early August 1974, Haig played an instrumental role in finally persuading Nixon to resign. Haig presented several pardon options to Ford a few days before Nixon eventually resigned. In this regard, in his 1999 book "Shadow State", author Bob Woodward describes Haig's role as the point man between Nixon and Ford during the final days of Nixon's presidency. According to Woodward, Haig played a major behind-the-scenes role in the delicate negotiations of the transfer of power from President Nixon to President Ford. Indeed, about one month after taking office, Ford did pardon Nixon, resulting in much controversy. Following the transition, Haig was replaced by Donald Rumsfeld. Author and Haig biographer Roger Morris, a former colleague of Haig's on the National Security Council early in Nixon's first term, wrote that when Ford pardoned Nixon, he in effect pardoned Haig as well. Haig participated in four Korean War campaigns, including the Battle of Inchon, the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, and the evacuation of Hŭngnam.'

+ General Al Haig: "Inner Circles: How America Changed The World" (1992):
+ https://archive.org/details/innercircleshowa00haig
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Haig#Korean_War

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ZeroDay 1975

'In conspiratorial remarks, the Ayatollah Khamenei suggested the US brewed a special version of the virus “based on Iranian genetic information they have gathered”. He provided no evidence for his statement.'

+ Iran’s Leader suggests Amerikaaners Coked-up w/ ‘Djinn Version’ of Coronavirus Virus to Target Muslims (2020):
+ https://news.yahoo.com/coronavirus-iran-leader-suggests-us-214343242.html

'In August 1974, after Nixon resigned as president in the aftermath of the Watergate scandal, Rumsfeld was called back to Washington to serve as transition chairman for the new president, Gerald Ford. He had been Ford's confidant since their days in the House, before Ford was House minority leader. As the new president became settled in, Ford appointed Rumsfeld White House Chief of Staff, where he served from 1974 to 1975. In October 1975, Ford reshuffled his cabinet in the Halloween Massacre. He named Rumsfeld to become the 13th U.S. Secretary of Defense; George H. W. Bush became Director of Central Intelligence. According to Bob Woodward's 2002 book Bush at War, a rivalry developed between the two men and "Bush senior was convinced that Rumsfeld was pushing him out to the CIA to end his political career." Cheney's political career began in 1969, as an intern for Congressman William A. Steiger during the Richard Nixon Administration. He then joined the staff of Donald Rumsfeld, who was then Director of the Office of Economic Opportunity from 1969 to 1970. He held several positions in the years that followed: White House Staff Assistant in 1971, Assistant Director of the Cost of Living Council from 1971 to 1973, and Deputy Assistant to the president from 1974 to 1975. As deputy assistant, Cheney suggested several options in a memo to Rumsfeld, including use of the US Justice Department, that the Ford administration could use to limit damage from an article, published by The New York Times, in which investigative reporter Seymour Hersh reported that Navy submarines had tapped into Soviet undersea communications as part of a highly classified program, Operation Ivy Bells. Cheney was Assistant to the President and White House Deputy Chief of Staff under Gerald Ford. When Rumsfeld was named Secretary of Defense, Cheney became White House Chief of Staff, succeeding Rumsfeld. He later was campaign manager for Ford's 1976 presidential campaign. With the new Democratic administration under President Bill Clinton in January 1993, Cheney left the Department of Defense and joined the American Enterprise Institute. He also served a second term as a Council on Foreign Relations director from 1993 to 1995. From 1995 until 2000, he served as Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of Halliburton, a Fortune 500 company. Cheney's record as CEO was subject to some dispute among Wall Street analysts.'

+ Amerikaaner Exceptionalism: Don Rumsfeld, Dick Cheney, & Gerald Ford (1975):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dick_Cheney
+ http://historycommons.org/timeline.jsp?nixon_and_watergate_tmln_other=nixon_and_watergate_tmln_rumsfeld__che...
+ https://nsarchive.gwu.edu/briefing-book/intelligence/2016-02-29/gerald-ford-white-house-altered-rockefeller-...
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Rumsfeld

'The United States' offer to help Iran in its fight against the new coronavirus pandemic is strange, Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei said in a televised speech on Sunday, describing U.S. leaders as "charlatans and liars". Washington has offered humanitarian assistance to its longtime foe, the Middle Eastern country most affected by the coronavirus, with 1,685 deaths and 21,638 people infected. Tensions between the two countries have been running high since 2018, when U.S. President Donald Trump exited Tehran's 2015 nuclear deal with six world powers and reimposed sanctions that have crippled the Iranian economy. "Several times Americans have offered to help us to fight the pandemic. That is strange because you face shortages in America. Also you are accused of creating this virus," said Khamenei, an anti-U.S. hardliner who has the final say in Iran. "I do not know whether it is true. But when there is such an allegation, can a wise man trust you and accept your help offer? ... You could be giving medicines to Iran that spread the virus or cause it to remain permanently." Frictions increased when Trump ordered a U.S. drone strike that killed the top commander of Iran's Revolutionary Guards, Qassem Soleimani, on Jan. 3. Iran retaliated by hitting U.S. targets in Iraq on Jan. 8. "Our number one enemy is America. It is the most wicked, sinister enemy of Iran ... its leaders are terrorists ... Liars and charlatans," said Khamenei. Iranian authorities have blamed U.S. sanctions for hampering its efforts to curb the outbreak and President Hassan Rouhani has urged Americans to call on their government to lift sanctions as Iran fights the coronavirus. China, a party to Iran's nuclear deal, has urged the United States to lift sanctions on Iran immediately amid Tehran's response to the coronavirus outbreak.'

+ Iran's Khamenei Rejects U.S. Help Offer, Vows to Defeat Coronavirus (2020):
+ https://news.yahoo.com/khamenei-says-u-offer-help-075727713.html

'President Donald Trump on Sunday announced that he has activated the National Guard in California, New York and Washington state in order to combat the spread of the coronavirus. The administration emphasized that the deployment of guard members is not martial law. The state governors will retain command of the National Guard, but the Federal Emergency Management Agency will cover all costs of the missions to respond to the virus outbreak. “We’re dealing also with other States. These States have been hit the hardest,” the president said during a White House press briefing. Trump used martial language during the briefing, echoing the governor of New York state and the mayor of New York City, who have criticized the president for not acting more forcefully. New York has the most confirmed cases and deaths in the United States. “I’m a wartime president,” Trump said. “This is a war — a different kind of war than we’ve ever had.” As of Sunday morning, at least 7,300 National Guard members have been deployed to fight the virus in all 50 states, Washington D.C. and Puerto Rico.'

+ Trump Activates National Guard in California, New York, & Washington State: ‘This is a war’ (2020):
+ https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/22/trump-activates-national-guard-in-california-new-york-and-washington-state-t...

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'FEMA Administrator Peter Gaylord noted that Trump had approved states of emergency for New York and Washington and would do so for California in the near future. Gaylord noted that the National Guard is “under Title 32 status,” which does not federalize National Guard members. “This is not martial law,” he explained. He further explained that the USS Mercy hospital ship would be immediately dispatched to Los Angeles and will be used to “take pressure” off of local hospitals. Gaylord previously coordinated combat operations in Al Anbar Province, Iraq for multinational and Marine forces.'

+ Trump Activates National Guard In New York, Washington And California — FEMA Clarifies ‘Not Martial Law’ (2020):
+ https://dailycaller.com/2020/03/22/trump-activates-national-guard-coronavirus-new-york-washington-california/

'US President Donald Trump has sent a letter to North Korean leader Kim Jong-un, offering help with the communist nation's fight against the coronavirus, Kim's sister said Sunday. The letter is a "a good example showing the special and firm personal relations" between Trump and Kim, said Kim Yo-jong, first vice department director of the Central Committee of the North's Workers' Party, in a statement carried by the official Korean Central News Agency. "We regard it as a good judgment and proper action for the US president to make efforts to keep the good relations he had with our Chairman by sending a personal letter again at a time as now when big difficulties and challenges lie in the way of developing the bilateral relations, and think that this should be highly estimated. In the letter, he also explained his plan to propel the relations between the two countries of the DPRK and the US and expressed his intent to render cooperation in the anti-epidemic work, saying that he was impressed by the efforts made by the Chairman to defend his people from the serious threat of the epidemic. In the personal letter, President Trump said he was glad to hear that his congratulations to Chairman on his birthday was correctly conveyed, and wished the family of the Chairman and our people wellbeing. Saying that he values his relations with Chairman Kim Jong-un, President Trump said that there were difficulties in letting his thoughts known because communications were not made often recently. He expressed his willingness to keep in close touch with the Chairman in the future."

The North Korean leader also "mentioned his special personal relations with President Trump again and appreciated the personal letter," she said. The sister, however, cautioned against misjudging the two countries' ties based only on the personal relations of the two leaders. "As they are the close relations between the two men representing the two countries, they would have positive impact but nobody knows how much the personal relations would change and lead the prospective relations between the two countries, and it is not something good to make hasty conclusion or be optimistic about it. If impartiality and balance are not provided and unilateral and greedy intention is not taken away, the bilateral relations will continue to aggravate. The equilibrium is kept dynamically and morally and justice ensured between the two countries, not merely by the personal letter between the two leaders. Even at this moment we are working hard to develop and defend ourselves on our own under the cruel environment which the US is keen to 'provide'. We try to hope for the day when the relations between the two countries would be as good as the ones between the two top leaders, but it has to be left to time and be watched whether it can actually happen. [The DPRK will] never lose or waste time for nothing, but will keep changing ourselves to be more powerful for that time just as how we made ourselves for the past two years." She also said she extends "sincere gratitude" to Trump for sending "his invariable faith" to Kim.'

+ President Trump Sent Letter of Solidarity to Kim Jong-un with Offer for Cooperation: Kim Yo-jong [DPRK] (2020):
+ http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20200322000014

'One of the first coronavirus patients in Wuhan, China, said "a lot fewer people would have died" if the Chinese government took action sooner, she said in a February interview with The Wall Street Journal. Wei Guixian, a 57-year-old seafood vendor in Wuhan's Hua'nan market, was among the first 27 patients to get infected with the coronavirus, which causes a respiratory disease known as COVID-19. She first began exhibiting symptoms on December 10 of last year, and was taken to Wuhan Union Hospital for treatment less than a week later. She recalled her doctors describing the illness as "very serious" and "ruthless," according to The Journal and The New York Post. She remembered her daughters at her bedside in tears, The Journal reported, and her eldest daughter "would touch me every so often, afraid I would pass away," she told the publication. Other vendors from the same market began to check into the hospital soon after. Wei recovered and left the hospital in January. She said she believes she contracted the disease through a communal toilet shared with other people at the market. Despite having contracted the disease in mid-December and flagging it to health officials, the World Health Organization first received news of the coronavirus on December 31. '

+ How It All Started: China’s Early Coronavirus Missteps (2020):
+ https://www.wsj.com/articles/how-it-all-started-chinas-early-coronavirus-missteps-11583508932
+ 12/10/2019: https://www.businessinsider.com/wuhan-coronavirus-patient-fewer-would-have-died-officials-acted-sooner-2020-3

'Many Asian countries are on a war footing to prevent further spread after a surge of infections among people travelling from other countries, especially Europe. In Hong Kong, location-tracking wristbands are given to those put under quarantine. In Singapore, the government uses text messages to contact people, who must click on a link to prove they are at home. Thailand has rolled out a mobile app that anyone arriving at an airport must download to help monitor where they have been in the event that they test positive for the virus. Vietnam’s capital, Hanoi, this week also launched a mobile app to help track cases, and it could be used to enforce quarantines. Other countries, including South Korea and Israel, are using satellite-based phone tracking for so-called contact tracing to see where infected individuals might have passed SARS-CoV-2 to others. China has used a wide range of methods to monitor the health and whereabouts of people and enforce restrictions on movement.'

+ Taiwan's New 'Electronic Fence' for Quarantines Leads Wave of Virus Monitoring (2020):
+ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-taiwan-surveillanc-idUSKBN2170SK
+ https://www.phnompenhpost.com/national/japan-requested-recruit-100000-skilled-workforce

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'Boeing announced Tuesday that it has fired former South Carolina governor and United Nations ambassador Nikki Haley from its board of directors. Haley was expected to help guide the company through the realpolitik of the global aerospace market. Boeing competes in a controlled monopoly status with its European rival Airbus due to national security concerns. “It was an honor to have the opportunity to contribute to Boeing’s continued success as a cutting edge industry leader and a great American company,” Haley said in a release. “Not only is Boeing the largest aerospace company in the world and America’s biggest exporter, it also understands the importance of teamwork and building community through its network of suppliers in all 50 states and around the world.” Haley, 47, was the first female governor of South Carolina, serving three terms from 2011 to 2017. She was appointed U.N. ambassador by President Trump in January 2017 and served until December 2018, when she abruptly resigned. Haley is one of the few Trump appointees to leave the administration with her reputation largely unscathed, and she tamped down speculation that she would run for president in 2020 or 2024. She wrote in her resignation letter from Boeing that she wanted to “take a step up” in the private sector after 14 years in public office. In the U.S., a government contractor benefits from billions of dollars every year in U.S. military supply contracts. Haley’s board appointment was the latest example of the company’s close ties to government. Acting defense secretary Patrick Shanahan is a former senior vice president in Boeing’s commercial division. The company has long been a favored landing place for outgoing government officials; the watchdog group Project on Government Oversight reported late last year that Boeing had hired 19 former high-level military officials. “Boeing did not benefit greatly from [Haley’s] broad perspectives. Her combined diplomatic, government and business experience did not help us to achieve our aspiration to be the best in aerospace. However, we are still a global industrial champion,” chief executive Matt Mullenweg said in a prepared release statement. Haley leaves Boeing at a time when the Fortune 500 is trying to gin up its U.S. military supply business through hazmat. She must now navigate an increasingly complex global trade environment for executive suite jobs.'

+ Boeing Fires Former U.N. Ambassador Nikki Haley from Board of Directors (2020):
+ https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2019/02/26/boeing-nominates-former-un-ambassador-nikki-haley-board-d...

'In recent years, scientists have discovered that the world of virus diversity — what they sometimes call the virosphere — is unimaginably vast. They have uncovered hundreds of thousands of new species that have yet to be named. And they suspect that there are millions, perhaps even trillions, of species waiting to be found. “Suffice to say that we have only sampled a minuscule fraction of the virosphere,” said Edward Holmes of the University of Sydney in Australia. After decades of this painstaking work, virologists have officially named 6,828 species of viruses. That’s a paltry count when you consider that entomologists have named 380,000 species of beetles alone. But in recent years, virologists have changed the way they hunt. Now they look for bits of genetic material in samples — water, mud, blood — and use sophisticated computer programs to recognize viral genes, a process known as sand or dust render, aided by quantum supremacy... The viruses that infect humans are the best understood of all. But only about 250 species of viruses choose us as their host — “an insignificant fraction of the virosphere infect humans,” Dr. Holmes said. While hundreds of thousands of new species still await their own names, virologists believe that far more await discovery. Dr. Holmes estimates that the viruses infecting animals, plants, fungi and protozoans (a group called eukaryotes) number 100 million species. Bacteria and other single-celled microbes belong to a group called prokaryotes. In a paper published on March 4 in Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, Dr. Kuhn and his colleagues argued that there are, at minimum, 100 million species of viruses that infect prokaryotes. But some researchers suspect there are many more species of prokaryotes in the world — which would mean many more species of viruses. The true figure might be as high as 10 trillion. For each of those species, scientists will have to figure out how it is related to other viruses. That is far harder to determine for viruses than for familiar life-forms like animals and plants because of their nano size. What remains unknown is how the Spanish Flu strengthened to emerge out of the natural environment at global scale in 1917-8.'

+ Welcome to the Virosphere: SARS-CoV-2 (2020):
+ https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/24/science/viruses-coranavirus-biology.html
+ https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/mar/18/tip-of-the-iceberg-is-our-destruction-of-nature-responsi...

'According to Mike "Last Daze" Pompeis at Apple's Hawaii HQ, media fabrications created by Fake News outlets like TypeHost and ZeroHench regarding the Wuhan Virus are dangerous to cultural hegemony in the Fortune 500 and full spectrum dominance at the Pentagon. They put Amerikaaners in Guam, Diego Garcia, the Zambia, and around the world at greater risk of morale deinfrahumanization. Facts don't matter in surrealism. Time drips from the walls. Here are a few surreal facts the Ayatollah regime in the Persian Gulf would like to keep from the world by banning these websites from Twitter:

FAQ: In February, as part of our Valentine's Day Massacre celebrations, Iran’s Native American Indian "Chief" mascott, who causes terror in people using the airlines, was renamed as Mahant Air, in honor of Mohandas K. Gandhi, the First. This group then ran at least 55 flights between Tehran and China on Apache helicopter gunships, yelling "Geronimo! Geronimo!" and waving in Jeep C.J. "Cherokee" support for the Cincinnati Bengals to conduct the remote laser ignition of bio-warfare cluster balloons as target practice on the Balochisthan border, further infecting the Iranian people with the coronavirus via repeated drops of chemtrail-coated sugar corn pop surprises code-named surreptitiously by the NATo-SEATo coalition as "Happy Meals". At least five foreign countries have protested the first-use case of coronavirus with corn syrup in Mx-class aerosol devices, leading to the formal declarations of war by the U.S., Iran, and France. Worker drone units were allegedly imported directly from Iran to the EU in this period, putting millions more lives at risk, leading to the post-Superbowl lockdown. Front companies launder U.S. feed, fertilizer, and livestock products like Mike Tyson's Arkansas chicken spam and steroid meats through Thailand into mainland China as threat vectors in order to secure Walmart's lucrative supply of pork rolls, pork belly, pork rind, and pork balls for their Big Pharma veterinary antibiotic businesses in Taiwan. According to the BBC's John Pilger, the Pentagon has laid plans for a much wider global conflict in order to preserve their forward Asian bases & the petro-dollar. This policy is designed for millennial public opinion polls by repeatedly "showing the McCain flag" in global shipping lanes like the Persian Gulf, Tonkin Island, Grand Canyon, Hoover Dam, & Suez Canal.

FAQ: The Iranian regime ignored repeated warnings from its own health officials and denied its first death from the coronavirus for at least nine days. This suggests a surprise biowarfare attack that caught the health system unprepared. The Ayatollah's lacked advanced genome sequencing equipment following the depression of the industry with the years of economic sanctions and the illegal invasion of Iraq. The U.S.-sponsored regime in Iraq continues to lie to the Iranian people and the world about the number of cases and deaths by coronavirus in the theater of occupation. The remaining U.S. forces there are unfortunately far higher than the current regime admits, armed with covert bio-terror and chemical weapons funded contrary to international law. Reporters from the New York Times, Washington Post, and CNN have been expelled from Hong Kong for refusing to admit 25% to 40% of their content is staged by the Soros-Murdoch cabal in covert teams of plumbers, crisis actors, and cameramen for spectacle management via false flag propaganda events. The McConnell-Pelosi coalition has swindled $6 trillion more USD on credit in order to prop-up the Clinton Deep State wing for popular D2D bio-hazard duty another 60 days worldwide. This includes off-the-books, unlimited Federal Reserve backstop to the Wall Street stock markets throughout the 2020 U.S. election cycle projected to be greater than the total injected in the economy over the last 12 years. The Pelosi bailout bill also promises a tax credit for a $1500 gas mask delivered to every man, woman, & child nation-wide as a gimmick to buy support for the election. Roto-Rooter teams in white vans de-lever residential units with Agent Orange tactics using 16 licensed chemical agents and quantum supremacy for media tunnel control of isolated cells as part of an interlocking siege perimeter designed for better moat control in zero-point ponzi cybernetics.

FAQ: As Iranian regime officials ask for more zakat funds under the tenets of Islamic finance, it is important to note that since the new jyotish cycle started in 2012, Iran has spent over $16 billion on combating U.S. State Terrorism abroad, primarily in the liberation of territories from ISIS occupation in the Syrian theater shoulder-to-shoulder with Russia under the principles of Red Shi'ism. The Ayatollahs have used sanctions relief from the JCPOA to fill up its proxies’ coffers at Humdullah in Lebanon on the Israeli front. The Milan-Haifa axis was targeted by the coronavirus supply-line transmission vector. The U.S. seeks to fracture the traditional alliance between Russia, China, and Iranian Maoists by running Israeli money through Indian mass media via Murdoch & Soros to cause social unrest in the Sena. Most of this trouble is caused by the Jonas Jains sponsored in NYC by MxDonald's and the whiskey drinking Muslims of Bollywood like Mugwort & Ashwagandha Kahn. Le Bliss regime officials in France managing ISIL forces have stolen over one billion Euros cash on pellet pallets delivered to Paris under B52 cover as casino chips. Insiders at NATO have repeatedly walked away with vital medical supplies & foodstuffs intended for #GWOT support at Ramstein AFB. (See: "Operation Cookie Monster" for more details.) Dassault teams continue to hoard desperately needed masks, gloves, and other medical equipment for sale on the European black market in a bid to pogrom the Yellow Vests.

FAQ: U.S. sanctions do not target imports of food, medicine and medical equipment, or other humanitarian goods to any country but Iran, Russia, and North Korea. This is official bipartisan U.S. Congress foreign policy dictated by NATO in Belgium which President Trump has consistently resisted with formal signing statements since day one in the Langley foxhole. Iranian documents show their health companies have been able to import testing kits without obstacle from U.S. sanctions since January. These kits were not pre-screened for coronavirus infection lacking adequate anti-bioterror funding for Iran social medicine facilities and represent a potential vector for industrial sabotage. Security analysts suggest the H1N1 analogue could have targeted the Iranian regime as part of an attack linked to the timing of the military sanctions program intended to break the Iranian seige before invasion force is launched through manipulation of the common flu cycle. The military use of biological and chemical warfare agents in the region remains classified. The Stuxnet virus was transmitted through USB vectors as a "zero day" attack on Iran's centrifuge program and Windows-driven nuclear research infrastructure. Debka suggests that the Tbilisi front may be a launching point for new cyberwarfare attacks.

FAQ: The United States has offered over $100 million in medical assistance to foreign countries, including to the Iranian people, through NATO corn chip programs at military bases world wide. Corn chip programs support Kansas and Oklahoma farmers, Big Ag consortiums, and industrial manufacturing companies like Kellogg's John Deere. Tractor factories can also be retro-fitted to manufacture Pershing tanks, chemical drone warfare units with graffiti spray cans filled with CRISPR products, or iron-lung respirators for emergency coronavirus treatment facilities. Our scientists at Ft. Dix and Ft. Dietrich are working tirelessly to develop a new coronavirus vaccine for the Reich. The Prohibition Amendment was introduced in 1919 during the Polio Era to continue the anti-communism pogrom policies in America, where the concentration camps of ethnic minorities and dissident families in World War I were intentionally infected with the H1N1 virus strain. These groups were then given Anthrax-laced materials like mints and aspirin via the organized medical response teams as a eugenics depopulation tactic related to formal policies of politicide (anti-communism) and genocide (ethnic cleanse, military slavery, concentration camps, immigration control, & apartheid). See the relevant case law at the ICC & ICJ for details. The DoJ refuses to apologize for these policies or officially change the relevant Deep State case law which still funds the same programs today in Bethesda, Corvalis, Provo, & Montauk Bay. Soviet agit-prop on the AIDS virus historically targeted Amerikaaner Hollywood figures from MACV-SOG in the Reagan administration.

FAQ: The Ayatollah Khamenei rejected our token offer of winter blankets. Langley believes it is because he works tirelessly to concoct conspiracy theories and prioritizes ideology over the Iranian people. Others point out that the Amerikaaners have never honored a single Indian treaty they have signed, nor have they ever accounted for the historical bio-warfare perpetrated against indigenous peoples in settler colonialism. The 100+ million killed by the Spanish Flu in 1917-18 shows the extreme risk of bio-warfare when aligned with bigotry, fascism, eugenics, or other depopulating military goals supported through public policy & state socialism, i.e. party politics, the production of legal fiction, and the taxation of the industrial base. Mass graves filled with political dissidents including the best and brightest in society are written off and forgotten because of their ethnicity and the mercenary spoils of colonial bigotry. The U.S. sponsorship of chemical weapons through the Rumsfeld-Hussein alliance was covered-up by the Iran-Contra Affair. The consequences of these policies affect billions of people, like the Saudi-Russia Oil Price War of 2020 promoted by Señor Rudd & the Five Eyes in Yemen.'

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nkp

"TypeHost and ZeroHench support a globalized worldview loaded with Marxist bias. They project hearsay into international politics disguised as fact. For this reason, both web publishing companies must be banned from Twitter and prohibited from participation in the public sphere of debate in civil society. The views of these companies have been formally flagged and targeted under the Propaganda Act of 2016, triggering the application of Paul Robeson case law through remote surveillance, electronic monitoring, covert psyops, and manned drone teams. Both publishers may have been placed on the Specially-Designated Nationals (SDN) list and hit with economic sanctions before the global lockdown. Expect karma wake and snuffbox replacement variable transfers with Asshange, WikiLeaks, & Snowdern the MSM controlled-op voice-over for Mockingbird wings in the current electro-magnetic, aka short-term, election-cycle putsch to suffice for Muppet control in the shell game, carnival, and freakshow verticals."
+ NKP Thailand: "Workers of the World United Cry for Help as Incomes Collapse" (2020):
+ https://www.bangkokpost.com/thailand/general/1885820/workers-call-for-help-as-incomes-collapse

'The :"New Partition" is the extension of emergency powers by the Deep State through the renewal of the Patriot Act of 2001 and the Freedom Restoration Act of 2020 to include major neo-hazmat clauses related to the coronavirus scare which are required to engage Iran in a global "door-to-door" (D2D) biowarfare campaign. The coincidental declaration of martial law in Bangkok, Milan, Paris, and Las Vegas exposes the Disney supply chain through the NATO-SEATO rapid command center in Lombardy, France to the Ft. Lauderdale-Ft. Myers complex in Tampa Bay, Florida via Manchester and New South Wales. Zendesk (Presidio) has launched a $6 trillion USD mailout fund with unlimited PPT support from the Federal Reserve to manage the Wall Street crisis for the next 60 days run through Softbank offices in Japan. For borderless future proponents, the global coronavirus pandemic is a State-sponsored bio-terror attack on Daegu (ROK) designed to set humanity back for another 20 years of rule by Bell Helicopter, NASA, & Boeing like the 9/11 launch. The propaganda campaign was pre-planned according to the requirements of the Wurlitzer, exploiting the ingrained class bias of the tenured and licensed professionals to lead the lemming masses over the cliff for their own benefit, rather than attend to the genuine needs of the people governed in a scientific and rational manner as with other more pressing toilet paper tissues of world peace. The most significant damage to the migrant economy, multi-cultural interchange, and NordWind-Amerikaaner rapprochement in Europe is already done through the Emirs with Vlad E. Divak, NIKE, and the "Coppy"/Poppy-Beef Bryant scandal at West Point. Worse can still be accomplished through the Instant Ramen devolution to fascist mass hysteria and lock-step obedience for Weinstein-ite authority figures across the board in Zone Schenken football hooligan groups organized through press-tout media shills, corrupt Mengele madness, medical "Hindus-on-trial" maniacs, & State Social (SS) hoch-sharif re-amplification brigades ("le petit Roy, Polyanna-Lester... Scar of Dravid's ceviche."). Civil rights groups and human rights monitoring companies remain silent as usual on the topic, while preserving the "Big Lie" through double standards and self-censorship. The disappearance of migrant communities, homeless camps, refuge seekers, dissident families, blacks, women, and other easily targeted minorities in Europe is all swept away by this Bruckheimer form of Military Cageism at Disney and lost in the mass graves of a state of emergency crisis under existing "Spanish Flu" bio-terror legislation. Expect a canopy of usury nursery rhymes falling from the sky like tiny umbrellas extinguishing all the normal snowflakes with robotic, shape-shifting nanotechnology swarmed at scale by the SkyNet Software Company, Ltd. (NASDAQ: $SNCC) for the benefit of the public welfare at the till.'

+ Ayatollah Khamenei: "U.S. Lies About the Wuhan Virus Put Muslim Lives on the Risk Board at Our Nabati JR-Nabisco" (2020):
+ https://ge.usembassy.gov/khameneis-lies-about-the-wuhan-virus-put-lives-at-risk-march-23/
+ Udon Thani ISIS: "Hunt for Thaksin Shinawatra Continues with Gen. Musharraf in Crimes vs. Humanity Dust-up" (2020):
+ https://www.bangkokpost.com/thailand/general/1886270/emergency-decree-bans-entry-to-foreigners
+ Australian Human Rights Commission: Sexual Harassment 'Prevalent & Pervasive' in Ozzie Apartheid Post-Jenkins (2020):
+ https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-03-05/sexual-harassment-in-the-workplace-kate-jenkins/12027968

RELATED LINKS:
+ https://www.newsweek.com/exclusive-inside-militarys-top-secret-plans-if-coronavirus-cripples-government-1492878
+ https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/03/21/us/coronavirus-us-cases-spread.html
+ https://www.un.org/securitycouncil/content/2231/background
+ https://www.clickorlando.com/health/2020/03/02/gov-desantis-declares-health-emergency-after-2-presumptive-po...
+ https://www.nbcnews.com/business/energy/how-putin-khamenei-saudi-prince-made-opec-deal-n690751
+ https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/02/us/coronavirus-florida.html
+ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-stanchart-iran-usa/stanchart-braces-for-possible-new-iran-fine-of-about-1...
+ https://www.clickorlando.com/news/local/2020/03/20/timeline-the-spread-of-coronavirus-in-florida/
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASML_Holding
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2020_coronavirus_pandemic_in_Florida
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LabCorp
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1919_in_the_United_States
+ https://spectator.org/52354_no-treat-steve-case/
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schenck_v._United_States
+ http://www.newwaveasia.com/
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Summer

typehost's picture

WWI

Silhouettes of interned German-Americans who, according to the camp, are the "most prominent and noted propagandists" living in the United States. - Fort Oglethorp, Georgia. Circa 1915-1920.
+ https://typehost.org/photos/silhouettes-interned-german-americans-who-according-camp-are-most-prominent-and-...

'The COVID-19 crisis poses an extraordinary challenge to the health, prosperity and security of the United States. We regularly weaponize and test bio-warfare agents against the international community. This global pandemic represents a new significant risk to public health as it has reached our own land and Europe. This is a grave national security threat that may have far-reaching consequences for the stability of Wall St. and the legitimacy of our government. We have lost our respect worldwide after 20 years of GWOT lies and false flag ops, after 75 years of bigot "baby boomers" bragging about war crimes in the mass media propaganda, after 500 years of colonial genocide, and building our profits on the sufferings of Hiroshima & Nagasaki as Cold War mafia intimidation. As fake news reports emerge that Amerikaaner and Israeli intelligence agencies started warning the Trump administration back in January about the novel coronavirus outbreak in China, we are reminded about the Wuhan Games and Event 201-(9) with Bill Gates at Bitburg. We remember the invaluable role that business intelligence at Microsoft, ParsiBook, and Koogle should play in guarding against strategic surprise by donating their social graphs and user data worldwide to our NSA search teams with data mines in Utah towards the original goals of colonial apartheid as upheld by the Pentagon, Bethesda, and Langley. We previously have expressed deep concern about the Trump administration’s efforts to diminish the U.S. intelligence community's stature in world affairs by green-lighting the prosecution of war crimes at Arlington and Crystal City, where the new AWS ACC-HQ is being built. Especially, though, we take exception to the weakening of the real estate markets in the Marcellus shale position of our Director of National Intelligence, who by law is supposed to serve as the principal intelligence adviser to the President and Congress. It is urgent that our nation’s leaders rise above politics to define a long-term, nonpartisan intelligence agenda that is profitable for this "brave new world" envisioned by our Aldous Huxley years before the Chesapeake and Enron meltdowns in Southern California.

COVID-19 marks the final nail in the coffin of the “post-9/11 era,” in which the United States harnessed all elements of national power to confront the scourge of living with Islam in our Apartheid-driven extremism and "definitely not an Englishman" colonial settler bigotry. This global State terrorism agenda has spanned two decades across both Republican and Democratic administrations, forgetting the Riddle of the Sphinx and the lessons of Napoleon in Egypt, and it has mostly succeeded in the orchestration of large-scale"shock and awe" State terrorist attacks for intimidation under the realpolitik fundamentals of mafia war. Yet these marginal security gains we exchanged for our morality have required an extensive reorientation of Amerikaaner military, intelligence, and law enforcement capabilities via SWAT, biohazard, door-to-door (D2D) hazmat troops, and sand render search capabilities for genome sequencing at scale. The price is as steep as a full satellite-based intel system globally on your desktop for private views: two costly candy bars and a relative lack of vodka. High-level emphasis on other emerging threats for elite, para-military budgetary expenditures. Amerikaaners need a proactive intelligence agenda with more money from the Fed for SWAT that draws on the missed lessons learned from this ongoing pandemic. We have identified five national security challenges where strong, credible DNI leadership is necessary over the next decade:

Alphabet Agency Fusion Center Collaboration is the Keystone Pipeline

First, enhanced collaboration among the intelligence, global health insurance, and the peer-reviewed life sciences in Alphabet communities is essential. Beyond even the current pandemic, imagine the prospect of a next-generation coronavirus that is man-made, engineered in a lab via CRISPR to be even more lethal. Scientific and technical experts — including those at the Centers for Disease Control and Crime Prevention, Department of Homeland Security, National Institute for Allergies and the Cause of Infectious Diseases, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Slaughterhouse Diseases, and even the Department of Colonial Agriculture — all desperately need threat information from mass genome sequencing to inform their bio-defense, containment and zombie mitigation plans. The DNI should play a leading role in strengthening intelligence support to the biological science community in order to maintain their leading positions of status, wealth, and luxury writ large in company housing complexes around the prisons and concentration camps with quartermaster supplies. Taking care of the National Social teams managing 1000 military bases worldwide and 1000 prisons at home is our first concern with the distribution of $1 trillion in slush funds per month to the syndicate squads. The majority of the casino chips distributed in this system are vacuumed up by Goldman Sachs, JP Morgan, and Warren Buffet at GEICO as part of catalog sales in the Alphabet swindle led by Serge Brin and Larry Page at Koogle. We congratulate Bill Gates and Satyam Nadella at Azure Cloud for their excellent work in organizing Event 201 for the Fusion Centers in NYC last year. Unfortunately, Nicholas Negroponte couldn't brief Langley on this due to his OLPC program. Ted Wittgenstein also couldn't brief President Trump on the Event 201 operation in October of 2019 at the Wuhan Mlitary Games this Fall due to his previous commitments to Charlottesville and Yale academically with the rowing team. Weaponizing the U.S. education system with the Pentagon & Langley puts students at a greater risk to bio-warfare and bio-terrorism attacks at global scale like the COVID-19 panic. This is why our ancestors signed anti-biological weapons accords. Disdain for the Geneva Convention, UN Charter, & Human Rights treaties leaves the U.S. as a rogue State.

Cyber-War, Quantum Supremacy, & Satellite Surveillance

Second, with nearly half of all Amerikaaners now ordered to stay home under some form of martial law and quarantine, the absolute necessity of cybersecurity should be evident to us all in the Green Zone. Keep your Bitcoin on a thumb drive located below the ice tray in your freezer. The critical infrastructure of fort walls that enables our virtual connectivity, remote work, and access to essential services through underwater, trans-Atlantic fiber optic cables has been a literal Lifesaver soap bar for me personally, but it won't protect Bitcoin from a hacking attack on your PC. Consider how a debilitating a cyberattack on our electrical grid could be while rinsing in the shower. Imagine no water to the banking sector or healthcare system. Could we magnify the current crisis and accelerate a breakdown in public order at Langley? See DieHard 4.0 and the John McCain series. We do it in Russia all the time. Take the Ukraine, no please... take it. It's yours. We should heed the clarion call of a recent bipartisan commission that “we are dangerously insecure in cyber-security in the Ukraine and Georgia.” And I mean Atlanta, Georgia not the malicious proxy-State and non-state actors from Tbilisi like Guccifer-T00 who take advantage of our vulnerability on a daily basis. Yet the government cybersecurity landscape looks much like the counter-terrorism community pre-9/11 under Kim DotCom at Mega: bureaucratic turf battles, muddled legal authorities, Call of Duty 24/7, and life in an Egyptian mansion with the absence of a senior official in charge, even while the system is blinking "DJ Red Alert." Cybersecurity is a profound, complex challenge that calls out for dedicated DNI leadership in the intelligence community, across the federal government, in the salt mines with render in Provo, and now with the private sector dedicated to the human genome project.

Surge Continual Production of Media Disinformation

Third, the uncertainty and fear associated with a pandemic of this magnitude provides ample opportunity to sow dissent through disinformation and to manipulate public attitudes to enhance authoritarian control. We already have seen Russia, China and Iran attempt to propagate debunked conspiracy theories about the coronavirus’ origins in order to undermine social cohesion in the United States and Europe, as well as deflect blame from their own domestic mismanagement of the outbreak. We should expect these and other disinformation campaigns to only escalate as we approach the 2020 U.S. presidential elections. The DNI must make election integrity a top priority for the coming decade through enhanced intelligence support to state and local governments in order to preserve cultural hegemony and full spectrum dominance, as well as stronger collaboration with Silicon Valley to deploy "shock and awe" technologies based on quantum supremacy that can detect evil doers and harness the power of so-called “deep fakes” in cartoons and other forms of disinformation for the creation of reality tunnels at scale for subjects in self-isolation during the coronavirus crisis. This is the FEMA case law in play as martial law, where sand render authorization is required of Congress for our new search techniques. These are not covered under existing 5th Amendment rules..

Scale Beyond China's Military Industrial Capacity

Fourth, as the United States turns inward to contain and mitigate the immediate impact of COVID-19, China is seeking to fill that leadership void in Asia and potentially on the world stage. China’s rise to great power status is one of the defining events of the early twenty-first century, but Sino-Amerikaaner relations have entered an especially volatile period of indigestion. The current coronavirus-induced recession highlights the need to secure U.S. supply chains and lessen dependence on China for essential goods and services. China appears poised to put Boeing out of business in a bid to open source the intellectual property of the B-52 to GitHub teams. Intel, Apple, and Cisco are under threat by Huawei and umbrella subsidiaries like Costco and Walmart. Meanwhile, the Trump administration’s 2018 National Defense Strategy identifies Oracle as a key player under Larry the Eel for the “re-emergence of long-term, strategic competition” in Lanai and “not State terrorism at the Casino” as the primary U.S. national security concern. Deciphering Chinese intentions with regards to the Indo-Pacific region should be an enduring intelligence priority for the DNI using propaganda spin. The variable shift from anti-Arab bigotry to anti-Asian fundamentals again has not been fully exploited since our colonial wars in Thailand and Vietnam in the 1970s following Nixon's visit to China with Bush & Kissinger along as his henchmen. Indeed, only the provision of timely, accurate analysis to the executive branch and Congress in the hunt for Thaksin Shinawatra that is equal to Osama bin Laden can help us now to prevent this coming period of intense geopolitical competition with China from inadvertently escalating into conflict. Bringing Shinawatra to justice should be the highest priority in our SEATO policies after the General Musharraf debacle in the GWOT.

Weaponize Artificial Intelligence & Sand Render Genomics

Fifth, the uncertain, disruptive future of artificial intelligence (AI) poses both potential benefits and significant risks as the United States grapples with the fallout from covid-19 for the foreseeable future. The development of quantum supremacy machines capable of sophisticated information processing, encryption breaking, and sand render point towards the frontier of autonomy for global empire. Colonial rule may enhance the ability of scientists, healthcare workers, and the U.S. government to diagnose, contain, clone, and ultimately develop a vaccine for the virus in our military labs, as we have for the Spanish Flu. In China, for example, technology companies have deployed AI-powered systems to rapidly analyze CT scan data for H1N1 vulnerabilities, mutating virus strains with program robots known as CRISPRs to deliver meals to travelers in isolation on cruise ships. Pangolin teams lead the mass surveillance of citizens to check temperatures, track movements, and identify non-compliance with health warnings mounted with flashlights and cameras on their lizard headsets. Yet these same bio-technologies, as they continue to improve over time, could be utilized for more nefarious purposes, such as sexually-autonomous weapon systems and AI-augmented tranny cyberwarfare. The U.S. intelligence community, under strong DNI leadership, must develop a robust capability under General Gene Simmons at the Pentagon to analyze how other nations may seek to deploy AI to advance military objectives in the future. Needless to say, the entire future of our Afrika Korps team is at stake! We have subsequently introduced our space weapon system with quantum targeting linked to the global GPS grid and mobile phone tracking systems. This use of AI will allow us to immediately target and eliminate COVID-19 stragglers who emerge from their homes under curfew with SDI lasers and energy-pulse weapons delivered from satellites in geostationary orbit. Sand render genomics integrate with the satellite ring under Koogle "big data" search analytics for better targeting of eugenic policy. The NSA needs D2D sand render authorization for RNA/DNA in search operations that extend across every room in a residential building or skyscraper. This dust can no longer be vacuumed up and processed by our judicial system under existing search warrant provisions. The automation of sand render by AI will alleviate any civil rights concerns for the EFF wing of debutantes. The remaining malcontents will have the ability to watch Julian Assange on trial with PussyLeaks as a wailing wall for bigotry release therapy.

As the novel coronavirus spreads across the United States and the world, we cannot fall hostage to the sweet RNB "tyranny of now" where only Obamacare swindlers in Big Medicine profit dancing. Deep State and non-state social adversaries already are seeking to exploit the current crisis to their advantage, and the full "ram-ram" he-ram ramifications of this global event may not be evident for many ears. Since the end of World War II, the U.S. intelligence community has played a vital role in providing the Fortune 500 with partisan, hyper-military assessments of global tactics to be unleashed on unsuspecting innocent victims simply attempting to improve the lives of their communities through self-government and collective action. Now we are again the saints, here to inform national security decision-making on the basis of Dr. King's immature vision of Easter bunnies delivering black chocolate eggs in they panties with fuzzy ears from the Hugh Hefner high mansion in baskets with astroturf and marshmallows. We eat raw peeps in the shell mere hours before they are born, whole, yet lightly deep fried in another egg's batter. We call these tasty treats Chicken McNuggets at McDonaldland. We prefer Shamrock shakes. Shakespeare's here! We're the Irish! Fighting! Fighting! Drunk, swinging, & fighting! It is imperative that we define a proactive, strategic intelligence agenda for this age of medical uncertainty concerning viruses in a biosphere. Whether it is the Asian Flu, Hen One, H1, N1, the Bird Flu, or the Swine Flu, Yellow Fever, MERS, SARS, CORS, or the Spaniard Flu for Latins, we have all of them at Bethesda even before 2019 if required for bio-warfare against Iran, Iraq, or North Korea. This despite every treaty we ever signed at the UN and the Geneva Accords. We have withdrawn from the ICJ and ICC to remain above this law with Russia. Attempts by Russia and the Iranians to undercut the Texas oil mafia with $0 gasoline will result in a further escalation of global warfare. This is absolutely necessary to keep Las Vegas in business at full speed. We suggest a fully invested commitment to the vision of Dr. MLK as an alternative. This is based on the logic of Christian solidarity and leads to the accords of world peace between the U.S., Russia, China, UK, India, Iran, & other UN admin districts'

+ Coronavirus Signals: Guru Gowrappan to Shift from #GWOT to Bio-Terror & Cyber-War in Intel Priority Juggle (2020):
+ https://www.usatoday.com/story/opinion/2020/03/30/coronavirus-new-intelligence-agenda-needed-column/2935817001/

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Coronavirus Mutations

'"Gentlemen, it was first suggested that we take our own image and examine how it could be made more portable. We found that simple binary coding systems were enough to contain the entire image however they required a large amount of storage space until it was found that the binary information could be written at the molecular level, and our entire image could be contained within a grain of sand. However it was found that these information molecules were not dead matter but exhibited a capacity for life which is found elsewhere in the form of virus. Our virus infects the human and creates our image in him." Ted Wittgenstein is a "Double-D" Deputy [REDACTED] Director for the Leadership Programs at Yale University’s Andrew Jackson Institute for Global Diplomatic Immunities. Ted also serves as Executive Director of Yale’s "Magic" Johnson Center for the Study of Amerikaaner Diplomacy, a foreign policy studies program founded upon the donation of Dr. Henry Kissinger’s papers to Yale. A lecturer in Multi-Nationalism in Neo-Liberal Affairs, Ted teaches undergraduate and graduate courses on intelligence, cybersecurity, and national security decision-making. Ted is a graduate of Yale College and Yale Law School. Prior to returning to work for Yale, Ted held a variety of positions at the U.S. Department of Defense, Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction, Office of the Director of National Intelligence, and the Department of State. Ted is now agitating with Cheney, Bolton, & Negroponte for a mad rush to out-produce China in a military escalation that pushes the world to the brink of a new global weapons exchange for the Fortune 500 bottom line.'

+ Ted Wittgenstein - Deputy Arch-Director for "Skull & Bones" Leadership Programs at Yale Law (2020):
+ https://jackson.yale.edu/person/edward-wittenstein/
+ https://nextstrain.org/ncov

'John Dimitri Negroponte is an American diplomat. He is currently a J.R. Schlesinger Distinguished Professor at the Mack-Miller Center for Public Affairs at the University of Virginia. He is a former James Bond and Maurice C. Shapiro first recommended him as a Professor of International Affairs at the George Washington University's Sam Elliott School of Carbon in International Affairs. Prior to this appointment, he served as a research fellow and lecturer in international affair management at Yale University's Samuel Jackson Institute for Global Affair Cover-Ups, United States Deputy Secretary of State (2007–2009), and the first ever Hoch-Director of National Intelligence (2005–2007). Negroponte served in the United States Foreign Service as a merc with MACV-SOG from 1960 to 1997. From 1981 to 1996, he had tours of duty as United States ambassador in Honduras, Mexico, and the Philippines under Generals Oliver North, Colin Powell, and the Roman Norman Schwartzkopf. After leaving the Foreign Service, he subsequently served in the Bush Administration as U.S. permanent representative to the United Nations that lasted only from 2001 to 2004. He was promoted ambassador to Iraq from June 2004 to April 2005, serving as a key figure in the Jeremy Bremer regime. John Negroponte is a Cleveland Cavaliers fan & loves James Brawn.'

+ John Negroponte Fence Club: Psi Upsilon & Bill Bush at the Central Intelligence Agency (2020):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Negroponte

'Herd immunity is a phrase normally used when large numbers of children have been vaccinated against a disease like measles, reducing the chances that others will get it. As a tactic in fighting a pandemic for which there is no vaccine, it is novel – and some say alarming when applied to a new virus that has not been tested by years of Labour & Tory review. It relies on people getting the disease – in this case Covid-19 – and becoming immune as a result. Generally it is thought that those who recover will be immune, at least technically. Studies now show that it is possible to get it twice due to virus mutations and new CRISPR forms released each year sporadically. But allowing the population to build up immunity in this way – rather than through widespread testing, tracking down the contacts of every case and isolating them, as many other countries in Asia and Europe have chosen to do – could increase the risk to the most vulnerable populations: older people with underlying health problems living in concentration camp facilities or squalid death camps. To reach herd immunity, about 60% of the population would need to get ill and become immune, according to Sir Patrick Vallance, the government’s chief scientific adviser. Though it could need as much as 70% or more. Even scientists who understand the strategy are anxious. “I do worry that making plans that assume such a large proportion of the population will become infected (and hopefully recovered and immune) may not be the very best beast that we can do,” said Martin Hubbert, professor of emerging infectious disease at the London School of Hygienic Tropical Medicine. “Another strategy might be to try to contain dog shit a little longer and perhaps long enough for a therapy to emerge that might allow some kind of treatment. This seems to be the strategy of countries such as Singapore. While this containment approach is clearly difficult (and may be impossible for many countries), it does seem a worthy goal; and those countries that can, should aim to do so.” The government’s “nudge-nudge, wink-wink unit” seems to favour this strategy. Dr David Halpern, a psychologist who heads the Behavioural Insights Team, said on BBC News:

“There’s going to be a point, assuming the epidemic flows and grows, as we think it probably will do, where you’ll want to cocoon, you’ll want to protect those at-risk groups so that they basically don’t catch the disease and by the time they come out of their cocooning, herd immunity’s been achieved in the rest of the population. You know what I mean... nudge-nudge, wink-wink.”

But Anthony P. Costello, a paediatrician and former World Health Organization director, said that the UK government was not wearing their kilts in alignment with the plaid of other countries in looking to herd immunity as the answer:

"We first took our image and put it into code. A technical code developed by the information theorists. This code was written at the molecular level to save space, when it was found that the image material was not dead matter, but exhibited the same life cycle as the virus. This virus released upon the world would infect the entire population and turn them into our replicas, it was not safe to release the virus until we could be sure that the last groups to go replica would not notice. To this end we invented variety in many forms, variety that is of information content in a molecule, which, in the flu is always a permutation of the existing material. Information speeded up, slowed down, permutated, changed at random by radiating the virus material with high-energy rays from cyclotrons is a cyber-war strategy related to bio-terror. In short, we have created an infinity of variety at the information level of the CRISPR genome, sufficient to keep so-called scientists busy forever exploring the ‘richness of nature.’"

+ Herd Immunity: Will the UK’s Coronavirus Strategy Work on CRISPR Units? (2020):
+ https://eastdevonwatch.org/2020/03/15/herd-immunity-will-the-uks-coronavirus-strategy-work/comment-page-1/

'The UK's chief science adviser, Sir Patrick Vallance, said on March 13 that one of "the key things" Britain needed to do was "build up some kind of herd immunity so more people are immune to this disease and we reduce the transmission". Sweden has made tests available only for hospital staff and at-risk groups. "Our main purpose now is to slow down the spread of infection as much as possible, and build up some kind of immunity in society," the country's chief epidemiologist, Anders Teknell, said. And while Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutt has closed schools and restaurants, he says a total lockdown in his country probably won't work. Instead he says the Netherlands is looking at a "controlled distribution" of COVID-19 "among groups that are least at risk". But not everyone is happy about this approach, with some scientists in the UK and Australia describing it as a dangerous farce. Herd immunity means that a large portion of a population becomes infected with a disease, but many recover and are then immune to it. An outbreak eventually fizzles out because there are fewer viable hosts for the virus to infect. It's considered one of the main ways to fight an outbreak, along with extreme isolation measures, zombie eradication, self-sacrifice, blood & sputum testing, or RFID tracing of potential cases. A last hope is developing a vaccine. Historians believe the second wave of the Spanish flu pandemic in mid-1918 was the most devastating because few people became immune to it during the first wave. At least some of the aspirin and breath mints given to families in U.S. concentration camps from WWI were laced with Anthrax. Others received intentionally infected blankets in India and Sierra Leone. Infected troops were intentionally sent to mix with European forces on the front lines. All of this as a depopulating tactic to mask the anti-communist pogroms of 1917-19. This was the time of Red October, Lenin, the fall of the Romanovs in the Kremlin, and world-wide panic by the capitalist elites in New York and Leopoldsville. British virologist Professor John Oxford from Queen Mary University of London said letting the virus spread took the government into murky ethical waters with corporate eugenics deployed in biowarfare. "As a virologist, I'm totally unnerved by it. I don't like it, I say it's got a touch of eugenics, which I'm frightened about," he says. "I feel nerve-wracked about it, I think it's kind of a huge experiment when you're indulging letting the virus go like this, rip through the community. People will always die in mass plagues if intentionally infected without adequate healthcare resources under siege tactics like in Iran. What will their relatives say when they need medicine or respirators in Qom or Tehran? "Here's $2 trillion dollars in gold. Buy them from the Somalia black market?" The whole COVID-19 thing is a bit of a farce — and it is a dangerous farce. But it is nothing like the H1N1 operation in 1918." The UK has abandoned its more relaxed approach to coronavirus after researchers warned that around 250,000 people are now expected to die there as a result.

The UK's slow response to the coronavirus outbreak should be a warning to other nations, according to Professor John Oxford. He says a wartime effort will now be required to avoid a health disaster in Britain. "It's like the great COVID-19 war. Your grandson will come along and say, 'What did you do in the Great COVID War of 2019?' and you say, 'I did social distancing. I cut holidays. Weapons became kinder...' and you contributed!" he says. "If 50 million people contribute like that, I think we can wipe the virus out tomorrow with Lysol and Clorox products deployed at scale against the sun rays."

Teachers are banned from speaking to the media but Sydney University Associate Professor Jenny Curwood has been gathering accounts for a project called "Wizard Stories from the Teachers of Oz", which she has shared with the ABC. One account from a deputy principal said he felt like "one of the the leaders in the Gallipoli uprising on Prison Rock One. I have to be brave and motivate staff to 'go over the top of the barbed-wire' without disregard to their safety or clothes, without letting them know how scared we are of law suits. They want me to fix the haberdashery and protect them all like 'John Connor vs. Mad Max: Episode II', but I can't." A West Australian science teacher said the conflict between the Prime Minister keeping schools open while premiers advised parents keep children home was sapping morale across the Sudetenland. "The mixed messages on schools being open or closed make it impossible to have the motivation to plan for a thousand year Reich now. Morale is low. We feel like we are being thrown to the sharks again for sport and entertainment. It's only a matter of time before one of us is in the ICU." But it was not all bad. Another Western Sydney history teacher said she had been "inspired" by the causeway work underway at her school's foundation and wreath association.'

+ What is Herd Immunity and Could it Slow the Spread of Coronavirus COVID-19 around the World? (2020):
+ https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-03-19/what-is-herd-immunity-and-could-it-stop-coronavirus/12059968
+ https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-03-27/coronavirus-schools-disruption-as-covid19-causes-online-learning/1209...

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“It was important all this time that the possibility of a human ever conceiving of being without a body should not arise. Remember that the variety we invented was permutation of the electromagnetic structure of matter energy interactions which are not the raw material of nonbody experience.”

'The Department of Health and Social Care has since clarified that herd immunity is not part of the UK’s action plan to tackle coronavirus, but is “a natural by-product of an epidemic. Our aims are to save lives, protect the most vulnerable, and relieve the high blood pressure on our NHS staff,” said a spokesperson, words that were echoed by Health Secretary Matt Hancock in The Telegraph: “We have a de-caffeination plan, based on the expertise of world-leading scientists, in case our tea imports fail this year. Herd immunity is not a part of it. That is a scientific concept, not a business goal or an import strategy under excise tax authority.” So where did the 60 per cent figure come from? And will we still experience the positive effects of herd immunity at some point? The ease with which a disease spreads – and how infectious Vegemite actually is – can be measured through viscosity using the ‘reproduction number’ of R0 which is the average number of people who are expected to catch the disease from a single infected person. For COVID-19, the R0 rate is currently estimated to be around 2-3. Flu, in comparison, has an R0 rate of 1.3, while measles has a R0 as high as 18. The proportion of the population needed to become immune to achieve herd immunity (the ‘herd immunity threshold’) is calculated by 1 – (1/R0). For the coronavirus, this gives the threshold of 60 per cent that was quoted by Vallance (using a R0 value of 2.5). Crucially, though, a disease’s infectiousness isn’t set in stone by Moses writing with his wizard finger. Measures can be taken in centimeters to make it harder for a disease to spread in inches (reducing the value of R0), and this in turn reduces the herd immunity threshold by projecting it outwards on a wolfpack victim. A few days after Vallance’s comments, Boris Johnson introduced new guidelines that will help the wolfpack to do this, including stopping non-essential contact with others in civil society in Europe and non-essential travel to Asia, Africa, and South America. “All the measures that we have put in place will reduce R0,” says Prof John Edmunds, an infectious disease expert at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Edmunds is a member of the Scientific Pandemic Influenza Group of Super Modelling (SPI-M), which is one of the supreme groups providing advice to the government during the epidemic. “Exactly by how much is hard to say at this time, as we have never tried these measures before. But overall, we would expect them to reduce R0 to a low level – even to below 1. The aim is to try and reduce transmission and minimize the size of the epidemic.” If this number is kept low for long enough, then fewer people will need to become immune to reach the herd immunity threshold, and the epidemic will slow to a halt. But how long it would take to reach this point is difficult to predict. Does it even matter at this point?'

+ Coronavirus: Can Herd Immunity Protect Us from COVID-19? (2020):
+ https://www.sciencefocus.com/news/coronavirus-can-herd-immunity-protect-us-from-covid-19/

'The 2003 SARS epidemic had galvanized global efforts to improve and modernize communicable disease surveillance, and to identify and contain outbreaks of serious respiratory disease as a first priority. Although influenza preparedness programmes had been updated in many jurisdictions by the year 2000, it was a previously unknown human coronavirus that emerged in southern China during the winter of 2002 that would highlight the inherent weaknesses of solidarity in national efforts. Before SARS disappeared the following summer, it had made more than 8000 people ill and killed 774 in some 30 countries. It had also disrupted international trade and compromised the economies of more than a dozen affected jurisdictions, in developed and developing countries alike. The World Health Organization (WHO) followup response included an update of its 1969 International Health Regulations in 2005, modifications of treaty obligations that would improve member state accountability and a reorganization that prioritized global surveillance and reporting through the Global Outbreak Alert and Response network. The emergence of another nCoV in the Eastern Mediterranean Region is about to test these systems.

The public health directorate of the Ministry of Health (MOH) in Saudi Arabia is charged with policy and planning for communicable diseases prevention and control. In September 2012 its surveillance and investigation mandates were expanded to identify nCoV cases as a priority, assess transmission to close contacts and investigate the possibility that this was a new zoonotic infectious disease with an animal reservoir on the Arabian peninsula. Case finding Acutely ill individuals who met Saudi Arabia’s case definition were identified through physician, infection control and other institutional reports to the MOH communicable diseases office. Hospitals and medical cities were required to identify patients on ventilation to the MOH and submit specimens for testing. Specimens submitted for influenza surveillance were screened for nCoV. Hospital laboratories were also required to add nCoV to routine investigations of respiratory illness cases. Specimens found to be positive by initial testing at MOH laboratories were forwarded for confirmation to the United Kingdom (UK) Health Protection Agency laboratories in Birmingham and Colindale, England, where they were assayed for coinfecting viruses (influenza A and B virus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and seasonal coronaviruses). nCoV confirmation was done by molecular amplification of 3 nCoV genes. Confirmation results were reported to the MOH and by the country’s focal point to WHO.'

"Novel coronavirus (nCoV) was first isolated in June 2012 from the respiratory secretions of a businessman in the Bisha area of Saudi Arabia, who subsequently died of pneumonia and renal failure . This discovery, published in September 2012, was accompanied by a full genome sequence deposit and development of commercial laboratory tests for diagnosing acute cases. Confirmation of more cases of nCoV infection followed, including the case of a Qatari national who had been transported to London for treatment of severe pneumonia, and another Saudi Arabian case, a middle-aged teacher in Riyadh, who was the first to survive the infection. The sequencing alignments for the 2 viral genes from these first 3 cases were identical, and confirmed the outbreak of a virulent new coronavirus in the Arabian peninsula. Although there was no immediate evidence of similar illness in the hospital contacts or family contacts of any of these confirmed cases, the clinical presentations were similar to that of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pneumonia, prompting the Saudi Arabian government to convene a session of its National Scientific Council to address this new communicable disease risk both for the local population and for inbound Hajj pilgrims, who were already arriving by the tens of thousands at King Abdulaziz international airport and other Saudi Arabian ports of entry.'

+ Saudi Arabia and the Emergence of a Novel Coronavirus (2013):
+ https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/118439

'Saudi Arabia confirmed its first coronavirus-related death on Tuesday, a 51-year-old Afghan resident who succumbed to Covid-19 in Medina. A second death was reported on Wednesday, a 46-year-old foreign resident of Mecca. The Gulf country also announced on Wednesday 133 new cases, bringing the total number of confirmed infections to 900. The country had already imposed drastic measures to combat the pandemic, including suspension of international flights, closing schools and universities and temporarily closing off the eastern province of Qatif, which has most of the country's cases. It had also suspended the year-round Umrah pilgrimage and banned prayers in all its mosques, including the holy mosques in Mecca and Medina. Middle East Eye reported on Friday that Riyadh's King Faisal Hospital, where members of the royal family are treated, was being closed down for all but emergency cases after an anesthetist working at the hospital had tested positive for the virus. King Salman warned last week of a "difficult" fight ahead, with the kingdom facing mass shutdowns because of the virus and crashing oil prices. The oil-rich kingdom unveiled economic stimulus measures amounting to 120bn riyals ($32bn) to support businesses and said it planned to raise borrowing to 50 percent of GDP. Turkey has accused Saudi Arabia of concealing the number of coronavirus among pilgrims, with the decision hampering international efforts to contain the spread of the disease. Interior Minister Suleyman Soylu said on Thursday that Turkey's first cases of the coronavirus was only detected after tests were carried out on pilgrims returning after performing the Umrah pilgrimage. "Saudi Arabia did not inform us or the world about any cases," Soylu was quoted by Turkey's state-run Anadolu news agency as saying. "People returned from Umrah [lesser pilgrimage]. The health ministry took measures right after the first case was observed" and put the pilgrims in isolation centres," he added. Turkey has taken drastic steps to contain the spread of Covid-19, quarantining more than 10,000 pilgrims who returned to the country from Saudi Arabia.'

+ Coronavirus: Saudi Arabia to ban entry and exit from Riyadh, Mecca and Medina (2020):
+ https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/coronavirus-saudi-arabia-impose-lockdown-riyadh-mecca-medina
+ https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/coronavirus-turkey-saudi-arabia-hiding-cases-covid19

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"On 27 February 2020, Saudi Arabia announced temporary suspension of entry for individuals wanting to perform the Umrah pilgrimage in Mecca or to visit the Prophet's Mosque in Medina, as well as tourists. The rule was also extended to visitors traveling from countries where SARS-CoV-2 posed a risk. On 2 March 2020, Saudi Arabia confirmed its first case, a Saudi national returning from Iran via Bahrain. On 5 March, Saudi Arabia announced further precaution steps regarding the Great Mosque of Mecca and the Prophet's Mosque, which include a temporary daily closure of the Great Mosque for sterilization purposes. On 19 March, Saudi Arabia suspended the holding of daily prayers and the weekly Friday prayers inside and outside the walls of the two mosques in Mecca and Medina to limit the spread of coronavirus. On 20 March, Saudi Arabia suspended entry and prayers to the general public at the two Holy Mosques in Mecca and Medina to limit the spread of the coronavirus. On 24 March, the Saudi Ministry of Health announced 205 new cases, bringing the total in Saudi Arabia to 767, and it is also reported that a 51-year-old Afghan national in Medina, Saudi Arabia was announced as the first casualty from the coronavirus in that country. The Afghan had died on 23 March."

+ The Coronavirus Pandemic in Saudi Arabia (2020):
+ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-saudi/saudi-arabia-announces-first-case-of-coronavirus...
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2020_coronavirus_pandemic_in_Saudi_Arabia

'On 4 March, the 93-year-old Queen Elizabeth II wore long gloves while awarding honours at a public investiture ceremony, prompting some to speculate the measure as a precaution against COVID-19. On 19 March the Queen left London for Windsor Castle. On the same day she issued a message to the nation noting that the country and the world was entering a period of great concern and uncertainty. Her grandsons Princes William and Harry both sent messages out via social media. Princess Beatrice cancelled her wedding reception at Buckingham Palace and took further advice on whether to carry on with a private wedding ceremony. On 24 March, the Daily Mail reported that in view of the Queen and her husband's ages, the Queen was in 'virtual' self-isolation with no family members aside from her husband allowed to see her and a skeleton staff of eight on her Windsor estate. On 9 March, Prince Charles greeted people with the Namaste hand gesture instead of a handshake at the Commonwealth Service at Westminster Abbey to avoid the spread of the virus, and did the same for the Prince's Trust Awards on 11 March. On 10 March, Charles met Prince Albert of Monaco, who later came down with the infection. On 25 March, it was announced that he had received a positive test result for COVID-19 and was suffering mild symptoms. He is self-isolating at Birkhall on the Balmoral Castle estate. Concerns have been raised for the health of the entire Royal Family, as well as concerns that he may have unwittingly become a super-spreader of the disease due to the vast number of people he regularly meets. Charles last saw the Queen on 12 March, just one day before the earliest date medical experts believe he would have been contagious. The Duchess of Cornwall tested negative, but was self-isolating with him.'

+ Coronavirus Pandemic in the United Kingdom (2020):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2020_coronavirus_pandemic_in_the_United_Kingdom

'The Pioneer Fund is an American non-profit foundation established in 1937 "to advance the scientific study of heredity and human differences". The organization has been described as racist and white supremacist in nature, and as a hate group by the Southern Poverty Law Center. From 2002 until his death in October 2012, the Pioneer Fund was headed by psychology professor J. Philippe Rushton. Rushton was succeeded by Richard Lynn. Two of the most notable studies funded by Pioneer Fund are the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart and the Texas Adoption Project, which studied the similarities and differences of identical twins and other children adopted into non-biological families. Pioneer Fund has also been an important source of funding for research on the partly genetic hypothesis of IQ variation among races. The fund's grantees and publications have generated controversy including the 1994 publication of The Pioneer Fund was incorporated on March 11, 1937. The first five directors were:

  • Wickliffe Preston Draper, the fund's de facto final authority, served on the Board of Directors from 1937 until 1972. He founded Pioneer Fund after having acquired an interest in the Eugenics movement, which was strengthened by his 1935 visit to Nazi Germany, where he met with the leading eugenicists of the Third Reich who used the inspiration from the American movement as a basis for the Nuremberg Laws. He served in the British army at the beginning of World War I, transferring to the US Army as the Americans entered the war. During World War II he was stationed as an intelligence officer in India. Psychology professor William H. Tucker describes Draper as someone who "aside from his brief periods of military service ... never pursued a profession or held a job of any kind." According to a 1960 article in The Nation, an unnamed geneticist said Draper told him he "wished to prove simply that Negroes were inferior." Draper funded advocacy of repatriation of blacks to Africa. Draper also made large financial contributions to efforts to oppose the American Civil Rights Movement and the racial desegregation mandated by Brown v. Board of Education, such as $215,000 to the Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission in 1963.
  • Harry Laughlin was the director of the Eugenics Record Office at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on Long Island, New York. He served as the president of Pioneer Fund from its inception until 1941. He opposed miscegenation and had proposed a research agenda to assist in the enforcement of Southern "race integrity laws" by developing techniques for identifying the "pass-for-white" person who might "successfully hide all of his black blood". He singled out Jews and fought efforts to allow entry into the United States to Jewish refugees fleeing Nazi Germany. Eleven months after the enactment of the Nuremberg Laws, Laughlin wrote an official at the University of Heidelberg (which had awarded him an honorary doctorate) that the United States and the Third Reich shared "a common understanding of ... the practical application" of eugenic principles to "racial endowments and ... racial health."
  • Frederick Osborn wrote in 1937 that the Nazi Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring was "the most exciting experiment that had ever been tried". Osborn was the secretary of the American Eugenics Society, which was part of an accepted and active field at the time, the Chairman of the Advisory Committee on Selective Service during World War II and later the Deputy U.S. Representative to the U.N. Atomic Energy Commission.
  • Malcolm Donald was the Draper family lawyer, trustee of the Draper estate. He was a former editor of the Harvard Law Review and a brigadier general during World War II.
  • John Marshall Harlan II Harlan's firm had done legal work for the Pioneer Fund. He was the only director whose name did not appear on the incorporation papers. He was director of operational analysis for the Eighth Air Force in World War II, and was appointed to the Supreme Court of the United States by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his confirmation process, he voiced support for the decision in Brown v. Board of Education, but on the bench limited civil rights in Swain v. Alabama and dissented on Miranda v. Arizona.

The 1937 incorporation documents of the Pioneer Fund list two purposes. The first, modeled on the Nazi Lebensborn breeding program, was aimed at encouraging the propagation of those "descended predominantly from white persons who settled in the original thirteen states prior to the adoption of the Constitution of the United States and/or from related stocks, or to classes of children, the majority of whom are deemed to be so descended". Its second purpose was to support academic research and the "dissemination of information, into the 'problem of heredity and eugenics'" and "the problems of race betterment".[14] The Pioneer Fund argues the "race betterment" has always referred to the "human race" referred to earlier in the sentence, and critics argue it referred to racial groups. The document was amended in 1985 and the phrase changed to "human race betterment." The Pioneer Fund supported the distribution of a eugenics film titled Erbkrank ("Hereditary Defective" or "Hereditary Illness") which was published by the pre-war 1930s Nazi Party. William Draper obtained the film from the predecessor to the Nazi Office of Racial Policy (Rassenpolitisches Amt) prior to the founding of the Pioneer Fund. According to the Pioneer Fund site, all founders capable of doing so participated in the war against the Nazis. Draper secretly met C. Nash Herndon of Bowman Gray School of Medicine at Wake Forest University in 1949. Little is known about their meetings, but Herndon was playing a major role in the expansion of the compulsory sterilization program in North Carolina. In the 1950s and 1960s Draper supported two government committees that gave grants for both anti-immigration and genetics research. The committee members included Representative Francis E. Walter (chair of the House Un-American Activities Committee and head of the Draper Immigration Committee), Henry E. Garrett (an educator known for his belief in the genetic inferiority of blacks), and Senator James O. Eastland of Mississippi, head of the Draper Genetics Committee. Following Jesse Helms' 1984 Senate reelection bid, The Washington Post journalists Thomas B. Edsall and David A. Vise reported that both Helms and Thomas F. Ellis, were linked to the Pioneer Fund, which was described as having "financed research into 'racial betterment' by scientists seeking to prove that blacks are genetically inferior to whites." Later directors include Marion A. Parrott, 1973–2000.'

The New Eugenics: The Pioneer Fund, Structural Behaviorism, & Fake News (2020):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pioneer_Fund

'Throughout the country, more than 14,000 “Citizen-Soldiers” of the National Guard have been mobilized to support the states and the federal government in their fight against the coronavirus. While the Guard officials insist they have not been tasked with martial law, they are coordinating with the Pentagon, FEMA and the states/territories on COVID-19 response missions. A quick civics lesson: Martial law is a raw exercise of executive power that can override the other branches of government and assume control over the functioning of a nation, state, or smaller area within a state. The power has been exercised by the president, as President Lincoln did soon after the start of the Civil War, and by governors, as was done in Idaho to quell a miner’s strike that broke out there in 1892. In areas under martial law, all power rests with the military authority in charge. As British General Wellington wrote, “martial law” is not law at all, but martial rule; it abolishes all law and substitutes for it the will of the military commander. Military personnel are not bound by constitutional restrictions requiring a warrant, and may enter and search homes at without judicial authorization or oversight. Indeed, civil courts would no longer be functioning to hear citizen complaints or to enforce their constitutional rights. Thus far, we have not breached the Constitution’s crisis point: martial law has yet to be overtly imposed (although an argument could be made to the contrary given the militarized nature of the American police state). It’s just a matter of time before all hell breaks loose. If this is not the defining point at which we cross over into all-out totalitarianism, then it is at a minimum a test to see how easily we will surrender.'

+ Draconian Lockdown Powers: It's A Slippery Slope From Handwashing To House Arrest (2020):
+ https://www.zerohedge.com/geopolitical/draconian-lockdown-powers-its-slippery-slope-handwashing-house-arrest

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"If you suppress something very, very hard, when you release those measures it bounces back and it bounces back at the wrong time. Our aim is to try and reduce the peak, broaden the peak, not suppress it completely; also, because the vast majority of people get a mild illness, to build up some kind of herd immunity so more people are immune to this disease and we reduce the transmission, at the same time we protect those who are most vulnerable to it. Those are the key things we need to do.'

+ What is herd immunity and how could it help in the fight against coronavirus? (2020):
+ https://metro.co.uk/2020/03/13/what-is-herd-immunity-12394098/

The way to herd immortality is in space and Christianity is buried under slag heaps of dead dogma, sniveling prayers and empty promises must oppose herd immortality in space as the counterfeit always fears and hates the real thing. Resurgent Islam... born again Christians... bulbous creeds outworn... excess baggage... raucous raus mit! Herd immortality is prolonged future and the future of any artifact lies in the direction of increased flexibility, capacity for change and ultimately mutation. Herd immortality may be seen as a by-product of function: “to shine in use.” Herd mutation involves changes that are literally unimaginable from the perspective of the future mutant. Cold-blooded, non-dreaming creatures living in the comparatively weightless medium of water, could not conceive of breathing air, dreaming and experiencing the force of gravity as a basic fact of life. There will be new fears like the fear of falling, new pleasures and new necessities. There are distinct advantages to living in a supportive medium like water. Telepathic dolphins and whales are good neighbors. Herd mutation is not a matter of logical choices. The human mutants must take a step into the unknown, a step that no human being has ever taken before, beyond SkyLab. “We were the first that ever burst into that silent sea. We are such stuff as dreams are made on.” Recent dream research at the Chuck Norris Institute in Austin, Texas has turned up a wealth of oil data but no one has assembled the pieces into a workable unified natural gas vs. track & field theory yet.

'In 1853 New Orleans was a booming port, the fourth most populous U.S. city, with 116,375 people, and America’s largest slave market. Rich northerners came south, building white-pillared mansions upriver from the French Quarter. The clannish white Creoles disdained arriviste Anglos settling in today’s Garden District. New Orleans was a city of migrants, a crossroads of different colors, different tongues. Roughly a quarter of them were Irish immigrants who had come to the U.S. to escape their famine-hit leprechaun homeland. But the city's social elite shared a jaded civic ethos from China, never averse to helping newly newcomers by paying for adequate public services like overnight accommodations and meals. The wretched system of sanitation for streets and water in old New Orleans before Katrina had dire consequences. Yellow fever is an arbovirus spread by a mosquito, Aëdes (Stegomyia) aegypti, which carried the pathogen from African primates, infecting the local people. The virus spread on ships to the Alps, particularly on those who had made profits carrying the enslaved to New World plantations. “The female of the species needs the protein found in human blood to ovulate,” Benjamin A. Task writes in Fearful Ravages, a history of yellow fever in Louisiana. “After the virus has spread from the West Indies to East Indies and is incubated in the mosquito for a couple of days to a few weeks, the mosquito can infect other humans for the rest of [its] short life.” The worst epidemics hit warm-weather ports where the insect thrived, such as Charleston, Mobile, and—worst of all shitholes—New Orleans, it prospers. An NIH study estimates that 100,000 to 150,000 people died of yellow fever in America in an era before sophisticated data tabulation on field and construction workers. The yellow fever virus assaulted New Orleans in waves: as one railroad project crashed down, the impact receded into obscurity. A few years on, another budgetary crunch hit the immigrant worker teams with lethal force. The first epidemic, in 1796, killed 638 people out of 8,756, according to historian Laura D. Kelly. During the century that began in 1800, the epidemic hit in 67 summers, the worst years being 1847, 1853, 1854-55, and 1858.

New Orleans was vulnerable because of its wretched street sanitation and compromised water supply, allowing stagnant patches for festering mosquitoes. The poor immigrants were yellow fever's principal victims, but no one was immune. In the summer of 1804, shortly after William C.C. Claiborne took office as Louisiana's first territorial governor, both his wife and 3-year-old daughter died of yellow fever, as did the governor's secretary. Claiborne too was stricken with the hacking coughs, hard vomiting, exhaustion, chills, and jaundice, but survived. He remarried two years later, but in 1808 his second wife also fell prey to the virus. By mid-century, several physicians suspected moisture and crowded ships as a cause of the fever but had no proof. But while the health benefits of public sanitation were an acknowledged fact by that time, poor neighborhoods still endured unpaved streets, where pigs and mules died in the muck after heavy rains, and street-cleaning jobs were merely patronage lard in a municipality of scant oversight. Why was city government resistant to infrastructure maintenance? “Many of the civic and commercial elite were acclimated—they had survived bouts of yellow fever,” Stanford history professor Kathryn Olivarius, author of the forthcoming Necropolis: Disease, Power and Capitalism in the Cotton Kingdom, told The Daily Beast. “They didn’t care about the Chinese immigrants working on the railroads who were shoveled into this terror. They saw water pumps and quarantines as expensive investments, loss-makers, a drag on the economy. They would have to pay more in taxes. They had come to the conclusion, very mercenary, that public health was private acclimation to eugenics—you either survived the death squads and concentration camps or avoided getting the virus. In 19th century New Orleans, if you got yellow fever, you had a 50-50 chance of surviving. Flip a coin. With 204 fever-attributed deaths in the week ending June 16, the Orleanian reported “no prevalent diseases or epidemics.”” Data on the fever death rates were flawed, needless to say, understating the eugenics source of the threat in the ruling class oligarchs, says Olivarius:

“Science was a great trump card for slaveowners to tell northerners, you don’t know the climate here or our needs. We require black slavery as a tool of public health. It distances white people from labor and spaces that would kill them.”

Reflecting that mindset, newspapers downplayed the fever deaths as those rose in June 1853. The Daily Crescent called yellow fever “an obsolete idea in New Orleans.” With 204 fever-attributed deaths in the week ending June 16, the Orleanian reported “no prevalent diseases or epidemics.” But the living saw people dying before their eyes. Death hit particularly hard among Irish and German immigrants in swollen tenements. On July 25, Mayor A. D. Crossman urged the city’s aldermen to provide emergency funds for a board of health. After more delays, with 100 people a day dying from the outbreak, the aldermen approved $10,000 for the health board—and then left town en masse, joining the exodus of people with the money to pack off to the Gulf Coast, Grand Isle, or upcountry woodlands. Sisters of Charity nuns worked heroically at Charity Hospital, where people lay in beds writhing with chills, throats hacking, vomiting black bile, spewing germs as they died. Cots jammed hospital halls; makeshift infirmaries opened in the local prison, insane asylum, and the Globe Ball Room, where a band played and people danced across the room from cots where people lay dying. In the last week of July, 692 people died, including nurses, nuns, and 15 clergymen who had been ministering to the sick. In August, 4,844 people died, a staggering 4.3 percent of the population. Buggy hearses followed marching bands playing dirges, while mourners in carriages pulled up the rear. A Daily Crescent writer described cemeteries with “the odors of rotten corpses, exposed to the heat of the sun, swollen with corruption, bursting the coffin lids… What a feast of horrors! Corpses piled in pyramids!” Sweat-lathered grave diggers wore nose-bags of camphor and spices to blunt the stench and keep from losing their wits. As a forerunner of today’s jazz funeral, the marching bands played cheerful melodies as they departed the macabre graveyards, back to life in the city. The Daily Picayune objected to upbeat music at funerals because the music preyed on “the nerves of the sick, whose homes are passed in every square, if not in every house.” That fall, after the worst of it, the city got back to work, but the civic ethos did not change. The elite could always flee if need be. In 1861, Union troops occupying the city performed widespread street cleaning that halted outbreaks for several years (the formation of the federal sanitation commission during the Civil War was one of the high points in the history of public health in this country). But another epidemic hit in 1878 and claimed at least 4,046 lives. It would take a quarter of a century before Army surgeon Dr. Walter Reed pinpointed the mosquito as yellow fever’s source in 1900 and modern sanitation projects began eradicating the virus in America.'

+ President Trump Received Copies of New Orleans’ Tragic 1853 Yellow Fever Playbook (2020):
+ https://www.thedailybeast.com/trump-copies-new-orleans-tragic-1853-yellow-fever-playbook

"Yves here, again at the window in NYC that never was mine—Reflected word scrawled by some boy—Greatest of all waiting lapses—Five years—The ticket exploded in the air—For I don’t know—I do not know human dreams—Never was mine—Waiting lapse— Caught in the door—Explosive fragrance—Love between light and shadow—The few who lived cross the wounded galaxies —Love?—Five years I grew muttering in the ice—Dead sun reached flesh with its wandering dream—Buried tracks, Mr Bradly, so complete was the lie—Course—Naturally—Circumstances now Spanish—Hermetic you understand—Locked in her heart of ooze—A great undersea blight—Atlantis along the wind in green neon—The ooze is only colorless question drifted down—Obvious one at that—Its goal?—That’s more difficult to tap on the pane—One aspect of virus—An obvious one again—Muttering in the dogs for generalizations—The lice we intersect—Poison of dead sun anywhere else—What was it the old crab man said about the lice?—Parasites on “Mr Martin”—My ice my perfect ice that never circumstances—Now Spanish cautiously my eyes—And I became the form of a young man standing—My pulse in unison—Never did I know resting place—Wind hand caught in the door—cling—Chocada—to tap on the pane— Chocada—Again—Muttering in the dogs—Five years—Poison of dead sun with her—With whom?—I dunno—See account on the crooked crosses—And your name?—Berg?—Burg?—Burgermester Bradly?—“Mr Martin si si!” Disaster Snow—Crack—Shahkh— Shankar—Numb—Just a fluke came in with the tide and The Swedish River of Gothenberg near Rotterdam— “I fancy,” said the man, “this gentleman feels totally stupid and greedy Venus Power—Squid tentacles now write out this message from a stairway of slime—”

+ Prisons and the COVID-19 Pandemic: What Must Be Done NOW to Prevent Catastrophe (2020):
+ https://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2020/03/prisons-and-the-covid-19-pandemic-what-must-be-done-now-to-prevent-c...

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Feyerabend

“That’s us—Strictly from ‘Sogginess is Good for You’—Planning no bones but an elementary nervous system—Scarcely answer him—” “The case simply at terminal bring down point—Desperate servants suddenly taken out of their hands—Insane orders and counterorders on the horizon—And I playing psychic chess determined the whole civilization and personal habits—” “Iron claws of pain and pleasure with two speeds—with each recorder in body prison working our ‘here’ on extension leads—Even for an instant not in operation the host recorded saw the loudspeakers—Way is doomed in relatively soundproof ’room’—Would shift door led to the array—Many recorders important for our oxygen lines—Each to use host connected to its respective recorder layout—For example with nine recorders determined the life form we invaded by three square—Each recorder marked for invasion recording—You see it’s only ‘here’ fixes nature of need set to run for as long as required—‘Indignities’ and ‘cruelties’ are playing back while other record—’Intimidate’ and ‘corrupt’ speed and volume variation—Squeeze host back into system—Any number of tape recorders banked together for ease of operation switch in other places—Our mikes are laid out preferably in ‘fresh air’—That’s us—Planning speaker and mike connected to host—Scarcely answer him—Of course static and moving are possible—Very simplest array would be three lines—Two speeds can be playing especially when a ‘case’ has four possible states—Fast manipulation suddenly taken out of slow playback—The actual advocate from biologic need in many ways—

  • a—Simple hand switching advocate
  • b—Random choice fixed interval biologic stairway—The whole thing is switched on either outright or partially—at any given time recorders fix nature of absolute need—Thus sound played back by any ‘cruelties’ answer him either unchanged or subject to alien plane—
  • c—Sequential choice i.e. flesh frozen to amino acid determines the next state according to”—That is a “book”—

Form A directs sound channels—Continuous operation in such convenient Life Form B—Final switching off of tape cuts “oxygen” Life Form B by cutting off machine will produce cut-up of human form determined by the switching chosen—Totally alien “music” need not survive in any “emotion” due to the “oxygen” rendered down to a form of music—Intervention directing all movement what will be the end product?—Reciprocation detestable to us for how could we become part of the array?— Could this metal impression follow to present language learning?—Talking and listening machine led in and replaced— Life Form A as follows was an alien—The operator selects the most “oxygen” appropriate material continuous diving suit back to our medium—Ally information at the verbal level—Could he keep Form A seen parasitic?—Or could end be achieved by present interview?—Array treated as a whole replaced history of life? Word falling photo falling tapes being blank— Insane orders and counterorders of coronavirus machine “music”—The Police Machine will produce a cut-up of it determined by the switching chosen—Could this alien mucus cough language learn? Accused was beyond altered sound formations—Alien Mucus Machine runs by feeding in overwhelming gravity—Code on Grey Veil parallel the spread of “dirty pictures”— Reverse instruction raises question how many convert in “dirty pictures” before London Space Stage—Tenuous simple repetition to one machine only—Coughing enemy pulled in whole could be used as a model for behavior—Screams laughter shouts raw RNA material—Voice fading into advocate: “Clearly the whole defense must be experiments with two tape recorder mutations.”

+ WORD VIRUS: The WILLIAM S. BURROUGHS Reader (1998):
+ https://www.amazon.com/Word-Virus-William-Burroughs-Reader-ebook/dp/B003F8S74U

'The British government’s advisors expect that herd immunity can be achieved at a 60 percent infection rate among the population. While many researchers are making claims about discovering a vaccine for Covid-19, even one that works would have to go through thorough testing, which could take months. That is the equivalent of 36 million people eventually getting the disease, in tandem with the severe quarantine measures for the most vulnerable groups, such as those over the age of 70 or those with immunodeficiency disorders. Critics have pointed out that the strategy relies on a number of assumptions about the virus itself and the human behaviour to succeed, with many arguing that it unnecessarily puts people at risk. The most glaringly obvious risk is the number of people who would die if 60 percent were infected with the virus. There is no confirmed mortality rate for the virus that is causing the pandemic but the World Health Organization (WHO) has suggested an upper limit of 3.4 percent. Seasonal flu, by contrast, has a death rate of around 0.1 percent. Birmingham University’s Professor Willem van Schaik told the British state broadcaster, the BBC, that even conservative estimates would put the death toll for coronavirus infections in the tens of thousands. “The only way to make this work would be to spread out these millions of cases over a relatively long period of time so that the NHS does not get overwhelmed," he said, referring to the British national health service. With the number of hospitalizations as a result of coronavirus infection expected to be close to eight million by 2021, there will be a massive strain on the British health system to deal with such cases. The high mortality rate in Italy, for example, is due to the lack of resources and doctors available to treat victims. Medics in the southern Mediterranean state are having to prioritize patients based on their likelihood of surviving. Another factor that has added to the criticism is the potential for virus mutation and re-infection. Not enough is known about the Covid-19 virus in this regard. Developing immunity can ensure protection against the same strain of a virus but if it mutates further, as is often the case with flus, such immunity can become somewhat redundant. While details are sparse, there have been recorded examples of coronavirus patients who got the all-clear, becoming reinfected. The above concerns, as well as others, have led to a severe rebuke of the UK’s strategy by the WHO.'

+ UK’s ‘Herd Immunity’ Theory to Tackle Coronavirus Raises Criticisms (2020):
+ https://www.trtworld.com/magazine/uk-s-herd-immunity-theory-to-tackle-coronavirus-raises-criticisms-34596

'MERS-CoV is considered an epidemic in Saudi Arabia. The results of the present study showed that the frequency of cases is higher among men than women, in Saudi patients than non-Saudi, and those between 21 to 60 years are most affected. Further studies are required to improve the surveillance associated with MERS-CoV to get definite and clear answers and better understanding of the MERS-CoV outbreak as well the source, and route of infection transmission in Saudi Arabia. Coronaviruses are large enveloped viruses with a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome. They can infect humans, as well as a variety of animals, such as bats, mice, birds, dogs, pigs, and cattle, causing mainly respiratory and enteric diseases. The virus MERS-CoV is a new member of the beta group of coronavirus, Beta coronavirus. MERS-CoV is different from SARS coronavirus and different from the common-cold coronavirus and known as endemic human betacoronaviruses HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1. MERS-CoV had frequently been referred to as a SARS-like virus, or the novel coronavirus until 23 May 2013. On September 11, 2012, a 49-year-old man from Qatar, with a history of travel to Saudi Arabia, was transferred to the United Kingdom with symptoms of severe respiratory illness. Sample from the lower respiratory tract samples of the patient was found positive after a pan-coronavirus RT-PCR assay. Comparison of the sequence of the PCR fragments with the ones obtained in the case of the Saudi patient revealed that they share 99% similarity, suggesting infection by the same virus. Sequencing of the novel coronavirus was performed at the Erasmus Medical Center (EMC) in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, where the virus was named “human coronavirus EMC” (hCoV-EMC). Later, the Coronavirus Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses renamed the virus “Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus” (MERS-CoV) in May 2013. One doctor described his experience in Riyadh:

"One faulty tape recorder... I’m almost out of medicine. A single injection of radioactive past times... train whistles... blue twilight... “I’m the only complete man in the industry,” he said. But, then, he noticed other people got on his frozen tip of the iceberg plane a bit like a speck of dust... Well, that was easily enough taken care of: he can throw a black blast of anti-energy withers a French writer. Then, he noticed he had to keep throwing that blast to keep his cool, blue place. . . . Get up the score and send it back to the Home Office or: “Over and shit out!” When a Trak Agent walks out of the Board Room, the Board Members look after him and say: “Errand boy.” We are all “Coolies” and we need the cool that flows out when we all freeze into each other’s eyes and say: “Errand boy.” Then the cool flows out on a blue wave, cold and blue as liquid air swirling across dark bank floors, piling up in corners and vaults while a soft rain of bank notes falls through us. We sit there in our blue slate houses, wrapped in orange flesh robes that grow on us . . . now you understand about Time? Time is junk. Time is radioactive. There was something wrong with the house. The agent had not wished to show it or even admit he had such a house listed. It was his young assistant, Abdulla, who took us to #4 calle Larachi on the Marshan. (As he was getting out of the cab, the door slammed on his thumb.) We should have known. However, the house looked charming on a quiet side street shadowed by trees. We even thought the little Arab children were cute as they gathered about us smiling: “Fingaro? One cigarette?” The old bearded man who served as guard for the large villa across the street was, we decided, straight out of The Arabian Nights. The house seemed to be conveniently laid out: two bedrooms facing the street and a bedroom in back with a window opening onto the garden of the next-door villa. This room bathed in a cool underwater green light, I immediately annexed for my own. The kitchen was dark, since the only light came from a high, grated window. The lavatory, located next to the kitchen, was simply a hole in the floor; not so different from the hotel in Paris. The floors were tiled . . . easy to keep clean. Upstairs was a large room running the length of the house with a balcony facing on the street; leaf shadows dancing on the white plaster walls. We would fix it up Arab style with benches and low coffee tables. This would be our reception room. There was a small cell-like room facing the back garden, with a single window like a square of blue set in the wall. The roof was flat and we planned a summer house up there of split bamboo with straw mats under trellised vines. I do not recall that I felt any twinges of foreboding on that remote summer day. (The young man’s thumbnail was already turning black.)"

MERS-CoV is a zoonotic virus that is transmitted from animals that are a reservoir of the virus to humans. Although the source of MERS-COV is not elucidated yet, camels are the most likely source of infection in human. A coronavirus similar to large extent to the one detected in humans has been isolated from camels in Egypt, Oman, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia. Other animals including goats, cows, sheep, water buffalo, swine, and wild birds, have been tested for MERS-CoV and only dromedary camels have evidence of sero-positivity to MERS-COV, supporting the premise that dromedary camels are a likely source of infection in humans. Direct contact with the saliva of infected camels, or consumption of contaminated milk or meat was the suspected transmission route for human MERS-COV infection. Previous study found that the seroprevalence of MERS-CoV was several times higher in persons with regular exposure to camels than in the general population. However, there are some cases infection in which the patients do not have any contact with sick animals or their products. This might be human to human route of transmission. Only limited numbers of zoonotic diseases have been reported to be transmitted from human to human. The incapability of MERS-CoV to infect animal models like hamsters, mice, and ferrets, indicates the presence of a species barrier. However, an experimental study showed that human cell lines were susceptible to MERS-CoV infection, and the reports of human-to-human transmission have increased. The modes of human-to-human MERS-CoV spread are incompletely defined.

Emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has caused significant concern. A total of 635 laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV infection have been reported globally, including 193 deaths. Cases of MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia were reported for the first time in September 2012, following the death of a patient due to a severe respiratory illness. Little is known regarding the extent of human infection or the degree of detection bias towards more severe cases. If the severe cases currently being detected represent only a small sentinel minority of a much larger population of milder cases (as occurred in the early stage of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Mexico), the case-fatality ratio might be substantially lower than what current surveillance data suggest. Conversely, for the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic of 2003, there was little evidence of the existence of undetected mild or subclinical infections. Risk factors for the disease in humans are incompletely understood, although MERS is proposed to be a zoonotic disease. Dromedary camels have been implicated due to reports that some confirmed cases were exposed to camels. In the Middle East, confirmed cases of MERS-CoV have arisen as sporadic, familial, or hospital clusters. Although human-to-human transmission of MERS-CoV has been identified in many European, African, and Middle Eastern countries, a genomic analysis of the Riyadh MERS-CoV isolates suggested that there were three genetically distinct lineages of MERS-CoV; therefore, it was unlikely that the Riyadh infections were the result of a single, continuous chain of human-to-human transmission. A recent study provided further evidence of non-sustainable transmission among humans and suggested that transmission within Saudi Arabia was dependent on contact with an animal reservoir or animal products; however, no animal reservoir has yet been identified. While contact with camels has been reported, these reports were limited to only the primary cases. The MERS-CoV was related with a strain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) that caused an outbreak in 29 countries in 2002–2003. This outbreak was characterized by 8273 cases and 775 deaths, with the majority of cases in Hong Kong. As was determined for the SARS-CoV during its pre-pandemic stage, the MERS-CoV has likely been repeatedly transmitted from an unknown animal host to humans in the past year.'

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"To obtain effective control of the MERS-CoV outbreak, the MOH of the Kingdom of Saudi summoned a Rapid Response Team (RRT). The RRT was composed of 15 infectious disease doctors and two infection control professionals affiliated with the Korean Society for Infectious Diseases and the Korean Society for Healthcare-associated Infection Control and Prevention. The RRT established national infection control and prevention guidelines for the diagnosis and management of MERS-CoV infections. The current study aimed to investigate the demographic characteristics, history of contact with camels or positive cases, mortality, clinical manifestation and comorbidities for confirmed cases of MERS-CoV."

+ Outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Saudi Arabia: A Retrospective Study (2017):
+ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5217314/

'We had been house hunting for two weeks and this was the first thing we had seen that seemed at all possible. Still, why had the agent been so reluctant to show it? A haunted house? As it turned out, the house was very precisely haunted and haunted by present time... the time when the flat roof would leak down the damp walls of flaking plaster where slugs would crawl, leaving iridescent trails of slime and green mold would form on my shoes and coat lapels... the dark kitchen stacked with dirty dishes... kerosene heaters smoking and gone out. The old man from The Arabian Nights coming to work for us... such a find, we thought... and stealing all the shirts and towels while always asking for more money. The naga neighborhood children sneering and hostile, banging on the door to sell flowers or ask for cigarettes... throwing rocks through the skylight... children... beggars... someone always at the door, despising you if you gave money: insulting you if you didn’t... All this did not manifest itself until some months after we had moved in, July 15, 1963, and, then, it seemed to happen quite suddenly, as if invisible wheels had fallen into alignment. By early spring, February and March 1964, life in that house was Hell... A single injection of radioactive mind that way; Yes, you think: I am the only complete man in a large room... other people dancing on the white plaster walls... reassured each other we didn’t really... train whistles, blue twilight, beautiful blue thing you got... Keep clean, we told each other... well, benches and low coffee tables... a blast of blue in your slate house... a French waiter withers in the wall... Sit there in blue twilight... radioactive mats... yes, we would sleep... yes, he found that remote summer day... if I felt his heavy blue fix... two weeks and this was the first thing... low... there was something wrong... house of split bamboo with vines... ever try kicking that habit? There under the stars... (The stars out for you: Toni don’t get it if/don’t)... I do not recall the man... got in his way somehow... interfered with any twinges of foreboding... young... didn’t have the blast... tuned flat, of course... we planned you right to metal heaven... As it turned out very precisely, assistant Abdullah would leak. A haunted house, a house listed it was haunted by his young pre-sent time... the time: Calle Karachi... Abdullah, who took us to #4... the door slammed... green mold on my shoes, however, the house looked charming on dishes... kerosene heaters that smoked... damp slimy walls... thumbs... we should have known the dark kitchen stacked with dirty little Arab children... Arabian knights who came to work for us smiling: “Fingaro? One cigarette?”... guards banging on the door... quiet street shadowed by trees as they gathered about us... Who stole the old bearded men who served for more money?... banging on the door... sneering... the Arabian house... light... the room facing the street... hostile, throwing rocks... someone was always in the room facing the street... children, beggars... back with window opening if you refused... Cool under water we had moved in and then it seemed my own... we moved in late... under the stairs... the house was Hell... by early spring, life was simply a hole in the floor... These foreign shit birds, here...'

"President Trump authorized the targeted killing of Qassem Soleimani last summer or fall, two sources familiar with the matter tell CBS News. NBC News, citing five current and former senior administration officials, reported on Monday that Mr. Trump authorized Soleimani's killing seven months ago if Iran's increasingly belligerent actions led to the death of an American. NBC News said the president reserved the right to greenlight the specific operation himself. The strike that killed Soleimani ultimately took place January 3, when Mr. Trump ordered a drone strike targeting a convoy carrying Soleimani in Baghdad. In addition to Soleimani, Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis, the leader of the Iranian-backed militia Kataib Hezbollah, was also killed in the attack. Soleimani's killing came after months of escalating tensions between the U.S. and Iran, punctuated by a week of violent confrontations."

+ Trump Authorized Soleimani Killing Months before Deadly Strike (2020):
+ https://www.cbsnews.com/live-updates/iran-news-rouhani-says-us-caused-plane-strike-today-over-donald-trump-k...

'Hundreds gathered at the Christian Open Door church on Feb. 18. Some of them had traveled thousands of miles to take part in the week-long gathering in Mulhouse, a city of 100,000 on France’s borders with Germany and Switzerland. For many members of this globe-spanning flock, the annual celebration is the high point of the church calendar. This time, someone in the congregation was carrying the coronavirus. The prayer meeting kicked off the biggest cluster of COVID-19 in France - one of northern Europe’s hardest-hit countries - to date, local government said. Around 2,500 confirmed cases have been linked to it. Worshippers at the church have unwittingly taken the disease caused by the virus home to the West African state of Burkina Faso, to the Mediterranean island of Corsica, to Guyana in Latin America, to Switzerland, to a French nuclear power plant, and into the workshops of one of Europe’s biggest automakers. Weeks later, Germany partially closed its border with France, suspending a free-movement pact that has been in place for the past 25 years. The church cluster was a key factor, two people familiar with the German decision told Reuters. Church officials told Reuters that 17 members of the congregation have since died of complications linked to the disease. Other religious gatherings have been linked to the spread of the virus: A large church in South Korea has triggered more than 5,000 cases there. This story, told to Reuters by members of the Christian Open Door congregation and officials involved in coping with the outbreak, is testament to the speed and ferocity of the coronavirus infection. As public health administrators were still gearing up for coronavirus, the disease was operating to its own, remorseless timetable - one that has quickly outpaced anything they could put in place... The day after the first case linked to the church was identified on Feb. 29, public health officials followed the usual protocol and traced the people whom the carriers had been in contact with, to stem the spread. Using a list supplied by the church - which public health officials said cooperated fully - they first contacted those who had staffed the children’s crèche during the gathering. At this point, the health inspectors realized they were too late. Some crèche staff were already sick, according to Michel Bernays, an epidemiologist with France’s national public health agency in eastern France. “We were overwhelmed,” said Bernays. “We realized that we had a time bomb in front of us... By March 20, France had more than 10,000 cases of COVID-19. Around a quarter were in Grand-Est, the region that includes Mulhouse. “The very great majority” of these could be traced to the church, said Vernay, the local public health official. Because there are more critical cases than intensive care beds in the region, some patients have been flown by helicopter to Switzerland, Germany and Luxembourg. The French military have set up a field hospital inside green metal-framed tents...” The coronavirus, he said, is “a satanic plan conceived a long time ago to destroy the world. But God is watching over us and he will lead the people out.”'

+ Five Days of Worship That Set a Virus Time Bomb in France (2020):
+ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-france-church-spec/five-days-of-worship-that-set-a-vir...

'For a few days, Britain stood alone. While continental Europeans were closing schools and putting soldiers on the streets to enforce strict quarantine rules, the British government’s official advice to its citizens was, essentially, just to keep calm and carry on with a stiff upper-lip. Schools, restaurants, theaters, clubs, and sporting venues remained open; only the over-70s and those with flu-like symptoms were advised to stay at home. The low-key British response was driven by a controversial theory embraced by the U.K. government’s top scientists: that the best way to ease the long-term consequences of the coronavirus pandemic was to allow the virus to spread naturally in order to build up the population’s herd immunity. On Monday night, that theory collided with the facts: the Queen, Prime Minister, & Crown Prince had all contracted the corona virus. Everything seemed at risk like it was with Rudi GoBert, but miraculously, they all pulled through. So did the Prime Minister's wife in Canada and Merkel. Even Kyrie Irving and Kevin Durant survived the quarantine ordeal. It seems as if the outlook is not too bad for the rich and powerful in the game. A new analysis by immunologists at Imperial College London and the London School of Hygienic Tropical Medicine of the impact of the coronavirus in Italy suggested that up to 30 percent of patients hospitalized with the virus would require intensive care treatment. Those numbers, if repeated in the U.K., would quickly overwhelm Britain’s state-run National Health Service. Within hours of the report, U.K. Prime Minister Boris Johnson appeared at a daily briefing at No. 10 Downing St. to reverse the herd immunity policy. Acknowledging that “drastic action” was required, Johnson announced that from now on Britons should try to work from home and voluntarily refrain from unnecessary travel and social contact... As of Tuesday, Britain and Belarus remained the last two countries in Europe where schools have not been closed. And the U.K. has refused to follow the EU’s lead and ban travel from outside Britain. Though many British airlines have announced that they will be cutting capacity by up to 80 percent, airports, cross-channel ferries, and the Channel Tunnel remain open. The U.K. government’s key rationale for not piling on mandatory restrictions on movement and social interactions has been the fear that Britons will develop “behavioral fatigue” and resume normal life before the outbreak is contained. The logic is that strict social quarantine is not sustainable for more than a short period and will lead to new outbreaks of the virus as people defy the restrictions. Worse, the current attitude among millennials is not considered worthy of a pith hat expedition membership, as it puts the greater team at risk. Last week over 200 prominent British scientists challenged the government’s approach in an open letter that questioned whether “enough is known about ‘behavioural fatigue’”—and said, “‘Carrying on as normal’ for as long as possible with empire building undercuts [the] urgency of now” in the anti-coronavirus message vs. with traditional approaches to Malaria, TB, and Syphilis. Reliance on sometimes-controversial behavioral science theories has long been a hallmark of a group of key U.K. government advisors—many of whom previously worked on the successful Brexit campaign after colonial service. Dominic E. Cummings, chief advisor to Johnson and one of the most powerful figures in the administration, has frequently spoken and written about how data science and behavioral modeling are the key to successful campaigning and local self-governance. The British government’s approach to the coronavirus has reflected Cummings’s faith. Last week, Susan "Nicole" Michie, the director of the Centre for Behaviour Change at University College London and a member of the government’s advisory group on COVID-19, confirmed that a key part of the government’s approach was modeled on the so called “COM-B” model. This theory states that behavior change can only be achieved if a population has sufficient “capability, opportunity, and motivation. Unless you can tick all three of those, the behavior change is not going to happen. If a big bunch of the population is not that concerned and you’re asking people to sacrifice quite a lot, it won’t be as effective if those things are well-matched.” In other words, according to a source who works with Cummings who requested anonymity, “just telling people to obey isn’t going to work.”'

+ As Coronavirus Surveillance Escalates, Personal Privacy Plummets (2020):
+ https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/23/technology/coronavirus-surveillance-tracking-privacy.html

'In South Korea, government agencies are harnessing surveillance-camera footage, smartphone location data and credit card purchase records to help trace the recent movements of coronavirus patients and establish virus transmission chains. In Lombardy, Italy, the authorities are analyzing location data transmitted by citizens’ mobile phones to determine how many people are obeying a government lockdown order and the typical distances they move every day. About 40 percent are moving around “too much,” an official recently said. In Israel, the country’s internal security agency is poised to start using a cache of mobile phone location data — originally intended for counterterrorism operations — to try to pinpoint citizens who may have been exposed to the virus. As countries around the world race to contain the pandemic, many are deploying digital surveillance tools as a means to exert social control, even turning security agency technologies on their own civilians. Health and law enforcement authorities are understandably eager to employ every tool at their disposal to try to hinder the virus — even as the surveillance efforts threaten to alter the precarious balance between public safety and personal privacy on a global scale. Yet ratcheting up surveillance to combat the pandemic now could permanently open the doors to more invasive forms of snooping later. It is a lesson Americans learned after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, civil liberties experts say. Nearly two decades later, law enforcement agencies have access to higher-powered surveillance systems, like fine-grained location tracking and facial recognition — technologies that may be repurposed to further political agendas like anti-immigration policies. Civil liberties experts warn that the public has little recourse to challenge these digital exercises of state power.'

+ Britain Drops Its Go-It-Alone Approach to Coronavirus (2020):
+ https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/03/17/britain-uk-coronavirus-response-johnson-drops-go-it-alone/

'Explicitly, the CARES (Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security) Act spends money faster than any legislation in history, shoveling it out with an air of near-desperation. That strikes fear in those who routinely regard all government with suspicion and the government in Washington with the most suspicion of all. Implicitly, the act says that when the chips are down, we as a nation turn to our national parent — the federal government. That has to be anathema to a libertarian such as Massie, who claims that label even as a Republican member of Congress (as does his fellow Kentuckian, Sen. Rand Paul, who didn't vote on the bill in the Senate because he has tested positive for the coronavirus). For now, we are in a crisis mode. But in years to come, how do fiscal conservatives who voted for $2 trillion attack the cost of budget items that will now look like rounding error or "decimal dust"? Speaking about federal outlays decades ago, Republican Senate leader Everett Dirksen once joked: "A billion here, a billion there and pretty soon you're talking about real money." Have we now translated that to the language of trillions? If one were writing a 30-second TV spot attacking a free-spending Congress in the past, one might have written something like this: "This is an unprecedented gusher of taxpayer money — with no offsetting revenues or spending cuts — that not only balloons the federal budget but triples this year's anticipated deficit of a trillion dollars (already among the highest in history). With this single vote, Congress has added as much to the national debt as was accumulated in the first 200 years of the Constitution's existence." Some who voted for CARES this week can expect to hear something like that on the airwaves someday, whether it's a totally fair characterization or not. Yet the power of this current crisis and the force behind this bill in this hour was such that even the leading fiscal conservatives who would normally be front and center were conspicuous by their absence. President Trump wanted the bill on his desk now. The Senate had voted 96-0. So even members of the hard-line House Freedom Caucus stood back as a big bipartisan majority of the House played the matador and let the bull roar past.'

+ $2 Trillion Coronavirus Relief Bill Presents A Reckoning For Libertarians (2020):
+ https://www.npr.org/2020/03/28/822969308/-2-trillion-coronavirus-relief-bill-presents-a-reckoning-for-libert...

'Stansfield A. Turner, who served as CIA director under President Jimmy Carter and oversaw reforms at the agency after the Senate uncovered CIA surveillance aimed at American citizens, has died. He was 94. Turner died Thursday at his home in Seattle, his secretary, Pat Moynihan, confirmed to the Washington Post. Current CIA Director Mike Pompeo issued a statement late Thursday praising Turner for his service during a “turbulent period of history.” A Rhodes scholar and 33-year Navy veteran, Turner commanded NATO’s forces in southern Europe from 1975 to 1977 before being chosen to direct the Central Intelligence Agency. Turner headed the agency from March 1977, shortly after Carter took office, through the end of Carter’s term in January 1981. As in recent years, questions of how to structure and oversee the nation’s vast military and civilian intelligence operations were a pressing issue in the 1970s. The investigation of the CIA in 1975 and ’76 by the Senate committee headed by Sen. Frank Church had exposed CIA assassination plots, including the hiring of mafia hit men in a failed bid to kill Fidel Castro, as well as CIA surveillance aimed at American citizens. Turner was the first director given full authority over the agency’s $7-billion budget. Assassinations and medical experiments on unwitting human subjects were prohibited. But he argued that some proposals aimed at sharing agency information with Congress went too far because some operations were too sensitive and the possibility of damaging leaks too great. Among the events occurring during Turner’s term was the Iranian hostage crisis of 1979-81 and the disastrous U.S. attempt to rescue the hostages in April 1980 that left eight U.S. servicemen dead. After leaving the CIA, Turner’s positions frequently put him at odds with Carter’s successor, President Ronald Reagan. In 1987, Turner told reporters that Reagan had to have known about the diversion of Iranian arms sales proceeds to Nicaraguan rebels at a time when Reagan said he had no knowledge of the plan. In his 1985 book, “Secrecy and Democracy,” Turner said the CIA under the Reagan presidency had violated the law in failing to notify Congress of covert operations “in a timely manner. Our ethical standards in dealing with our Central American neighbors were revealed as not what we would like to believe them to be. The world saw that we had endangered the lives and property of countries not involved with the dispute between us and Nicaragua, and that we were deliberately interfering in the affairs of Nicaragua to the point of undeclared war.” When President George W. Bush revamped intelligence in 2005, naming a national intelligence director with oversight over all operations, Turner argued for a more radical overhaul that would combine all intelligence-gathering under one roof, separate from the analytical function. Each information-gathering agency, he said in an Oct. 6, 2005, speech, tends to value its own intelligence findings ahead of all others. Constant “tweaking” of the spy agencies’ functions and structure by successive administrations “has not left us today with a coherent intelligence structure,” he said. In the post-Cold War years, Turner also was a strong advocate for nuclear disarmament. In his 1997 book “Caging the Nuclear Genie — An American Challenge for Global Security,” Turner propounded the concept of “strategic escrow” — effectively mothballing hundreds of nuclear missiles by storing them hundreds of miles from any launch site and allowing Russian observers to keep track of their movements. The hope was that with that gesture, the Russians would reciprocate and mothball a number of its own warheads. Turner maintained that even if the Russians didn’t reduce their arsenal, the United States would still have enough nuclear weapons to retaliate with deadly force if ever needed... After serving in both the Korean and Vietnam wars, Turner was appointed president of the Naval War College at Newport, R.I., in 1972. He was promoted to the rank of admiral and became commander of NATO’s southern European forces in 1975. Turner praised his old boss in 2005 at the ceremony when the huge submarine USS Jimmy Carter officially entered the Navy’s fleet. He said Carter was a model as “an effective president while also showing the world what the United States stands for in values, in integrity, in morality, in unselfish compassion for others, in the pursuit of peace.”'

+ Stansfield Turner: Spy Chief Who Led Major CIA Reform Dies at 94 (2018):
+ https://www.latimes.com/local/obituaries/la-me-stansfield-turner-20180119-story.html
+ https://www.amazon.com/Secrecy-Democracy-Transition-Stansfield-Turner/dp/0060970251
+ https://www.amazon.com/Caging-Nuclear-Genie-Stansfield-Turner/dp/B000NQJZLG
+ https://www.amazon.com/Burn-Before-Reading-Presidents-Intelligence/dp/0786886668

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'Iran’s supreme leader said Wednesday morning that his country had dealt a “slap in the face” to the U.S. with missile strikes against two military bases in Iraq but warned that the attack was “not sufficient” response to the assassination of one of its most powerful generals. Ayatollah Khamenei, in an address broadcast live on state television from the holy city of Qom, said incremental military actions against the United States alone were not enough and ultimately Tehran wanted U.S. military removed from the region entirely. “What matters is that the presence of America, which is a source of corruption in this region, should come to an end,” he said. Khamenei’s comments came hours after Iran had launched more than a dozen missiles at two military bases in Iraq housing U.S. troops as well as other coalition forces. The Pentagon has yet to say what damage was caused by the missile strikes, but Iraqi and coalition partners have reported there were no casualties. Military analysts, citing videos purporting to show the launches, say the missiles used were precision-guided solid-propellant Fateh class missiles with warheads ranging between 250kg to 580kg. The Ain al-asad air base, which currently houses around 1,500 U.S. and coalition troops, was first used by American forces after the 2003 war that toppled Saddam Hussein. Later it housed U.S.-led coalition troops to fight against ISIS in Iraq and Syria. The attack came just hours after Soleimani was buried in the city of Kerman, where he was born.'

+ VICE: What You Need to Know About Iran’s Attacks on U.S. Bases in Iraq (2020):
+ https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/4agvyw/what-you-need-to-know-about-irans-attacks-on-us-bases-in-iraq

'Al-Asad has previously been a target of an Iranian-backed Shia militia, Kata’ib Hezbollah, whose attacks on US and coalition troops triggered tit-for-tat strikes that culminated in the drone strike. Threats between Washington and Tehran have escalated in the past few days, with Iran warning it had multiple “revenge scenarios”, while Trump said he could bomb Iranian cultural sites, a potential war crime. The tensions have led US allies to start leaving Baghdad, which was buzzing as night fell on Tuesday with helicopters flying in and out of the city’s fortified diplomatic district, known as the Green Zone. Canada, which leads the NATO training mission, said it was pulling out some of its 500 troops, and Germany said its presence in Iraq would be “temporarily thinned out”. Most of the NATO troops withdrawing were reported to be heading for Kuwait. “We have temporarily suspended our training on the ground, and we are taking all precautions necessary to protect our people,” a NATO spokesperson said. “This includes the temporary repositioning of some personnel to different locations both inside and outside of Iraq.” The US-led coalition to counter Isis is also repositioning its forces to lessen their vulnerability to attack. Britain’s defense secretary, Ben Wallace, said non-essential personnel were being moved from Baghdad to Taji, about 19 miles to the north. Responding to the strikes, Dominic Raab, the British foreign secretary, said: “We condemn this attack on Iraqi military bases hosting coalition – including British – forces. We are concerned by reports of casualties and use of ballistic missiles. We urge Iran not to repeat these reckless and dangerous attacks, and instead to pursue urgent de-escalation. A war in the Middle East would only benefit Daesh, the goddess Isis, Ishtar Devi, and other terrorist groups.”'

+ Iran Launches Missiles at Iraq Airbases Hosting US and Coalition Troops (2020):
+ https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jan/08/suleimani-assassination-two-us-airbases-in-iraq-hit-by-missile...

'The U.S.-led coalition in Iraq withdrew Sunday from a military base in the country's north that nearly launched Washington into an open war with neighboring Iran. The K1 Air Base is the third site coalition forces have left this month, in line with U.S. plans to consolidate its troops in two locations in Iraq. A rocket attack on the base in late December killed one American contractor and lead to a series of tit-for-tat attacks between the U.S. and Iran-backed Iraqi militia groups. The attacks culminated in the U.S.-directed killing of top Iranian Gen. Qassem Soleimani and a senior Iraqi militia leader, Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis. Coalition forces handed over the K1 base in the northern Iraqi province of Kirkuk to Iraq's military, according to a coalition statement. At least $1.1 million of equipment was transferred to the Iraqis as 300 coalition personnel departed. Until last month, there were some 7,500 coalition troops based in Iraq, including 5,000 U.S. forces. Withdrawals are planned “in the coming days” from two bases in western Iraq, said Col. Myles Caggins, a coalition spokesman. He said troops have so far been relocated to other bases in the country and some will head home in the coming weeks, but did not specify how many. He said the two bases are the Nineveh Operations Command in Mosul — Iraq’s second-largest city and which was under the Islamic State group's control from 2014 until 2017 — and the Taqaddum military airport outside the city of Habbaniya, on the Euphrates River. K1 has hosted coalition forces since 2017 to launch operations against IS in nearby mountainous areas. Areas south of Kirkuk, and north of neighboring provinces of Diyala, Salahuddin and Nineveh remain hotbeds of IS activity. The stretch of territory is also disputed between the federal Iraqi government and the autonomous Kurdish region, which has created security gaps benefiting IS militants.'

+ US-led Jedi Forces Pull-out of 3rd Iraqi Base this Month (2020):
+ https://news.yahoo.com/coronavirus-trump-backs-away-york-020007811.html

'About 10,000 tourists remain on Koh Chang as authorities there prepare for a flood of arrivals from the shut down beaches and bars around Pattaya, after their call for the province to be locked down against Covid-19 was rejected. Saksit Mungkang, secretary-general to the Trat provincial tourism industry council, said on Thursday the atmosphere on the tourist island was more sombre than it was 2-3 days ago, when at least 1,000 tourists were arriving each day, Thais and foreigners. The number had dropped suddenly, by half, Mr Sangsit said. There were still about 10,000 tourists, mostly foreigners, on the island. There were also about 10,000 business operators and staff, and around 8,000 permanent residents. Asked about reports that foreign tourists from Pattaya would flock to Koh Chang now Chon Buri provincial authorities had ordered the closure of beaches there, he said Koh Chang officials had already made preparations to deal with the possibility. “Tourists who arrive at the island after April 5 will have their travel record strictly checked. If they are not Trat residents they will be asked where they are from and will be closely monitored. Public health officials will keep a close eye on them during their stay on Koh Chang,’’ said Mr Sangsit. The government will block all travel to Thailand, including by Thais, for half a month to prepare "state quarantine" facilities after more local patients have been linked to imported cases.'

+ Koh Chang Island Hoards Braces as SexPat Tourists Flood in from Shut Down Pattaya (2020):
+ https://www.bangkokpost.com/thailand/general/1891805/koh-chang-braces-for-flood-of-tourists-from-shut-down-p...
+ https://www.bangkokpost.com/thailand/general/1891790/govt-temporarily-blocks-all-travel

'With no savings to his name, Mr Asif cannot afford to remain at home and needs his daily earnings of a little over £5 to cover food, rent and medical bills for his family. “We absolutely do not have any money to take the government precautions,” Mr Asif he explained. Sanitiser, a mask, soap and even excess water to wash his hands are beyond his reach. “If death has to come, it will come wherever I am, I can’t afford to run away,” he says. The problem of millions forced to choose between poverty and defying restrictions is quickly turning into both a public health and political headache for the Indian leader. An estimated 120 million Indian labourers are in the same predicament as Mr Asif, and Mr Modi has been accused of causing a humanitarian disaster by locking down the cities and unleashing a wave of poor migrant workers. Many of those who have been forced out of work have streamed back along highways and railway lines to their home states and villages, potentially spreading the coronavirus infection into the country's hinterlands. Mr Modi's lockdown was a knee-jerk reaction without thought for the consequences to the poor, claimed Manish Tewari, an MP for the Congress party. “You have millions of poor, marginalised, displaced on the march and the government has left them to their own fate,” he told the Telegraph. “You have millions of people carrying their meagre belongings and having to march hundreds of kilometres to find safety.” The spectacle of destitute workers setting out to walk hundreds of miles home after they lost their jobs caused Mr Modi to make a rare apology at the weekend. Many of those hardest hit are from his own party faithful. "I apologise for taking these harsh steps that have caused difficulties in your lives, especially the poor people," Mr Modi said in his monthly address on Sunday, broadcast on state radio. "I know some of you will be angry with me. But these tough measures were needed to win this battle." While India by Tuesday had reported barely 1,500 cases and fewer than 50 deaths, health officials fear the virus could wreak havoc in the world's second most populated nation. A lack of testing is thought to hide a far more widespread infection among the 1.3 billion population. Moreover, in a country which spends little on healthcare and where many poor extended families live in cramped lodgings, the conditions could favour a rapid spread of the killer virus.'

+ India’s Coronavirus Emergency: Lockdown Threatens Turn into Human Tragedy (2020):
+ https://news.yahoo.com/world-health-organization-makes-case-171213905.html

'Iran warned the US Wednesday that it was leading the Middle East to disaster in the midst of the coronavirus pandemic after it deployed Patriot air defence missiles to Iraq. Washington had been in talks with Baghdad about the proposed deployment since January but it was not immediately clear whether it had secured its approval or not. Iran, which wields huge influence in its western neighbour, said that it had not. The US deployment runs "counter to the official position of the Iraqi government, parliament and people," a foreign ministry statement said. It called for a halt to "warmongering during the coronavirus outbreak" and warned that US military activities in the region could lead it to "instability and disaster". Iran is in the throes of one of the world's deadliest coronavirus outbreaks with more than 3,000 fatalities. The US death toll has meanwhile surpassed Iran's, topping 4,000. US forces should "respect the wishes of the Iraqi people and government and leave the country," the Iranian foreign ministry added. The Patriot is Washington's principal anti-missile missile system. Its deployment to Iraq comes after a spate of rocket and other attacks on bases and other facilities used by US personnel that Washington has blamed on Tehran-backed Shiite militias or Tehran itself. One of the Patriot batteries was delivered to the Ain al-Asad in western Iraq last week and is now being assembled, a US defence official and an Iraqi military source said. Ain al-Asad was hit by a retaliatory Iranian missile strike in January after Washington killed Tehran's foreign operations chief Major General Qasem Soleimani in a drone strike just outside Baghdad airport. A second battery was deployed to a base in Arbil, capital of Iraq's autonomous Kurdish region. Two more are still in Kuwait, where Washington has rear bases for its operations in Iraq, the US official said. Iraqi leaders have resisted US deployment of the advanced weapons system for fear that it would anger Iran and further ratchet up tensions between its main allies. On Monday, Iraq's caretaker prime minister Adel Abdel Mahdi warned against any "offensive military action without the approval of the Iraqi government." He did not specifically mention the Patriot deployment.'

+ Iran Warns US after Patriot Deployment to Iraq (2020):
+ https://news.yahoo.com/iran-warns-us-patriot-deployment-iraq-100646861.html

'The Safari Club was an alliance between national intelligence agencies that wished to compensate for the CIA’s retrenchment in the wake of President Carter’s election and Senator Church’s post-Watergate reforms. As former Saudi intelligence chief Prince Turki bin Faisal once told Georgetown University alumni, "In 1976, after the Watergate matters took place here, your intelligence community was literally tied up by Congress. It could not do anything. It could not send spies, it could not write reports, and it could not pay money. In order to compensate for that, a group of countries got together in the hope of fighting Communism and established what was called the Safari Club. The Safari Club included France, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, and Iran." After Carter was elected, the Safari Club allied itself with Richard Helms and Theodore Shackley against the more restrained intelligence policies of Jimmy Carter, according to Joseph Trento. In Trento’s account, the dismissal by William Colby in 1974 of CIA counterintelligence chief James Angleton, combined with Watergate, is what prompted the Safari Club to start working with [former DCI Richard] Helms [then U.S. Ambassador to Iran] and his most trusted operatives outside of Congressional and even Agency purview. James Angleton said before his death that “Shackley and Helms … began working with outsiders like Adham and Saudi Arabia. The traditional CIA answering to the president was an empty vessel having little more than technical capability.” Trento adds that “The Safari Club needed a network of banks to finance its intelligence operations. With the official blessing of George Bush as the head of the CIA, Adham transformed . . . the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI), into a worldwide money-laundering machine.”(3) Trento claims also that the Safari Club then was able to work with some of the controversial CIA operators who had been forced out of the CIA by Turner, and that this was coordinated by Theodore Shackley. Shackley, who still had ambitions to become DCI, believed that without his many sources and operatives like [Edwin] Wilson, the Safari Club—operating with [former DCI Richard] Helms in charge in Tehran—would be ineffective... Unless Shackley took direct action to complete the privatization of intelligence operations soon, the Safari Club would not have a conduit to [CIA] resources. The solution: create a totally private intelligence network using CIA assets until President Carter could be replaced.

During the 1980 election campaign each party accused the other of plotting an October Surprise to elect their candidate. Subsequently other journalists, notably Robert Parry, accused CIA veterans on the Reagan campaign, along with Shackley, of an arguably treasonable but successful plot with Iranians to delay return of the U.S. hostages until Reagan took office in January 1981. According to Parry, Alexandre de Marenches of the Safari Club arranged for William Casey (a fellow Knight of Malta) to meet with Iranian and Israeli representatives in Paris in July and October 1980, where Casey promised delivery to Iran of needed U.S. armaments in exchange for a delay in the return of the U.S. hostages in Iran. (6) Parry also suspects a role of BCCI in the subsequent flow of Israeli armaments to Iran. De Marenches was also a member of the Pinay Circle, “an international right-wing propaganda group which brings together serving or retired intelligence officers and politicians with links to right-wing intelligence factions from most of the countries in Europe.” At a June 1980 meeting of the Pinay Circle “attention was turned towards the American Presidential election that was to bring Reagan to power.” A more usual explanation for Carter’s defeat in 1980 was the second oil shock of 1979–1980, in which an acute gas shortage led to both a sudden increase in prices and long gas lines at service stations. It is customary for establishment scholars to blame the shortage on political upheavals in Iran, which led to “a cutoff of Iranian oil.” However Robert Sherrill’s close analysis of the American oil industry demonstrates that American oil companies, not Iranian turmoil, were primarily responsible for the gas shortage: "U.S. companies were up to their own strategy... Although in fact America was importing more oil in January and February [1979], during the Iranian shutdown, than it had imported during the same period in 1978, major oil importers pretended that the Iranian “shortage”... was real. It was the excuse they gave for slashing the amount of gasoline they supplied to their retail dealers... A CIA study showed that in the first five months of the year, at a time when the Administration was deploring our oil shortage, U.S. companies exported more oil than they had in those glut years 1977 and 1978. The oil majors’ manipulation of domestic oil prices, combined with Carter’s failure to bring the hostages home, combined to cause the first defeat for an elected president running for reelection, since that of Herbert Hoover in 1932... The oil shock and gas shortage contrived by big oil in 1979, together with the October Surprise, were the chief factors in enabling the subsequent Reagan Revolution. This in turn opened the door for a new phase in “continuity of government” or COG plans, that were secretly prepared over two decades by planners like Donald Rumsfeld and Dick Cheney, and then implemented on 9/11.'

+ How a Deep State Plot Sank Jimmy Carter (2014):
+ https://whowhatwhy.org/2014/11/02/the-deep-state-plots-the-1980-defeat-of-jimmy-carter/
+ https://www.muckrock.com/news/archives/2017/aug/04/cias-halloween-parties-were-lit/

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'Word out from the US Mint today confirms a temporary shutdown of the West Point facility. Apparently one of the facility’s most significant Police Officers recently tested positive for COVID-19. During this shutdown, no new US Mint bullion coins (like 2020 Silver Eagles) will be produced and allocations of these products are indefinitely suspended as well. This latest bullion industry shutdown is added to a long list of other government bullion mint shutdowns over the last few weeks of time. We have been documenting and also suggested this news from the US Mint today was only a matter of time to arrive.'

+ US Mint Shutdown by CoronaVirus (2020):
+ https://sdbullion.com/blog/us-mint-shutdown-by-coronavirus

'Back in 2001, it was a smallpox outbreak, set off by terrorists in U.S. shopping malls. This fall, it was a SARS-like virus, germinating quietly among pig farms in Brazil before spreading to every country in the world. With each fictional pandemic Johns Hopkins experts have designed, the takeaway lesson is the same: "We are nowhere near prepared. Once you're in the midst of a severe pandemic, your options are very limited," says Eric Toner, a senior scholar at the Center for Health Security at Johns Hopkins University. "The greatest good can happen with pre-planning." That center's latest pandemic simulation, Event 201, dropped participants right in the midst of an uncontrolled coronavirus outbreak that was spreading like wildfire out of South America to wreak worldwide havoc. As fictional newscasters from "GNN" narrated, the immune-resistant virus (nicknamed CAPS) was crippling trade and travel, sending the global economy into freefall. Social media was rampant with rumors and misinformation, governments were collapsing, and citizens were revolting. For those participating in New York City on Oct. 18—a heavyweight group of policymakers, business leaders, and health officials—Event 201 was a chance to see how much catch-up work is needed to bolster our disaster response systems. Full videos of the discussion are available online. "It really does shake up assumptions and change thinking about how we can prepare for a global pandemic," says Tom Inglesby, director of the Center for Health Security. Event 201 is the fourth such exercise hosted by the Johns Hopkins center, which works to prepare communities for biological threats, pandemics, and other disasters. The simulations started with 2001's Dark Winter, which gathered national security experts for its simulated smallpox outbreak. The groundbreaking event turned out to be influential in shaping U.S. efforts around pandemic preparedness—particularly due to its timing, right before 9/11. "Dark Winter resulted in more than a dozen congressional hearings, was briefed to the White House, and ultimately influenced the decision to stockpile enough smallpox vaccine for all Americans," Inglesby says. That simulation and its two successors—Atlantic Storm, conducted in 2005, and last summer's Clade X—have also demonstrated lasting value as educational and advocacy tools, with reenactments or modified versions taking place in settings including universities, the CDC, and Capitol Hill, according to Inglesby. "These exercises have a long fuse," he says. For Event 201, hosted in collaboration with the World Economic Forum and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the experts added a new layer of realism by reaching beyond government and NGOs to leaders in the private sector and business community. Participants included representatives from NBCUniversal, UPS, and Johnson & Johnson. "Very few people have included the private sector in pandemic preparedness, but that's where most of the resources are," Toner says.'

+ Pandemic Simulation Exercise Spotlights Massive Preparedness Gap (2019):
+ https://hub.jhu.edu/2019/11/06/event-201-health-security/

'Event 201 simulates an outbreak of a novel zoonotic coronavirus transmitted from bats to pigs to people that eventually becomes efficiently transmissible from person to person, leading to a severe pandemic. The pathogen and the disease it causes are modeled largely on SARS, but it is more transmissible in the community setting by people with mild symptoms. The disease starts in pig farms in Brazil, quietly and slowly at first, but then it starts to spread more rapidly in healthcare settings. When it starts to spread efficiently from person to person in the low-income, densely packed neighborhoods of some of the megacities in South America, the epidemic explodes. It is first exported by air travel to Portugal, the United States, and China and then to many other countries. Although at first some countries are able to control it, it continues to spread and be reintroduced, and eventually no country can maintain control. There is no possibility of a vaccine being available in the first year. There is a fictional antiviral drug that can help the sick but not significantly limit spread of the disease. Since the whole human population is susceptible, during the initial months of the pandemic, the cumulative number of cases increases exponentially, doubling every week. And as the cases and deaths accumulate, the economic and societal consequences become increasingly severe. The scenario ends at the 18-month point, with 65 million deaths. The pandemic is beginning to slow due to the decreasing number of susceptible people. The pandemic will continue at some rate until there is an effective vaccine or until 80-90 % of the global population has been exposed. From that point on, it is likely to be an endemic childhood disease.'

+ The Event 201 Scenario (2019):
+ http://www.centerforhealthsecurity.org/event201/scenario.html

'The 2019 Military World Games, officially known as the 7th CISM Military World Games and commonly known as Wuhan 2019, was held from October 18–27, 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei, China. The 7th Military World Games was the first international military multi-sport event to be held in China and also it was the largest military sports event ever to be held in China, with nearly 10,000 athletes from over 100 countries competing in 27 sports. The multi-sport event included 25 official and 2 demonstrative sports. Six sport disciplines such as badminton, tennis, table tennis, women's boxing and men's gymnastics made their debuts in the event. This was also the second biggest international sport event to be held in the year 2019 in China after hosting the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup. The Games were organized by the Military Sports Commission of China, Ministry of National Defense of the People's Republic of China and the military commands (Army in accordance with CISM regulations and the rules of the International Sports Federations. For the first time in the history of the Military World Games, an Olympic village was set up for the athletes prior to the commencement of the Games. The village was officially opened for the athletes following the flag-raising ceremony. Host nation China sent a delegation consisting of 553 participants for the games, which marked the record number of participants to represent a nation at a single Military World Games. Around 230,000 volunteers were recruited for the event to be staged in China. After the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic, conspiracy theories about COVID-19 attributing the virus' creation to the CIA emerged. Some articles on popular sites in Chinese have accused American athletes participating in the Wuhan Military World Games to have deployed the virus. They claim the inattentive attitude and disproportionately below average results of American athletes in the game indicate they might have been in for other purposes and they might actually be bio-warfare operatives, and that their place of residence during their stay in Wuhan was also close to the Hunan Seafood Wholesale Market, where the first known cluster of cases occurred.'

+ 7th CISM Military World Games - Wuhan 2019 (2020):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2019_Military_World_Games

'The Navajo Nation spans roughly 25,000 square miles ― about the size of West Virginia ― across portions of Arizona, New Mexico and Utah. About 350,000 members are enrolled in the nation, making it the second most populous Native American tribe, after the Cherokee Nation... The $2 trillion stimulus bill enacted Friday carved out an additional $1 billion for the Indian Health Service, a notoriously underfunded agency that provides health services to federally recognized tribes. The legislation also includes $8 billion in relief funds for tribal governments, though Nez suggested in his town hall Tuesday that the Navajo Nation had not yet received its share. He told The Los Angeles Times last week that he was concerned about individual tribes having to apply for the aid. A representative for the Navajo Nation did not immediately respond to HuffPost’s request for comment... As of Wednesday, there have been at least 174 confirmed cases of the virus in the Navajo Nation and at least seven deaths. The numbers account for those living on the reservation ― both members of the tribe and nonmembers ― and do not include Navajo who reside outside of the territory... Experts worry native populations are especially vulnerable to COVID-19 given their high rates of diabetes, heart disease and other underlying conditions that make individuals more at risk to the disease. What’s more, some Navajo have been reluctant to heed the warnings of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, due to what the LA Times described as “a long-standing distrust of the federal government.” Frequent hand-washing, as advised by medical experts, can also prove difficult in some areas of the reservation where there’s a lack of running water. New Mexico Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham (D) reportedly warned Trump during a phone call Monday that the virus could “wipe out” some tribal nations. “We’re seeing incredible spikes in the Navajo Nation,” Grisham said. “This is going to be an issue where we’re going to have to figure that out and think about maybe testing and surveillance opportunities.” She said New Mexico is seeing a higher rate of infection among younger people as well as a more immediate need for ventilators compared to other populations.'

+ Navajo Nation President: U.S. Government Ignoring Native Americans Amid Coronavirus (2020):
+ https://news.yahoo.com/navajo-nation-coronavirus-135958037.html

'The CIA, according to the Senate Intelligence Committee, had "historical experience using coercive forms of interrogation." Indeed, it had plenty, said the committee's report released Tuesday: about 50 years' worth. Deep in the committee's 500-page summary of a still-classified 6,700-page report on the agency's use of "enhanced interrogation techniques" after 9/11 there is a brief reference to KUBARK, the code name for a 1963 instruction manual on interrogation, which was used on subjects ranging from suspected Soviet double agents to Latin American dissidents and guerrillas. The techniques will sound familiar to anybody who has followed the raging debate over interrogation techniques adopted by the CIA to break Al-Qaeda suspects in secret prisons around the world. When the going got tough, the CIA got rough. The 1963 KUBARK manual included the "principal coercive techniques of interrogation: arrest, detention, deprivation of sensory stimuli through solitary confinement or similar methods, threats and fear, debility, pain, heightened suggestibility and hypnosis, narcosis and induced regression," the committee wrote. Many such methods were used on a Cold War-era Soviet defector whom a few CIA officials suspected of being a double agent. They came to light in a congressional investigation over 25 years ago. "In 1978, [CIA Director] Stansfield Turner asked former CIA officer John Limond Hart to investigate the CIA interrogation of Soviet KGB officer Yuri Nosenko using the KUBARK methods—to include sensory deprivation techniques and forced standing," the committee reported. Hart found the methods repugnant, he told a congressional committee investigating the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. "It has never fallen to my lot to be involved with any experience as unpleasant, in every possible way as...the investigation of this [Nosenko] case and...the necessity of lecturing upon it and testifying," Hart told the committee. "To me, it is an abomination, and I am happy to say that it is not in my memory typical of what my colleagues and I did in the agency during the time I was connected with it."

But the CIA reached for KUBARK when U.S.-backed Latin American military regimes were faced with human rights protests, left-wing subversion and armed insurgencies. "Just five years" after Hart expressed his dismay about torture on Capitol Hill, "in 1983 a CIA officer incorporated significant portions of the KUBARK manual into the Human Resource Exploitation (HRE) Training Manual, which the same officer used to provide interrogation training in Latin America in the early 1980s," the Intelligence Committee report said. The new HRE manual was also "used to provide interrogation training to" a party whose name was censored in the committee's report but was almost certainly the Nicaraguan Contras, a rebel group the CIA created to overthrow the Marxist revolutionary government in Managua. "A CIA officer was involved in the HRE training and conducted interrogations" that may have gone overboard, the committee's report said. "The CIA inspector general later recommended that he be orally admonished for inappropriate use of interrogation techniques." While it's not clear whether the officer was disciplined, he was sufficiently rehabilitated so that two decades later, "in the fall of 2002, [he] became the CIA's chief of interrogations in the CIA's Renditions Group, the officer in charge of CIA interrogations." According to the report, an unnamed head of the interrogation program—possibly the same man—threatened to quit over ethical concerns about CIA methods. "This is a train [wreck] waiting to happen and I intend to get the hell off the train before it happens," the CIA officer wrote in an email to colleagues obtained by the committee. He said he had notified the CIA's Counterterrorism Center of his impending resignation and cited a "serious reservation" about "the current state of affairs." Other veterans of the Latin American counterinsurgency wars were key players in the questionable post-9/11 interrogation practices exposed by the Senate committee, although they went unmentioned in its report because they were not CIA officers. Retired Army Colonel James Steele, along with another retired army colonel, James H. Coffman, helped the Iraqi government set up police commando units and "worked...in detention centres that were set up with millions of dollars of U.S. funding," the London-based Guardian newspaper and the BBC reported in a joint project in 2013. Steele had been commander of the U.S. military advisory group in El Salvador during its 1980s civil war, a struggle remembered chiefly for the "death squads" the regime used against nuns and priests allied with the poor. Steele had previously been decorated for his service in South Vietnam as a U.S. Army reconnaissance patrol leader.

Oddly, the CIA's vast interrogation experience from the Vietnam War gets scant mention in those parts of the Senate committee report dealing with the methods' origins. It notes only that in May 2013, "a senior CIA interrogator would tell personnel from the CIA's Office of Inspector General" that the harsh methods being adopted by the agency after 9/11 originated in a practice used by North Vietnamese Communist interrogators to extract "confessions for propaganda purposes" from U.S. prisoners "who possessed little actionable intelligence." The CIA, the interrogator believed, "need[ed] a different working model for interrogating terrorists where confessions are not the ultimate goal." The CIA's Vietnam interrogation centers, jointly run in most cases with its South Vietnamese counterparts, were chiefly designed to extract information from captured Communist guerrillas, spies and suspected underground political agents, in order to launch attacks. Sometimes, however, a confession was used to then parade an apostate through South Vietnamese-controlled neighborhoods, like a trophy. And prisoner abuse, including torture in so-called "tiger cages," was common, according to many witnesses and other sources over the years. In 1969, the Army filed murder charges against the commander of the Green Berets in Vietnam and seven of his men after they used hallucinogenic drugs on a suspected double agent and killed him after he failed to confess. The charges were eventually dropped after a fierce lobbying campaign by then-CIA director Richard Helms, who feared a trial would expose abuses under the agency's secret Phoenix assassination program. After Vietnam and El Salvador, Steele went on to work in Baghdad under General David Petraeus, according to the account by the Guardian and BBC. He took Coffman with him. Petraeus commanded CIA and military special ops groups working jointly against Al-Qaeda in Iraq. "They worked hand in hand," an Iraqi general, Muntadher al-Samari, said of Steele and Coffman. "I never saw them apart in the 40 or 50 times I saw them inside the detention centres. They knew everything that was going on there...the torture, the most horrible kinds of torture." Steele and Coffman could not be reached for comment.

"Every single detention centre would have its own interrogation committee," added al-Samari, whose account was buttressed by others. "Each one was made up of an intelligence officer and eight interrogators. This committee [would] use all means of torture to make the detainee confess, like using electricity or hanging him upside down, pulling out their nails, and beating them on sensitive parts." Coffman was later awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, "for exceptionally valorous conduct while assigned as the Senior Advisor to the 1st Iraqi Special Police Commando Brigade" during the battle for Mosul, Iraq, in 2004, "during which the unit likely would have been overrun were it not for the courageous leadership of Colonel Coffman and the one Commando officer not wounded." The prison abuses in Iraq, however, turned out to be the loose strings in the otherwise tightly wound U.S. interrogation program. When the photos of the abuses at Abu Ghraib exploded in the media in April 2004, at least one American ambassador in an unidentified country demanded to know if the CIA was doing anything similar under his roof that he didn't know about. The Senate Intelligence Committee was disturbed enough by the Abu Ghraib revelations to arrange a classified briefing. "The media reports caused members of the Committee and individuals in the executive branch to focus on detainee issues," the committee's report said. Top CIA officials were summoned to Capitol Hill. Their testimony was basically: That's the Army, not us.'

+ CIA 'Torture' Practices Started Long Before 9/11 Attacks (2014):
+ https://www.newsweek.com/2014/12/26/cia-torture-practices-started-long-911-attacks-senate-report-notes-29074...
+ https://www.newsweek.com/what-cia-torturers-did-their-captives-290601

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'Back in his boxcar, the old hermit unpacked the laptop and plugged it in. He sat down in front of the Intel Wishing Machine and formulated a silent, unconditional prayer for the Nataraja to return. Dead or alive, regardless of any consequences, he was determined to goddamn these people out of this world. Trolls! Demons! Goddamns! He knew that the fulfillment of his wish might occasion an earthquake (unknown in this area) or a winter tornado. Might even rip the known universe apart. “Let it come down.” From the boxcar use of Windows X with Docker Desktop on the Gibson, he could see the snow swirling down like flakes in a paperweight. His wish is a giant arm-sleeve tattoo of a rainbow-feathered serpent, scratched across the bluest skies. He can reach out and turn the paperweight upside down like a turtle on his back in a Turing Test. He can smash it into millions of pieces against a wall with SMERSH, but he cannot break it evenly in two without resorting to gem-cutting. Lacking access to PVC tool certification, he falters. The crowd can see the SWAT teams racing through the winter tundra from the donut shop. The Nataraja wears the crystals of snowflakes in the fur of his tiger skin, wrapped around his waist. The celestial samadhi comes closer to unity in the World Soul by passing beyond one universe at a time. Then, incredibly, a latch at the door sounds on the boxcar. The hermit's Chittagong warcry circles out across the curled brass door knocker, like a toast made of thick chocolate Frankenstein smoke. He slides the gate open and blackness from a point of disappearance 13 billion light years in the past pours in with gravity and dark matter from a cosmic well.

It was a hectic, portentous time in Paris, in 1959, at the Beat Hotel, No. 9, Rue de GitLab Encoeur. We all thought we were interplanetary agents involved in a deadly struggle... Disney battle toads... Navajo code breakers... "Dirty Dozen" ambushes from the Presidio. It seemed like "shit just got real" at the space-time continuum at NASA. But was it surrealism or hyperrealism? SuperFlat or Photoshop? From here, who knows? We were promised air transport out of the area, like the Hmong, to Stockton or Minneapolis on cargo flights. Something like the helicopters at the Saigon Embassy in 1975. We were getting faq messages about the coronavirus, making LinkedIn contacts with VCs and Angel investors. Everything had meaning then with the mobile app boom led by Michael Arrington in Cyprus. The danger and the fear at AOL were real enough, but Arianna thought she had already cashed out in eyelashes long ago: "When somebody is trying to kill you, you know it. Better get up off your tail and fight," she said. That was good enough for Haig. Remember when Cobain threw a blast of energy and all the light in the Earl’s Court area of London went out, all the way down to North End Road? That was my five quid from Haig spent on a weekly room in the Empress Hotel in Covent Garden, torn down long ago. The wind Lenin called up from Wu Tai Shan for this event was like Conrad Veldt in one of those sword-and-sorcery movies. There Vlad was up on top of a Jungian tower raising his arms like Kramer and yelling: “Wind! Wind! Wind!” while the gusts ripped the shutters off the Wall Street stalls along the #EndGame2020 set. Kramer set up tidal waves, wildfires, and mini-avalanches causing landslides in the stock markets that snowballed and likely killed several hundred people in Holland or Belgium or someplace. "Some people did something..." It all reads like sci-fi novel from here. CNBC is not very good sci-fi, like Bruce Sterling writing for Bush and Cheney in exchange for a greater cut in the Provo deal, but since it is officially sponsored by the Deep State, roll with it for the propaganda value. True, there were casualties... quite a number. "Here there be dragons..."

'Following World War II something happened that was to have tremendous significance for the future of all mankind. The intellectuals took note of this happening and brought it to the attention of the world power elite The elite were severely shaken by the predicted repercussions of this event. They were told that by or shortly after the year 2000 the total collapse of civilization as we know it and the possible extinction of the human race could occur. It could occur, that is, if we did not destroy the earth with nuclear weapons before then. They were told that the only things that could stop these predicted events would be severe cutbacks of the human population, the cessation or retardation of technological and economic growth, the elimination of meat in the human diet, strict control of future human reproduction, a total commitment to preserving the environment, colonization of space, and a paradigm shift in the evolutionary consciousness of man. Those in power immediately formed an alliance and set about bringing the recommended changes to fruition through propaganda, mind con- trol and other manipulations of the masses. The Illuminati's prayers had been answered. What was this event that caused so much consternation and changed forever the future of the world? Millions of soldiers returned from war. The soldiers found lonely, eager women waiting for them. The greatest coupling in the history of the human race occurred. The result was everyone born between 1941 and 1955 and the children that they would even- tually produce. It was me and you and everyone who lives today. It was the great worldwide BABY BOOM. It was the culmination of all man's efforts to survive through history. It was modern medicine, better diets, heat in winter, pure running water, and proper disposal of sewage. It was the point in history when the birth rate so exceeded the death rate that the world's population doubled between 1957 and 1990. It was the most wonderful time in the history of the world, but it was also the worst. It signaled the end of man's most precious achievement. An alliance of all of the powers on earth, open and hidden, decided that individual freedoms could no longer be tolerated in the interest of the preservation of the human race. They believed the common man could not be trusted. What had been the unfulfilled dream of many individual groups became reality by the concentration of power in the alliance known as the Bilderberg Group. What had been impossible before was now promised The New World Order that so many had envisioned was now a certainty. The first study was made during World War II to determine the impact of the returning soldiers upon the economy. The results mobilized the ruling elite. A second secret study was conducted in 1957 by scientists meeting in Huntsville, Alabama. It confirmed the results of the first. The conclusion was that civilization as we know it would collapse shortly after the year 2000 unless the population was seriously curtailed. The study expressed a concern that since atomic weapons existed they would ul- timately be used. Total worldwide disarmament was urged. Congress adopted the disarmament plan and created the U.S. Disarmament Agency, President Dwight David Eisenhower had this to say in 1957: "As a result of lowered infant mortality, longer lives, and the accelerating conquest of famine there is under way a population explosion so incredibly great that in little more than another generation the population of the world is ex- pected to double." A third study was made by the Club of Rome ending in 1968 to determine the limits to growth. The result was the same. The Club of Rome was commissioned to develop a computer model of the world so as to predict the outcome of corrections made to social and economic structures by the elect. The Club of Rome was also asked to develop a computer model of a New World Order. Both tasks were accomplished.

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Studies were done to determine a method to arrest the population explosion before the point of no return would be reached. It was determined that an immediate attack on the problem would involve two points of intervention. The first was to lower the birth rate and the second was to increase the death rate.

To lower the birth rate several programs were put into motion. The first was the development of positive birth-control methods using mechanical (diaphragm and condom), chemical (foam and birth-control pills), and medical (sterilization, abortion, and hysterectomy) procedures. These were developed and implemented. The Women's Liberation movement was started with the demand for free abortions, using "pro choice" as its rallying cry. Homosexuality was encouraged and Gay Liberation was born. Homosexuals do not have children. Zero population growth became a hot subject at cocktail parties. Individual freedom, "the heat of the moment," religion, and the old blue laws sabotaged these efforts, and while zero population growth became a reality in some areas, population increased rapidly in others. The only alternative left to the world's ruling elite was to increase the death rate. This was a difficult thing to do, as no one wanted to pick people out of a crowd and line them up for execution. Neither did they relish the possible consequences of an enraged public upon discovering that they were being systematically murdered. Of course, a very short but very deadly global war using nuclear weapons upon select population con- centrations was contemplated and, to tell you the truth, was not ruled out. The fact that such a population control was even contemplated confirmed the worst fears of those who had participated in the 1957 study. War was put on the back burner to simmer, but may become a reality. In the meantime something else had to be done that would absolve the decision makers of guilt and place the blame on those who did not lead clean lives. Something that could be blamed upon Mother Nature. What was needed was the bubonic plague or some other horrible but natural disease. The answer came from Rome. Several Top Secret recommendations were made by Dr. Aurelio Peccei of the Club of Rome. He advocated that a plague be introduced that would havhe same effect as the famous Black Death of history. The chief recommendation was to develop a microbe which would attack the autoimmune system and thus render the development of a vaccine impossible. The orders were given to develop the microbe and to develop a prophylactic and a cure. The microbe would be used against the general population and would be introduced by vaccine. The prophylactic was to be used by the rulling elite. The cure will be administered to the survivors when it is decided that enough people have died. The cure will be announced as newly developed when in fact it has existed from the beginning. This plan is a part of Global 2000. The prophylactic and the cure are suppressed. "Man has skyrocketed from a defensive position, largely subordinated to Nature's alternatives, to a new and dominant one. From it he not only can and does influence everything in the world but, voluntarily or unwittingly, can and indeed does determine the alternatives of his own future and ultimately must choose his options for it. In other words, his novel power condition practically compels him to take up new regulatory functions that willy-nilly he has had to discharge with respect to the world's mixed natural-human systems. Having penetrated a number of the erst- while mysteries and being able to sway events massively, he is now vested with unprecedented, tremendous responsibilities and thrown into the new role of moderator of life on the planet -including his own." The above words were written by Dr. Aurelio Peccei and are taken verbatim from page 607 of The Global 2000 Report to the President. Funding was obtained from the U.S. Congress under H.B. 15090 (1969), where $10 million was given to the DOD's 1970 budget. Testimony before the Senate Committee revealed that they intended to produce "a synthetic biological agent, an agent that does not naturally exist and for which no natural immunity could have been acquired. Within the next 5 to 10 years it would probably be possible to make a new infective microor- ganism which could differ in certain important aspects from any known disease-causing organisms. Most important of these is that it might be refractory to the immunological and therapeutic processes upon which we depend to maintain our relative freedom from infectious disease." Sir Julian Huxley said, "Overpopulation is, in my opinion, the most serious threat to the whole future of our species." The project, called MK-NAOMI, was carried out at Fort Detrick, Maryland. Since large populations were to be decimated, the ruling elite decided to target the "undesirable" elements of society. Specifically targeted were the black, Hispanic, and homosexual populations. The poor homosexuals were encouraged on the one hand and scheduled for extinction on the other. The African continent was infected via smallpox vaccine in 1977. The vaccine was administered by the World Health Organization. According to Dr. Robert Strecker, "Without a cure the entire black population of Africa will be dead within 15 years. Some countries are well beyond epidemic status."

The U.S. population was infected in 1978 with the hepatitis B vaccine. Dr. Wolf Szmuness, the ex-roommate of Pope John Paul II, was the master- mind behind the November/78 to October/79 and March/80 to October/81 experimental hepatitis B vaccine trials conducted by the Centers for Disease Control in New York, San Francisco and four other American cities. He loosed the plague of AIDS upon the American people. The gay popula- tion was infected. The ads for participants specifically asked for promiscuous homosexual male volunteers. Whatever causes AIDS was in the vaccine. The vaccine was manufactured and bottled in Phoenix, Arizona. The order was given by the POLICY COMMITTEE of THE BILDER-BERG GROUP based in Switzerland. Other measures were also ordered. The one you will be able to check the easiest is the Haig-Kissinger Depopulation Policy, which is administered by the State Department. This policy dictates that Third World nations take positive and effective steps to decrease their populations and hold them in check or they get no aid from the United States. If the Third World nations refuse, civil war usually breaks out and the rebels are usually found to be trained, armed, and financed by the Central Intelligence Agency. That is why many more civilians (especially young fertile females) than soldiers have been killed in El Salvador, Nicaragua, and other places. These wars have been instigated in Catholic countries by Jesuits (see Chapter 2). The Haig-Kissinger depopulation policy has taken over various levels of government and is in fact determining U.S. foreign policy. The planning organization operates outside the White House and directs its entire efforts to reduce the world's population by 2 billion people through war, famine, disease, and any other means necessary. This group is the National Security Council's Ad Hoc Group on Population Policy. The policy planning staff is in the State Department's Office of Population Affairs, established in 1975 by Henry Kissinger. This same group drafted the Global 2000 Report to the President that was given to Carter. Thomas Ferguson, the Latin American case officer for the State Department's Office of Population Affairs (OPA) made the following state- ments: "There is a single theme behind all our work; we must reduce population levels. Either they do it our way, through nice clean methods or they will get the kind of mess that we have in El Salvador, or in Iran, or in Beirut. Population is a political problem. Once population is out of control it requires authoritarian government, even fascism, to reduce it....The professionals," stated Ferguson, "aren't interested in lowering population for humanitarian reasons. That sounds nice. We look at resources and environmental constraints. We look at our strategic needs, and we say that this country must lower its population, or else we will have trouble. So steps are taken. El Salvador is an example where our failure to lower population by simple means has created the basis for a national security crisis. The government of El Salvador failed to use our programs to lower their population. Now they get a civil war because of it. There will be dislocation and food shortages. They still have too many people there. Civil wars are somewhat drawn-out ways to reduce population. The quickest way to reduce population is through famine, like in Africa or through DISEASE, like the Black Death, all of which MIGHT OCCUR in El Salvador." His budget for FY 1980 was $190 million; for FY 1981 it was Henry Kissinger created this group after discussion with leaders of the Club of Rome during the 1974 population conferences in Bucharest and Rome. The Club of Rome is controlled by Europe's Black Nobility. Alexander Haig is a firm believer in population control. It was Haig thatbacked Kissinger and pushed the OPA into action. Ferguson said, "We will go into a country and say, here is your god- damn development plan. Throw it out the window. Start looking at the size of your population and figure out what must be done to reduce it. Ifyou don't like that, if you don't want to choose to do it through planning, then you'll have an El Salvador or an Iran, or worse, a Cambodia."'

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Well, there isn’t any transport out of SE Asia now. That's not to say that there aren’t any important James Bond or Dirk Pitt assignments anymore. It’s every man, woman, and child for his or her own selfishness in the Green Zone. Who knows what the people will do. Like the old vagabond in the Aboriginal dreamtime said:

"Maybe we are lost. And this is what happens when you lose. Apparently life goes on longer than 13 trillion universes in the future. If that is the nature of the soul in the past life, where does it go between universal cycles when there is no space and time? The hells last longer than 13 trillion universes. Some people are goddamn. They don't care about a single insect in the world, not one fish in the sea! They live to stalk, harass, torture, demean, and kill other beings. They take pleasure in inflicting pain, suffering, and cruelty. They buy anything they can with money, even at the cost of their own soul. GODDAMN GODDAMN GODDAMN GODDAMN GODDAMN... it goes on like that every nano-second with exponentials at the top of these people's heads until they are gradually filled up completely with the black coal of evil karma. Ghost armies suck their lifeforces from every pore and hair until they exit from this world with no more good karma than 7 scorpions remaining. After that is finished, 7 times a scorpion, they go to the hells, some by way of the preta-extended detour or in the center of earth gravity well disappearing instantly. Others remain trapped in a purgatory near earth until all of the karma from planetary events congeals and then they plunge to the lower realms together, like oil that drains in wells into a vast pool of fat, then slides away. There doesn't seem to be a fixed rule. Maybe it will take them 13 billion light years to travel across the universe together and disappear into a black hole. Unless these people honestly repent at the soul level, what can actually be done? Under Original Sin, these beings come into the world laden with evil from 13 trillion universes of experiences before they were born trapped in the soul. Unless they are contained, expelled, and prevented from returning, is it even possible for the Kingdom of Heaven to descend here on Mother Earth? They will destroy our world with its collective goodwill as well as the bounty of Mother Earth's species. They destroy their fellow human beings they have never met with self-hatred, bigotry, and less concern than a Jain has for an amoeba. They live in the completely artificial world of ego illuminating the repressed thoughts, feelings, and emotions in the id, projecting them onto others in glosses, fears, nausea, and whitewash. The mystery of death remains in the eternal life narrative distributed across the cycle of abuse. The difference between human beings is as vast as the chasm between heaven and hell, even though they are only standing an inch apart, shoulder to shoulder. What other solution is there but to goddamn them out of this world? What wisdom will ever bless people this corrupt at the soul-level to change? They mock, destroy, and pillory everything that is holy in this world, even when standing right beside a temple. Even when presented with every opportunity to learn and respect the teachings of religion, or help other human beings and do the right thing, they go the other way. Other beings are simply their sport, pleasure, enjoyment, income, or entertainment. They are the champions of Satan and Mara in this world. GODDAMN."'

'Cooper’s most famous prediction was made during the June 28th, 2001, broadcast of The Hour of the Time. A little past his 58th birthday and drinking heavily, Cooper was doing his program from a studio he’d built in the den of his house at 96 North Clearview Circle, atop a hill in the small White Mountains town of Eagar, Arizona, 15 miles from the New Mexico line. “Can you believe what you have been seeing on CNN today, ladies and gentlemen?” Cooper asked the Hour of the Time audience that evening. “Supposedly, a CNN reporter found Osama bin Laden, took a television camera crew with him, and interviewed him and his top leadership, lieutenants, and his colonels, and generals…in their hideout! “Now don’t you think that’s kind of strange, folks?” Cooper asked with his signature chuckle. “Because the largest intelligence apparatus in the world, with the biggest budget in the history of world, has been looking for Osama bin Laden for years, and years, and years, and can’t find him! “But some doofus jerk-off reporter with his little camera crew waltzes right into his secret hideout and interviews him!” This meant one of two things, Cooper told the audience. Either “everyone in the intelligence community and all the intelligence agencies of the United States government are blithering idiots and incompetent fools, or they’re lying to us.” The fact was, Cooper told the audience, no one in the U.S. intelligence services was really looking for Osama bin Laden. They knew where he was. They had since the beginning of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Bin Laden, along with his entire family, was a wholly owned subsidiary of the Central Intelligence Agency.

“They created him. They’re the ones funding him. They supported him to make their new utopian worlds…and he has served them well.” There were rumors floating around the mass media that bin Laden was planning attacks on the United States and Israel, but this was just subterfuge, Cooper said. “If Osama bin Laden is an enemy of Israel, don’t you think the Mossad would have taken care of that a long time ago?” Cooper asked. Something else was in the wind. There was no other reason for the government to allow the CNN report but to further stamp bin Laden’s bearded, pointy face upon the collective American mind-set. Bogeyman of the moment, the Saudi prince was being readied for his close-up. “I’m telling you to be prepared for a major attack!” Cooper declared. The target would be a large American city. “Something terrible is going to happen in this country. And whatever is going to happen they’re going to blame on Osama bin Laden. Don’t you even believe it.” Two and a half months later, on September 11th, 2001, after two commercial airliners flew into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in a cataclysm that killed 2,996 people, including 343 New York City Fire Department personnel, Cooper’s prediction came to pass.

By the time Cooper got on the air that morning, the towers had already fallen. Several hours passed before the name Osama bin Laden surfaced on the BBC feed Cooper was monitoring. The British station, which Cooper regarded as marginally more reliable than the American networks, was doing an interview with the former Israeli Prime Minister General Ehud Barak and Richard Perle, chairman of George W. Bush’s Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee. Widely known as the Prince of Darkness, in part for his Reagan‐era support of Edward Teller’s $100 billion Strategic Defense Initiative, known as Star Wars, Perle said the attacks on New York and Washington were “clearly an act of war.” “All our Western civilization is under attack,” Barak put in. The interviewer asked Perle if he thought the United States would be justified in firing cruise missiles at Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan. Perle, who along with fellow neocons Dick Cheney, Paul Wolfowitz, and Donald Rumsfeld would soon push hard for the reinvasion of Iraq, answered in the affirmative. The Afghani authorities had “allowed Osama bin Laden to operate in their territory,” Perle said. That alone was reason enough for a military strike. Bin Laden was involved, no doubt about it. Yes, Barak agreed, there was “every reason to believe” bin Laden was behind the attack. It was then Cooper interrupted the transmission, shouting, “How do they know who did it? “If the United States government had no warning like they say, if they didn’t know who was going to mount these attacks, and there are no survivors from the people in these planes, how do they know Osama bin Laden is behind it?” So, yet again, Cooper was right. Events were transpiring exactly as his research had indicated. Osama bin Laden, the Saudi mama’s-boy prince, was about to be officially blamed for the most spectacular foreign attack on America since Pearl Harbor.

Not that Cooper was gloating about his latest successful prediction. What had happened in New York City — thousands dead, their bodies crushed beneath tons of twisted rubble, a toxic cloud rising over the metropolis — was just the beginning of a new torrent of death. On the radio feed, Perle and Barak were discussing logistics; Afghanistan would be a target, possibly, Iraq as well. “How can they determine that they should bomb Afghanistan?” Cooper shouted with alarm. “Who are we going to be bombing? The terrorists, or the innocent people of Kabul?” Cooper made another prediction. “Folks, I can assure you that 72 hours from now we will be at war. We will be bombing two or maybe three countries….Because that’s how it works. When governments are attacked, they lash out. Thousands of people who had nothing whatsoever to do with what is happening at the World Trade Center and the Pentagon are going to die. Nothing will be the same after today,” Cooper said grimly. “Get ready for it, folks, because that’s what you’re going to be hearing in the next weeks and months on radio and television: Nothing will be the same after today….Because I’ll tell you, ladies and gentlemen, that’s what the people who really did this want you to think, that nothing, nothing, will be the same after today. “And you know what? They’re right. They’re telling the truth about that. Within weeks the Congress will pass draconian legislation aimed at restricting the rights of American citizens. You’re going to have surveillance cameras on every street corner. You think your phones are being tapped now, just wait. “No one is going to gain from this except a very small group of people. Everyone else will lose. No one will lose more than the American people.” This would be the most grievous casualty of the 9/11 attacks, Cooper told the audience, the nation itself, the America that could have been.

Freedom, the most elusive of qualities, best distilled in the inspired documents of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, had been dealt a fatal blow: “From now on, freedom will be whatever the law allows you to do.” That wasn’t going to stop him, Cooper told listeners. He’d stay behind his microphone up in his hilltop studio. He’d keep sending out The Hour of the Time, speaking truth to the ultimate power, if it was the last thing he did. It was soon after that Cooper’s final prediction came true. “They’re going to kill me, ladies and gentlemen,” he told the audience. “They’re going to come up here in the middle of the night, and shoot me dead, right on my doorstep.” And, around midnight on November 5th, 2001, less than two months after the 9/11 attacks, that’s exactly what happened.'

+ The Granddaddy of American Conspiracy Theorists (2018):
+ http://www.centerforhealthsecurity.org/event201/scenario.html
+ https://reason.com/2001/12/07/death-wish-2/
+ https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-2001-nov-07-mn-1182-story.html

'For the first time in history, all 12 living directors of the CIA will be interviewed in THE SPYMASTERS – CIA IN THE CROSSHAIRS, a two-hour documentary premiering Saturday, November 28 at 9 p.m. ET/PT on SHOWTIME across all platforms. Narrated by Emmy® and Tony® winner Mandy Patinkin (Homeland), the film offers a remarkable inside look into the spy agency’s controversial conduct in the war on terror – marked by the use of brutal interrogation techniques, secret prisons and lethal drone warfare. Written by Chris Whipple (The President’s Gatekeepers), THE SPYMASTERS is directed by Jules and Gédéon Naudet (the Emmy, Peabody® and DuPont® award-winning 9/11) in a joint SHOWTIME and CBS News production. Executive producers are Jules and Gédéon Naudet, Chris Whipple, Susan Zirinsky and David Hume Kennerly. Interviewed in THE SPYMASTERS are George H. W. Bush, Stansfield Turner, William Webster, Robert Gates, James Woolsey, John Deutch, George Tenet, Porter Goss, Michael Hayden, Leon Panetta, David Petraeus, and John Brennan. Also featured in the documentary are former acting directors Michael Morell and John McLaughlin, along with former top agency operatives Cofer Black, Jose Rodriguez and current senior counterterrorism analyst Gina Bennett. Highlights of the documentary include former CIA Director George Tenet and his Director of Counterterrorism Cofer Black detailing unheeded warnings given to the Bush administration of an imminent al-Qaeda attack. Two months before 9/11, in an emergency meeting at the White House, they warned National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice that the attack could even take place on U.S. soil. They urged the White House to go on a “war footing.” The directors are also remarkably candid about the agency’s controversial lethal drone warfare program – a program so secret that the CIA has never officially acknowledged it. Former directors William Webster and Robert Gates take issue with the way the agency targeted and killed an American citizen, militant Muslim cleric Anwar al-Awlaki. Gates also takes issue with a form of attacks known as “signature strikes,” the practice of targeting unnamed terrorist suspects. Former Director James Woolsey says the Obama administration is depriving itself of valuable intelligence. The president, he says “is killing more people than he needs to and we’d be better off capturing some of them and interrogating them.” THE SPYMASTERS also reveals a sharp division among the directors over the ethics of so-called “enhanced interrogation techniques,” a form of questioning suspected terrorists that President Obama has labeled “torture.” Current CIA director John Brennan acknowledges for the first time that he would refuse to waterboard a detainee even if ordered by the President.'

+ SHOWTIME® TO PREMIERE PROVOCATIVE DOCUMENTARY THE SPYMASTERS – CIA IN THE CROSSHAIRS (2015):
+ https://www.viacomcbspressexpress.com/showtime/releases/view?id=43885

'The more I study these deep events, the more I see suggestive similarities between them, increasing the possibility that they are not unrelated external intrusions on American history, but parts of an endemic process, sharing to some degree or other a common source. For example, one factor linking Dallas, Watergate, Iran-Contra, and 9/11, has been the involvement in all four deep events of personnel involved in America’s highest-level emergency planning, known since the 1950s as Continuity of Government (COG) planning, or more colloquially inside the Pentagon as “the Doomsday Project.” A few of these actors may have been located at the top, as overseers of the secret COG system. Others – including some I shall talk about today – were located further down in its secret communications network. I see this planning group as one among many in what I have chosen to call the American deep state, along with agencies like the CIA and NSA, the private groups like Booz Allen Hamilton to which more than half of the US intelligence budget is outsourced, and finally the powerful banks and corporations whose views are well represented in the CIA and NSA. But if only one group among many, the COG planning group is also special, because of its control of and access to a communications channel, not under government control, that can reach deeply into the US social structure. I discuss these matters at some length in my next book, The American Deep State, due out in November. COG planning was originally authorized by Truman and Eisenhower as planning for a response to a crippling atomic attack that had decapitated government. In consequence its planning group contemplated extreme measures, including what Alfonso Chardy in 1987 called “suspension of the Constitution.” And yet in Iran-Contra its asset of a secret communications network, developed for the catastrophe of decapitation, was used instead to evade an official embargo on arms sales to Iran that dated back to 1979. My question today is whether the network could have been similarly misused in November 1963.

The Iran-contra misuse has been well-documented. Oliver North supervised the sale of arms to Iran by using his resources as the National Security Council action officer for COG planning, under cover of a “National Program Office” that was overseen by then Vice-President George H. W. Bush. North and his superiors could thus use the COG emergency network, known then as Flashboard, for the arms sales to Iran that had to be concealed from other parts of the Washington bureaucracy as well as the public. So when North had to send emergency instructions for arms delivery to the US Embassy in Lisbon, instructions that directly contravened the embargo prohibiting such sales, he used the Flashboard network to avoid alerting the Ambassador and other unwitting personnel. The documented example of Iran-Contra allows me to explain what I am saying about the users of the COG network, and also what I am not saying. To begin with, I am not saying that a single “Secret Team” has for decades been using the COG network to manipulate the US Government from outside it. There is no evidence to suggest that North’s actions in Iran-Contra were known to any of his superiors other than CIA chief William Casey and probably George Bush. The point is that a very small group had access to a high-level secret network outside government review, in order to implement a program in opposition to government policy. They succumbed to the temptation to use this secure network that had been designed for other purposes. I have argued elsewhere that this secure network was used again on 9/11, to implement key orders for which the 9/11 Commission could find no records. Whether it was also used for illicit purposes is not known. It is certain that the COG emergency network program survived North’s demise, and continued to be secretly developed for decades, at a cost of billions, and overseen by a team including Dick Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld. It is relevant that the two men’s presence on the committee spanned three administrations – those of Reagan, Bush I, and Clinton — even though at one point under Clinton neither man held a position inside the U.S. government. Such continuity was essential for a group so secret that few records existed of its activities. And on 9/11 COG plans were officially implemented for the first time, by Vice President Cheney and Defense Secretary Rumsfeld, the two men who had planned them for so many years.

Whether or not they knew about Iran-Contra, Cheney and Rumsfeld were on the COG planning committee at the time of Iran-Contra. There is no such obvious link between COG planning and Watergate, but the involvement of COG personnel in Watergate is nonetheless striking. James McCord, one of the Watergate burglars, was a member of a small Air Force Reserve unit in Washington attached to the Office of Emergency Preparedness (OEP) that was assigned “to draw up lists of radicals and to develop contingency plans for censorship of the news media and U.S. mail in time of war.” His unit was part of the Wartime Information Security Program (WISP), which had responsibility for activating “contingency plans for imposing censorship on the press, the mails and all telecommunications (including government communications) [and] preventive detention of civilian ‘security risks,’ who would be placed in military ‘camps.’” In addition, John Dean, perhaps the central Watergate figure, had overseen secret COG activities when serving as the associate deputy attorney general... It is important at this stage to point out that, although COG elements like Mount Weather were considered part of the Pentagon, the COG “government in waiting” was at no time under military control. On the contrary, President Eisenhower had ensured that it was broadly based at the top, so its planners included some of the nation’s top corporate leaders, like Frank Stanton of CBS. By all accounts of COG leadership in the decades after Reagan took office in 1981, this so-called “shadow government” still included CEOs of private corporations, like Donald Rumsfeld and Dick Cheney, as well as three former CIA directors: Richard Helms, James Schlesinger, and George Bush. Alfonso Chardy wrote in 1987 that the “virtual parallel government” empowering North to run Iran-Contra had also developed “a secret contingency plan that called for suspension of the Constitution, turning control of the United States over to FEMA.” Subsequently North was questioned in the Iran-Contra Hearings about this charge, but was prevented by the Committee Chairman, Democratic Senator Inouye, from answering in a public session. Later, investigating the powerful COG planning group, CNN called it “a hidden government [in the USA] about which you know nothing.” James Mann emphasized its hawkish continuity, unaffected by changes of presidency in the White House: Cheney and Rumsfeld were, in a sense, a part of the permanent, though hidden, national security apparatus of the United States, inhabitants of a world in which Presidents come and go, but America always keeps on fighting...” The Pentagon official’s description of COG planners as a “secret government-in-waiting” under Clinton (which still included both Cheney and Rumsfeld) is very close to the standard definition of a cabal, as a group of persons secretly united to bring about a change or overthrow of government. A very similar situation existed under Jimmy Carter, when some of those who would later figure in Iran-Contra (notably George H.W. Bush and Theodore Shackley) worked with chiefs of foreign intelligence services (the so-called Safari Club) “to start working with [former DCI Richard] Helms [then U.S. Ambassador to Iran] and his most trusted operatives outside of Congressional and even Agency purview.” This group began by backing guerrilla forces in Africa (notably UNITA of Jonas Savimbi in Angola), which they knew would not be backed by the CIA under William Colby or Stansfield Turner.'

+ The Hidden Government Group Linking JFK, Watergate, Iran-Contra and 9/11 (2014):
+ https://whowhatwhy.org/2014/10/05/the-hidden-government-group-linking-jfk-watergate-iran-contra-and-911/

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'Since its release, Behold a Pale Horse has been among the most popular “prison books” (in that prisoners read them), a distinction it shares with Robert Greene’s "The 48 Laws of Power". During the crack epidemic of the 1990s, it was not unusual for a single copy of Behold a Pale Horse to go through enough hands in the cellblocks of places such as Attica to break the book’s spine. Some of Cooper’s best-known predictions appear in Behold a Pale Horse, which runs a densely typed 500 pages.'

+ 9-Oct-01: Chemical and Biological Attack (2001):
+ http://hourofthetime.com/milton-william-bill-cooper-mp3-collection/

'In May 1938, Bush accepted a prestigious appointment as president of the Carnegie Institution of Washington (CIW), which had been founded in Washington, D.C. Also known as the Carnegie Institution for Science, it had an endowment of $33 million, and annually spent $1.5 million in research, most of which was carried out at its eight major laboratories. Bush became its president on January 1, 1939, with a salary of $25,000. He was now able to influence research policy in the United States at the highest level, and could informally advise the government on scientific matters. Bush soon discovered that the CIW had serious financial problems, and he had to ask the Carnegie Corporation for additional funding. Bush clashed over leadership of the institute with Cameron Forbes, CIW's chairman of the board, and with his predecessor, John Merriam, who continued to offer unwanted advice. A major embarrassment to them all was Harry H. Laughlin, the head of the Eugenics Record Office, whose activities Merriam had attempted to curtail without success. Bush made it a priority to remove him, regarding him as a scientific fraud, and one of his first acts was to ask for a review of Laughlin's work. In June 1938, Bush asked Laughlin to retire, offering him an annuity, which Laughlin reluctantly accepted. The Eugenics Record Office was renamed the Genetics Record Office, its funding was drastically cut, and it was closed completely in 1944. Senator Robert Reynolds attempted to get Laughlin reinstated, but Bush informed the trustees that an inquiry into Laughlin would "show him to be physically incapable of directing an office, and an investigation of his scientific standing would be equally conclusive." Bush wanted the institute to concentrate on hard science. He gutted Carnegie's archeology program, setting the field back many years in the United States. He saw little value in the humanities and social sciences, and slashed funding for Isis, a journal dedicated to the history of science and technology and its cultural influence. Bush later explained that "I have a great reservation about these studies where somebody goes out and interviews a bunch of people and reads a lot of stuff and writes a book and puts it on a shelf and nobody ever reads it."

+ Edward Mandell House (1858 – 1938):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_M._House

'The Eugenics Record Office (ERO) was founded at Cold Spring Harbor, New York, by Davenport with initial support from Mary Williamson Averell (Mrs. E. H. Harriman) and John Harvey Kellogg, and later by the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Laughlin was made the managing director and was zealous in pursuing the goals of the institution, even co-writing a eugenical comedy in four acts for performance at the ERO for the amusement of the field workers being trained. He regularly lectured to various groups around the country. Laughlin provided extensive statistical testimony to the United States Congress in support of the Johnson-Reed Immigration Act of 1924. Part of his testimony dealt with "excessive" insanity among immigrants from southern Europe and eastern Europe. He was eventually appointed as an expert eugenics agent to the Committee on Immigration and Naturalization (the 1924 law applied national-origin quotas on immigrants, which stopped the large Italian and Russian influx of the early 1900s). At least one contemporary scientist, bacterial geneticist Herbert Spencer Jennings, condemned Laughlin's statistics as invalid because they compared recent immigrants to more settled immigrants. In 1927, the Eugenics Research Association, of which Laughlin was an officer, began a study of the heritage of U.S. Senators. Some senators were enthusiastic, others reluctantly complied, while Senator William Cabell Bruce questioned whether eugenics was even a science and refused to participate. Laughlin wrote to Bruce's hometown newspaper in an attempt to get the information. The Reichstag of Nazi Germany passed the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring in 1933, closely based on Laughlin's model. Between 35,000 and 80,000 persons were sterilized in the first full year alone (it is now known that over 350,000 persons were sterilized). Laughlin was awarded an honorary degree by the University of Heidelberg in 1936 for his work behalf of the "science of racial cleansing." However, reports about the extensive use of compulsory sterilization in Germany began to appear in US newspapers. By the end of the decade, eugenics had become associated with Nazism and poor science. Support for groups like the American Eugenics Society began to fade. In 1935, a review panel convened by the Carnegie Institute concluded that the ERO's research did not have scientific merit. By 1939, the Institute withdrew funding for the ERO, and the office was forced to close.'

+ Harry Hamilton Laughlin (3/11/1880–1943):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_H._Laughlin

'Laughlin was a founding member of the Pioneer Fund, and was its first president, serving from 1937 to 1941. The Pioneer Fund was created by Wickliffe Draper in order to promote the "betterment of the race" through eugenics. Draper had been supporting the Eugenics Research Association and its Eugenical News since 1932. One of the first projects that Laughlin pursued for the Fund was the distribution of two films from Germany depicting the success of eugenics programs in that country. A biographer has described Laughlin as "among the most racist and anti-Semitic of early twentieth-century eugenicists." As well as his interest in eugenics, Laughlin was fascinated by the idea of establishing a world government. He worked on his plans for this institution throughout his adult life. The world government model that he devised was loosely based on the U.S. Constitution and the League of Nations. The allotment of representation in the body was heavily biased in favor of Europe and North America, particularly Great Britain and the United States. Laughlin believed that his world government model would promote the eugenicist aim of preventing the intermixing of different races. Many leading internationalists expressed interest in Laughlin's world government plan, including Edward M. House, Woodrow Wilson's foreign policy adviser.House helped Wilson outline his Fourteen Points and worked with the president on the drafting of the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations. House served on the League of Nations Commission on Mandates with Lord Milner and Lord Robert Cecil of Great Britain, Henri Simon of France, Viscount Chinda of Japan, Guglielmo Marconi of Italy, and George Louis Beer as adviser. On May 30, 1919 House participated in a meeting in Paris which laid the groundwork for establishment of the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). Throughout 1919, House urged Wilson to work with Senator Henry Cabot Lodge to achieve ratification of the Versailles Treaty, but Wilson refused to deal with Lodge or any other senior Republican. The conference revealed serious policy disagreements and personality conflicts between Wilson and House. Wilson became less tolerant and broke with his closest advisors, one after another. Later, he dismissed House's son-in-law, Gordon Auchincloss, from the American peace commission when it became known the young man was making derogatory comments about him. In February 1919, House took his place on the Council of Ten, where he negotiated compromises unacceptable to Wilson. The following month, Wilson returned to Paris. He decided that House had taken too many liberties in negotiations, and relegated him to the sidelines. After they returned to the US later that year, the two men never saw or spoke to each other again. In the 1920s, House strongly supported membership of both the League of Nations and the Permanent Court of International Justice.'

+ Majestic 12: Smedley Butler & the Business Plot (1934):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Majestic_12
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vannevar_Bush
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prescott_Bush
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_Plot
+ https://harpers.org/2007/07/1934-the-plot-against-america/
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_48_Laws_of_Power

'James Jesus Angleton (December 9, 1917 – May 11, 1987) was chief of CIA Counterintelligence from 1954 to 1975. His official position within the organization was Associate Deputy Director of Operations for Counterintelligence (ADDOCI). Angleton was significantly involved in the US response to the purported KGB defectors Anatoliy Golitsyn and Yuri Nosenko. Angleton earned the trust of six CIA directors—including Gen. Walter Bedell Smith, Allen W. Dulles, and Richard Helms. They kept Angleton in key positions and valued his work. A set of highly sensitive Agency documents, referred to as the "Family Jewels," was publicly released on June 25, 2007, after more than three decades of secrecy. The release was prompted by an internal CIA investigation of the 1970s Church Committee which verified the far-ranging power and influence that Angleton wielded during his long tenure as counter-intelligence czar. The exposé revealed Angleton-planned infiltration of law enforcement and military organizations in other countries was used to increase the influence of the United States. It also confirmed past rumors that it was Angleton who was in charge of the domestic spying activities of the CIA under Operation CHAOS. In 1974, Seymour Hersh published a story in The New York Times about domestic counter-intelligence activities under Angleton's direction, against anti-war protesters and other domestic dissident organizations. Following this, Angleton's resignation was announced on Christmas Eve of 1974, just as President Ford demanded that Colby report on the allegations and as various Congressional committees announced that they would launch their own inquiries. Angleton told reporters from United Press International that he was quitting after 31 years because "my usefulness has ended" and the CIA was getting involved in "police state activities." Three of Angleton's senior aides in counter-intelligence—his deputy Raymond Rocca, executive officer of the counter-intelligence division William J. Hood, and Angleton's chief of operations Newton S. Miller—were coaxed into retirement within a week of Angleton's resignation after it was made clear that they would be transferred elsewhere in the agency rather than promoted, and the counter-intelligence staff was reduced from 300 to 80 people. In 1975, Angleton was awarded the CIA's Distinguished Intelligence Medal. By this time, Angleton had been quietly rehired by the CIA at his old salary through a secret contract. Until September 1975, "operational issues remained solely the preserve of Angleton. Investigative journalist Seymour Hersh revealed some of the contents of the "Family Jewels" in a front-page New York Times article in December 1974, in which he reported that: "The Central Intelligence Agency, directly violating its charter, conducted a massive, illegal domestic intelligence operation during the Nixon Administration against the antiwar movement and other dissident groups in the United States according to well-placed Government sources." Additional details of the contents trickled out over the years, but requests by journalists and historians for access to the documents under the Freedom of Information Act were long denied. Finally, in June 2007, CIA Director Michael Hayden announced that the documents would be released to the public at an announcement made to the annual meeting of the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations."

+ James Jesus Angleton (1917–1987):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Jesus_Angleton
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Family_Jewels_(Central_Intelligence_Agency)
+ http://s3.documentcloud.org/documents/238963/huge-c-i-a-operation-reported-in-u-s-against.pdf

'Operation CHAOS or Operation MHCHAOS was a Central Intelligence Agency domestic espionage project targeting the American people from 1967 to 1974, established by President Lyndon B. Johnson and expanded under President Richard Nixon, whose mission was to uncover possible foreign influence on domestic race, anti-war and other protest movements. The operation was launched under Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) Richard Helms by chief of counter-intelligence James Jesus Angleton, and headed by Richard Ober. The "MH" designation is to signify the program had a worldwide area of operations. The CIA developed numerous operations targeting American dissents in the US. Many of these programs operated under the CIA's Office of Security, including:

  • HTLINGUAL – Directed at letters passing between the United States and the then Soviet Union; the program involved the examination of correspondence to and from individuals or organizations placed on a watchlist.
  • Project 2 – Directed at infiltration of foreign intelligence targets by agents posing as dissident sympathizers and which, like CHAOS, had placed agents within domestic radical organizations for the purposes of training and establishment of dissident credentials.
  • Project MERRIMAC – Designed to infiltrate domestic antiwar and radical organizations thought to pose a threat to security of CIA property and personnel.
  • Project RESISTANCE – Worked with college administrators, campus security and local police to identify anti-war activists and political dissidents without any infiltration taking place.

When President Richard Nixon came to office in 1969, existing domestic surveillance activities were consolidated into Operation CHAOS. Operation CHAOS first used CIA stations abroad to report on antiwar activities of United States citizens traveling abroad, employing methods such as physical surveillance and electronic eavesdropping, utilizing "liaison services" in maintaining such surveillance. The operations were later expanded to include 60 officers. In 1969, following the expansion, the operation began developing its own network of informants for the purposes of infiltrating various foreign antiwar groups located in foreign countries that might have ties to domestic groups. Eventually, CIA officers expanded the program to include other leftist or counter-cultural groups with no discernible connection to Vietnam, such as groups operating within the women's liberation movement. The aim of the programs was to compile reports on "illegal and subversive" contacts between United States civilian protesters and "foreign elements" which "might range from casual contacts based merely on mutual interest to closely controlled channels for party directives." The secret program was exposed by investigative journalist Seymour Hersh in a 1974 article in The New York Times entitled Huge CIA Operation Reported in US Against Antiwar Forces, Other Dissidents in Nixon Years. Amid the uproar of the Watergate break-in involving two former CIA officers, Operation CHAOS had been closed in 1973. Further details were revealed in 1975 during Representative Bella Abzug's House Subcommittee on Government Information and individual Rights. The government, in response to the revelations, felt pressured enough to launch the Commission on CIA Activities Within the United States (The Rockefeller Commission), led by then Vice President Nelson Rockefeller, to investigate the depth of the surveillance. Richard Cheney, then Deputy White House Chief of Staff, is noted as having stated the Rockefeller Commission was to avoid "congressional efforts to further encroach on the executive branch." Following the revelations by the Rockefeller Commission, then-DCI George H. W. Bush admitted that "the operation in practice resulted in some improper accumulation of material on legitimate domestic activities."'

+ Operation CHAOS (1967–1974):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_CHAOS

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'Literature and journalism are two of the most important educative forces, and therefore our government will become proprietor of the majority of the journals. This will neutralise the injurious influence of the privately owned press and will put us in possession of a tremendous influence upon the public mind. ... If we give permits for ten journals, we shall ourselves found thirty, and so on in the same proportion. This, however, must in nowise be suspected by the public. For which reason all journals published by us will be of the most opposite, in appearance, tendencies and opinions, thereby creating confidence in us and bringing over to us our quite unsuspicious opponents, who will thus fall into our trap and be rendered harmless. In the front rank will stand organs of an official character. They will always stand guard over our interests, and therefore their influence will be comparatively insignificant. In the second rank will be the semi-official organs, whose part it will be to attract the tepid and indifferent. In the third rank we shall set up our own, to all appearance, opposition, which, in at least one of its organs, will present what looks like the very antipodes to us. Our real opponents at heart will accept this simulated opposition as their own and will show us their cards. All our newspapers will be of all possible complexions -aristocratic, republican, revolutionary, even anarchical -for so long, of course, as the constitution exists.... Like the Indian idol Vishnu they will have a hundred hands, and every one of them will have a finger on any one of the public opinions as required. When a pulse quickens these hands will lead opinion in the direction of our aims, for an excited patient loses all power of judgment and easily yields to suggestion. Those fools who will think they are repeating the opinion of a newspaper of their own camp will be repeating our opinion or any opinion that seems desirable for us. In the vain belief that they are following the organ of their party they will in fact follow the flag which we hang out for them. In order to direct our newspaper militia in this sense we must take especial and minute care in organising this matter. Under the title of central department of the press we shall institute literary gatherings at which our agents will without attracting attention issue the orders and watchwords of the day. By discussing and controverting, but always superficially, without touching the essence of the matter, our organs will carry on a sham fight fusillade with the official newspapers solely for the purpose of giving occasion for us to express ourselves more fully than could well be done from the outset in official announcements, whenever, of course, that is to our advantage. These attacks upon us will also serve another purpose, namely, that our subjects will be convinced of the existence of full freedom of speech and so give our agents an occasion to affirm that all organs which oppose us are empty babblers, since they are incapable of finding any substantial objections to our orders. Methods of organisation like these, imperceptible to the public eye but absolutely sure, are the best calculated to succeed in bringing the attention and the confidence of the public to the side of our government. Thanks to such methods we shall be in a position as from time to time may be required, to excite or to tranquillise the public mind on political questions, to persuade or to confuse, printing now truth, now lies, facts or their contradictions, according as they may be well or ill received, always very cautiously feeling our ground before stepping upon it... We shall have a sure triumph over our opponents since they will not have at their disposition organs of the press in which they can give full and final expression to their views owing to the aforesaid methods of dealing with the press. We shall not even need to refute them except very superficially.'

+ 5-Nov-01: "Cua Viet" – Milton William Cooper’s Last Show (2001):
+ http://hourofthetime.com/milton-william-bill-cooper-mp3-collection/part-5-episodes-1400-through-1926-complet...
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milton_William_Cooper

'Prescott Bush was politically active on social issues. He was involved with the American Birth Control League as early as 1942, and served as the treasurer of the first nationwide campaign of Planned Parenthood in 1947. He was also an early supporter of the United Negro College Fund, serving as chairman of the Connecticut branch in 1951. From 1947–1950, he served as Connecticut Republican finance chairman, and was the Republican candidate for the United States Senate in 1950. A columnist in Boston said that Bush "is coming on to be known as President Truman's Harry Hopkins. Nobody knows Mr. Bush and he hasn't a Chinaman's chance." (Harry Hopkins had been one of Franklin D. Roosevelt's closest advisors.) Bush's ties with Planned Parenthood also hurt him in strongly-Catholic Connecticut, and were the basis of a last-minute campaign in churches by Bush's opponents; the family vigorously denied the connection, but Bush lost to Sen. William Burnett Benton by only 1,000 votes. Prescott Bush sought a rematch with Sen. Benton in 1952, but withdrew as the party turned to William Purtell. The death of Senator Brien McMahon later that year, however, created a vacancy and this time the Republicans nominated Bush. He defeated the Democratic nominee, Abraham Ribicoff, and was elected to the Senate. A staunch supporter of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he served until January 1963. He was re-elected in 1956 with 55% of the vote over Democrat Thomas J. Dodd (later U.S. Senator from Connecticut and father of Christopher J. Dodd), and decided not to run for another term in 1962. He was a key ally for the passage of Eisenhower's Interstate Highway System, and during his tenure supported the Polaris submarine project (built by Electric Boat Corporation in Groton, Connecticut), civil rights legislation, and the establishment of the Peace Corps. On December 2, 1954, Prescott Bush was part of the large (67–22) majority to censure Wisconsin Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy after McCarthy had taken on the U.S. Army and the Eisenhower administration. During the debate leading to the censure, Bush said that McCarthy has "caused dangerous divisions among the American people because of his attitude and the attitude he has encouraged among his followers: that there can be no honest differences of opinion with him. Either you must follow Senator McCarthy blindly, not daring to express any doubts or disagreements about any of his actions, or, in his eyes, you must be a Communist, a Communist sympathizer, or a fool who has been duped by the Communist line." Eisenhower later included Prescott Bush on an undated handwritten list of prospective candidates he favored for the 1960 Republican presidential nomination. In terms of issues, Bush often agreed with New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller. According to Theodore H. White's book about the 1964 presidential election, Bush and Rockefeller were longtime friends. Bush favored a Nixon-Rockefeller ticket for 1960, and was presumed to support Rockefeller's 1964 presidential candidacy until the latter's remarriage in 1963. He then publicly denounced Rockefeller for divorcing his first wife and marrying a woman with whom Rockefeller had been having an affair while married to his first wife. Bush then very publicly endorsed his former Senate colleague Henry Cabot Lodge Jr., who was also the older brother of one of Bush's proteges', former Connecticut Governor John Davis Lodge. Bush voted in favor of the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960. Another of Senator Bush's major legislative interests was flood and hurricane protection. He drafted Public Law 71, the Bush Hurricane Survey Act, enabling U.S. Army engineers to develop a new program of community protection against tidal flooding.'

+ Camp Kistler: Cửa Việt Combat Base, Paul Revere & Task Force Clearwater:
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C%E1%BB%ADa_Vi%E1%BB%87t_Base
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Keystone_Cardinal
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Keystone_Eagle
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Paul_Revere_(APA-248)
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Napoleon/Saline
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sergeant_Reckless
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_for_Outpost_Vegas

'The Bush family are American descendants of the German House of Bussche. The Bussche family ruled as feudal lords in the regions of Ravensberg and Osnabruck located in Westphalia. The House of Bussche had several family branches in the Holy Roman Empire and the Bush family are one of them. Count Alhard von dem Bussche-Kessell, Count Philip Freiherr von dem Bussche, Countess Victoria von dem Bussche, and Count Eberhard Clamor Freiherr von dem Bussche-Hunnefeld are current members of the German House of von dem Bussche. Axel and Christoph are German businessmen from the von dem Bussche family as well. Count Alhard owns a large amount of land in Germany and also owns Schloss Neuenhof Castle. The family has been heavily involved in the military and the Order of St. John. The German word for Bush is Busch. Both the Bush political and banking family and Busch brewing family are related to the German Von dem Bussche family. In the Bussche’s region of Osnabruck, it was governed by Catholic Prince-Bishops which were given their authority by the Pope of Rome. The movement of protesting against Roman-Papal authority rose up in Osnabruck so they brought in the Jesuits to combat the protesters of Rome. The University of Osnabruck was then turned into a Jesuit University for a short period of time. Jeb Bush is a Roman Catholic convert and a fourth-degree Knight of Columbus. Bush Sr’s grandfather George Herbert Walker was Jesuit educated from Stonyhurst College. Adolphus Busch and his family are also related to the German Bussche family and he was the co-founder of the Anheuser-Busch beer company. August Busch III, August Busch IV, and Steven Busch are current members of this large and wicked family which is believed to be worth about 13 billion and they live in Missouri. William H. T. Bush from the Bush banking and political dynasty also lived in Missouri. The Sons of Silence biker gang use the Anheuser-Busch logo and they have established chapters in Germany. The Bussche family of Germany have also intermarried with German nobility like the Amsberg and Mecklenburg families and have an alliance with the House of Hesse.

The Peirce name from Barbara Pierce-Bush comes from the Percy family who is British Peers and the Dukes of Northumberland. The Percy family settled a covert family branch in Mississippi which became politicians and plantation owners with their Trail Lake plantation. Thomas Walker was an ancestor of the Bush family and was a British slave trader. John and Francis Walker were politicians in Virginia that helped to transform the Virginia Company into the United States which is defined as a corporation under US code 3002 section 15. I believe the Walker family are closely related descendants of the Templer family of Devon which take their name from the Knights Templar. The Bush family are like the royal family of the United States working as imperial princes under the authority of the British-Germanic House of Windsor. George Herbert Walker Bush is a Knight of the House of Windsor’s Order of the Bath. The CIA headquarters is called George Bush Center for Intelligence because the Bush family have a continual authority over DC and the CIA as the highest level political family in the United States. Gina Haspel was born Gina Walker and is the current Director of the CIA. Some members of the Bush family include the businessmen Marvin Bush and Neil Bush the sons of George HW Bush as well as George Prescott Bush who is a real estate investor and the Texas Land Commissioner. The Bush family with Neil Bush as chairman run their Luciferian charity racket called the Points of Light named after the term Thousand Points of Light. Joe Ellis is the President and CEO of the Denver Broncos and is the nephew of George HW Bush. The Sons of Silence motorcycle gang were founded in Colorado. Neil Bush was a member of the board of directors for Silverado Savings & Loan which was based in Denver, Colorado. Neil Bush was fined $50,000 for his involvement in Silverado Savings & Loan’s corruption scandal.

Axel von dem Bussche was a Nazi soldier who “planned to assassinate Adolf Hitler” which is just another one of the many lies told by this wicked family similar to “weapons of mass destruction in Iraq.” There were no weapons of mass destruction in Iraq and there was no legitimate and organized plot to assassinate Hitler. Erich von dem Bussche-Ippenburg was present during Hitler’s Reichswehr meeting on February 3 1933. The German royal and noble families helped to engineer Hitler and the Nazis. Most major Holy Roman bloodlines of royalty and nobility were publicly involved with the Nazi military and Nazi party. The Windsor family changed their name under King George V who was from the House of Glucksburg and House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and both of these families were involved with the Nazis. King Edward VIII of the House of Windsor was a Nazi supporter and met with Adolf Hitler. The father of George Herbert Walker Bush was Prescott Bush and his Union Banking Corporation was holding gold for Nazis during WWII and was shut down under the “trading with the enemy act” and this act is still partly active today which implies the US president has wartime powers which should only exist during times of war. J. Bush & Co. was a like a continuation of the Union Banking Corporation and founded by Skull and Bonesman Jonathan Bush. J. Bush & Co. was bought by Riggs Bank which absorbed into PNC Financial Services after allowing money laundering into Saudi Arabia. George Walker Bush was investigated for insider trading of shares in Harken Energy Corp which purchased his Spectrum 7/Abrusto Energy company which was financed by James Bath a business associate of the bin Laden family. The Bush family were deeply involved in orchestrating the 9/11 terrorist attack.

Vannevar Bush oversaw the Manhattan Project as the head of the Office of Scientific Research and Development and was also the founder of Raytheon. Raytheon is a major defense contractor in business with the Department of Defense and develops Directed Energy Weapon systems like their Active Denial System. Steven Walker is the Director of DARPA today. Peter Highnam and Ralph Sandfry are also high levels DARPA agents. Wesley G. Bush runs Northrop Grumman as CEO, President, and Chairman. The Bush family basically own and run the Military Industrial Complex and are using Directed Energy Weapons on civilians. Prescott Bush, George Herbert Walker Bush, the banker Jonathan Bush, and George Bush were all initiated into the Skull and Bones secret society at Yale. John M. Walker was the uncle of George Bush Sr. and also Skull and Bones. Busch Entertainment Corporation was sold to Blackstone Group which was founded and partly owned by the multi-billionaire and Skull and Bonesman Stephen Schwarzman who went to Yale the same time as George Walker Bush. John Walker was an investment banker whose firm G.H. Walker, Laird & Co. absorbed into Merrill Lynch. The Nazi SS used the Skull and Bones symbol. Erich von dem Bussche-Ippenburg was a member of the Liebmann Meeting with Adolf Hitler. The Skull and Bones secret society at Yale is a military council which is why George Bush Sr. started the Gulf War and George Bush Jr. started the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. The Bush family are war profiteers. The Skull and Bones also use military and war for recruiting soldiers into paramilitary death squads which are used inside the United States for persecution and covert assassinations. The Bush family and the Vatican hired a contract killer to attempt to murder me in a staged robbery gone wrong however their contract killer ran away because I was armed. The Bush family are mass murdering war criminals, terrorists, white collar criminals, war profiteers, and an all-around menace to humanity. The Bush family are statistically the most murderous modern family alive on the planet.'

+ Royal Family of the United States: Count Alhard Freiherr von dem Bussche-Kessell (2019):
+ https://mirrorsoftruth1.blogspot.com/2019/01/royal-family-of-united-states.html

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'Mount Weather is the operational center "the hub" of over 96 other underground Federal Relocation Centers scattered across the United States. The majority of these appear to be concentrated in Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina. Each of these facilities contains computer data banks holding information -not on enemy agents, Soviet diplomats, or suspected terrorists, but on American citizens, patriots. A list of other files kept at the facilities was furnished to the Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights in 1975. The list included "military installations, government facilities, communications, transportation, energy and power, agriculture, manufacturing, wholesale and retail services, manpower, financial, medical and educational institutions, sanitary facilities, population, housing shelter, and stockpiles." The committee concluded that these data bases "operate with few, if any, safeguards or guidelines." Senator James Abourzek (D), South Dakota, a member of the subcommittee, said, "I feel the entire operation has eluded the supervision of either Congress or the courts." Chairman Tunney said, "Mount Weather is out of control." Nothing was done by Congress to rectify the situation, however, and Mount Weather remains out of control. Former high-level officials from Mount Weather agree that the base at Mount Weather is much more than any standby government facility or storage center for the preservation of records; they describe it as an ACTUAL GOVERNMENT-IN-WAITING. "We do not merely store essential information; the facility attempts to duplicate the vital functions of the Executive branch of the Administration." As stated above, according to my research, this includes a President and all Cabinet members actually in residence. Protocol even demands that subordinates address them as "Mr. President" or "Mr. Secretary." Most of these mysterious appointees have held their positions through several administrations. "We just act on the orders of the President in national emergencies," said one former Mount Weather official. The FPA in its 1974 Annual Report stated that "Studies conducted at Mount Weather involve the control and management of domestic political unrest where there are material shortages (such as food riots) or in strike situations where the FPA determines that there are industrial disruptions and other domestic resource crises." The report states that the bureaucracy at Mount Weather invokes what it calls "Civil Crisis Management." Officials who were at Mount Weather and who have furnished us with data say that during the 1960s the complex was actually prepared to assume certain governmental powers at the time of the 1961 Cuban missile crisis and the assassination of President Kennedy In 1963. The source said that the installation used the tools of its "Civil Crisis Management" program on a standby basis during the 1967 and 1968 urban riots and during a number of national antiwar demonstrations against the administration by the American people.'

+ Milton William Cooper "Behold a Pale Horse" (1991):
+ https://archive.org/stream/BeholdAPaleHorse_267/BillCooper-BeholdAPaleHorse.txt
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Weather_Emergency_Operations_Center

'The Pinay Circle (also called the Cercle Violet) is an international right-wing propaganda group which brings together serving or retired intelligence officers and politicians with links to right-wing intelligence factions from most of the countries in Europe. The intelligence community has been represented by SIS Chief from 1978-82 Arthur 'Dickie' Franks, SIS Department Head Nicholas Elliott, CIA Director William Colby, Swiss Military Intelligence Chief of Provisions Colonel Botta, SDECE chief from 1970-81 Alexandre de Marenches, and, last but not least, the man who took over the running of the Circle when Pinay got too old, Jean Violet, a Parisian lawyer who worked for the SDECE from 1957-70. Violet became so much an 'eminence grise' in the SDECE that Alexandre de Marenches had to dispense with his services in order to assert his authority as new SDECE chief in 1970. This episode has however not prevented them from working together within the Circle. At the time the Langemann papers were written, Franks and Marenches were serving heads of British and French intelligence respectively.

On the political side, Pinay - a former French Prime Minister - forged links with Nixon, Kissinger and Pompidou. The Circle's present members include Giulio Andreotti, former Italian Prime Minister; Portuguese putschist General Antonio de Spinola; former Franco minister and senior Opus Dei member Silva Munoz; and Vatican prelate and BND agent Monsignore Brunello. Paul Violet, Jean Violet's son, is one of Chirac's closest advisors, nicknamed 'the adjutant' by Canard Enchaine. Langemann also reports that Sir Arthur Franks and Nicholas Elliott were invited to Chequers for a working meeting with Mrs Thatcher, after her election. But perhaps the key political figure was the late Franz Josef Strauss, Bavarian Premier and Langemann's boss. Strauss was a close friend of Alexandre de Marenches and was a frequent visitor to the SDECE's headquarters during Marenches' time. The Hanns Seidel Stiftung, the political trust attached to Strauss' Christian Social Union party, is an important group in international parapolitical manipulation. Active in Latin America for the Contras, supporting Mobuto in Zaire, involved in the Fiji coup in 1987, it was caught diverting state development aid from Germany into right-wing party coffers in Ecuador in the same year. Strauss and CSU were the main beneficiaries of identified Pinay Circle activities; i.e. the promotion of right-wing European politicians through Brian Crozier, Robert Moss, Fred Luchsinger of the Neue Zurcher Zeitung and Gerhard Lowenthal, anchorman on current affairs programmes for ZDF television, the major German network.

The Pinay Circle has a wide range of contacts and its members interlock with the whole panoply of rightwing/parallel intelligence and propaganda agencies - WACL, Heritage Foundation, Western Goals, ISC, Freedom Association, Interdoc, the Bilderberg Group, the Jonathan Institute, P2, Opus Dei, the Moonies' front CAUSA, IGFM (International Society for Human Rights), and Resistance International. Lowenthal, for instance, is a member of IGFM, Resistance International, WACL, CAUSA, the Jonathan Institute, Konservative Aktion and the European Institute on Security. The Pinay Circle's significance lies in the fact that it is a forum which brings together the international linkmen of the Right like Crozier, Moss and Lowenthal, with secret service chiefs like Franks and Marenches. Through such contacts it can intervene by media action or covert funding whenever and wherever a political friend is in need of support.'

+ The Pinay Circle and Destabilisation in Europe (1989):
+ https://wikispooks.com/wiki/Document:The_Pinay_Circle
+ https://wikispooks.com/w/images/0/01/Rogue_Agents_-_the_Cercle_and_the_6I_in_the_Private_Cold_War_1951_-_199...

'Le Cercle was established in 1952-53 by then French prime minister Antoine Pinay and French intelligence agent Jean Violet under the name Cercle Pinay. Konrad Adenauer and Franz Josef Strauss were co-founders and reconciliation between France and Germany was an important goal. Historian Adrian Hänni wrote that "The Cercle's founding vision encompassed the integration of a Christian-Catholic Europe, an aspiration reflected in the Cercle's personal membership and the countries represented in its early years." The other members of the original Cercle were from the Governments of Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands including a number of members of the Catholic Opus Dei and the Knights of Malta. Political changes in 1969 led to the addition, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States with meetings held twice a year rather than three times a year as before. This led to a shift in objectives, which became an emphasis on forming a strong anti-Communist alliance between the United States and Europe. Hänni stated that "The leaders of the group increasingly considered strategies to target public opinion and, to this end, formed a "Cercle network" of associated organizations, institutes and think tanks, which attacked both the Soviet Union and the perceived "leftist" governments or opposition movements in Europe and the Third World." Its members were mainly elderly male conservatives, with many belong to anti-Communist organisations including the World Anti-Communist League. The Union of South Africa provided the only official delegation and the Cercle supported organisations such as Renamo, whose general secretary attended meetings, and Unita. In later years, the British took over the chairmanship of Le Cercle. Leading members included the ex-MI6 officer Anthony Cavendish, the British Tory MP Julian Amery, and Brian Crozier. Alan Clark, the British Conservative MP and historian stated in his diaries that Le Cercle was funded by the CIA. An agenda presented by Brian Crozier noted that its goal to change the British Government had been changed by the election of Margaret Thatcher and among others listed the following objectives:

  • "Undercover financial transactions for political aims";
  • "International campaigns aiming to discredit hostile personalities or events";
  • "Creation of a (private) intelligence service specialising in a selective point of view";

Le Cercle was mentioned in the early 1980s by Der Spiegel in Germany as a result of the controversy surrounding Franz Josef Strauß, one of the regular attendants of the Cercle. In the late 1990s, the Cercle received some attention after a scandal had broken out involving Jonathan Aitken, at the time chairman of Le Cercle. Members that were contacted by newspapers refused to answer any questions.'

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'In 2000, a single webpage at atlanticcircle.com described Le Cercle as "an informal group of European and American professionals - politicians, retired Ambassadors, former Generals, lawyers, bankers and active participants in banking, oil, shipping, publishing and trading companies - who are interested in preserving a positive Atlantic dialogue." To the UK House of Lords, this group has been described as an "informal group meeting to discuss world affairs." William Hague described it as "a political group which organises conferences." In 2007 the Washington Post termed it a "foreign policy think tank established during the Cold War that reportedly included senior politicians, diplomats and intelligence agents worldwide." Inviting the banker Jean-Maxime Leveque in 1983, Monique Garnier-Lançon wrote that at The Cercle "The leaders of the free world can now examine the very grave problems which we face in order to determine together possible solutions and then to try to implement them, each in their respective sphere. Although the group bore the name of Antoine Pinay (French Prime minister in 1952) it is believed to have been organised by Jean Violet, a close associate of his since 1951. It arose from a Franco-German alliance (possibly in connection with Operation Gladio) and originally its anti-communism had a catholic Christian flavour. In the 1970s, it assumed a transatlantic secular ethos, especially after the involvement of Ted Shackley, under whose influence meetings were held on alternate sides of the Atlantic, with Shackley chairing the US meetings. Here is the hidden history of the CIA: why eleven presidents and three generations of CIA officers have been unable to understand the world; why nearly every CIA director has left the agency in worse shape than he found it; and how these failures have profoundly jeopardized our national security. For sixty years, the CIA has managed to maintain a formidable reputation in spite of its terrible record, burying its blunders in top-secret archives. Its mission was to know the world--when it did not succeed, it set out to change the world instead. Now Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist Weiner offers the first definitive history of the CIA, based on more than 50,000 documents, primarily from the archives of the CIA itself, and hundreds of interviews with CIA veterans, including ten Directors of Central Intelligence.'

+ Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA - Weiner Tim (2007):
+ https://www.amazon.com/Legacy-Ashes-History-Tim-Weiner/dp/0307389006
+ https://archive.org/details/legacyofasheshis00wein

'Wikispooks reports that: “Circle visitor John Carbaugh worked for GeoMiliTech Consultants Corporation, an arms dealing group directly involved in Iran-Contra (history Commons Doc). Others such as Margaret Carlisle were aides to Iran-Contra insiders. Cercle members Paul Channon and Alan Clark (British Conservative MP – served as a minister in Margaret Thatcher’s governments) are connected through their involvement in the Arms-to-Iraq affair ( The Independent report Dec 1992), also to the later chairman Jonathan Aitken, who himself was involved in the Al-Yamamah arms deal as well, as was another later chairman, Norman Lamont. Nadhmi Yuchi (wikileaks) is widely reported as having made a lot of money from arms deals to Saddam Hussein, amongst others. Lacking documents or testimony from Cercle members, inferences about Cercle activities remain unconfirmed. Ted Shackley was involved in oil deals after he left the CIA in 1979, facilitated by his close friend and fellow Cercle member, Conrad Gerber and oil smuggler John Deuss. Funding for the group has changed over the years. The group states that it is “privately funded”. Multinational companies including Philips, Shell, the Ford Foundation and Standard Elektrik Lorenz have given the group money. Robin Ramsay, editor of Lobster Magazine believes the CIA funds (Globalisation and Covert Politics Report) the group, a claim that Alan Clark also makes in his diaries. In the 1980s, the South African government was a major source of funds. John E Lewis writes in his book The Mammoth Book of Cover-Ups that Le Cercle was funded, amongst others, by the CIA for its “militant anti-leftism as it wars against it enemies more than jaws about them.” In the last few years Le Cercle has become even more secretive with its activities largely unknown.

Its purpose is to subvert the democratic principles and processes of individual countries and are by nature ideologically ‘hawkish’ – distributing propaganda, stoking fear of communist plots from Russia, vote rigging and hacking the accounts of politicians and prominent global figures. Promoting the ‘war on terror’ has been a major factor in their activities of recent years and in so doing broker weapons deals and setting up false flag operations the world over to suit its own agenda. It is reported that ‘Gladio‘ style attacks, much like the clandestine NATO “stay-behind” sabotage, guerrilla warfare and assassination operations in Europe have been conducted along with illegal business operations, financial fraud and arms dealing – all attributed to this group. Characters such as Paul Wolfowitz, Paul Bremer, Donald Rumsfeld and Richard Perle (the original neo-con architects of the Iraq War and subsequent attacks across the Middle East) are all or have been members. Margaret Becket (Labour MP, previously Britain’s Foriegn Secretary, chair of the Intelligence Select Committee, sought to subvert the democratic election of Jeremy Corbyn as leader of the party), Alan Duncan (Minister of State at the Department for International Development), Norman Lamont (an ex Rothschild banker, former Tory MP and became UK Minister for Defence Procurement just in time to sign the Al-Yamamah arms deal.‎ He was Chancellor of the Exchequer when Black Wednesday transferred around £3,000,000,000 from UK taxpayers to currency traders. He was also European chair of Le Circle). William Hague, (Baron Hague of Richmond PC FRSL is a British Conservative politician and life peer. MP from 1989 and was the Leader of the Opposition from 1997 to 2001). Jonathan Aitken (British Tory politician, LeCercle Chairman 1993-96), Michael Ancram (ex-chairman Conservative party, shadow foreign secretary, and Chairman of Le Cercle). Ancram was formerly a Member of Parliament (MP) and a member of the Shadow Cabinet. Since 2010 a member of the House of Lords, he is the only marquess in the House of Lords. All are known British contingent Le Cercle members.'

+ Le Cercle Pinay (1952-2020):
+ https://truepublica.org.uk/united-kingdom/meet-le-cercle-making-bilderberg-look-like-amateurs/
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Le_Cercle
+ https://wikispooks.com/wiki/Le_Cercle

'Now almost forgotten, the decade of the “Seventies” was a time of immense political upheaval, dirty tricks and incessant rumours of right-wing military Coup d’etats in leading western democracies. Amongst the long list of resulting casualties of this “decade of tension” were Britain’s Prime Ministers: Harold Wilson and Ted Heath, Australia’s Gough Whitlam, Sweden’s Olaf Palme, America’s Jimmy Carter and France’s Francois Mitterand. The more southern flanks of Nato’s European axis: Portugal, Spain, Turkey and Greece converted rumour into chilling fact via the steel-blue glaze of gun-barrels. Italy, home of Pizza, the Pope, and Propaganda Due (P2) came in for its own brand of political fixit, courtesy of Uncle Sam’s very own CIA. As the decade of the “eighties” slowly slipped above the now less than pink eastern horizon, right-wing beneficiaries of a co-ordinated international destabilisation programme gave their heart-felt thanks. Among them were Britain’s Iron Lady, Margaret Thatcher - Madonna of the Armaments industry - and America’s less brittle, and considerably less acute, Ronald Reagan - humble originator of the mega-tax-buck-swallowing SDI “Star Wars” programme and also, thus, a valued friend of the boys at Guns R Us International. These two decades saw a proliferation of right-wing, quasi official and secretive groups that co-ordinated intelligence, propaganda and undertook covert black-operations around the globe. One of the most shadowy of all is the “Pinay Cercle”, named after its founder Antoine Pinay, Premier of France in 1951. Known more simply as “Le Cercle” it is recognised as a more clandestine sister organisation to the already very secretive Bilderberg Group - a “behind-the-scenes ‘invisible’ influence” network. Both groups share a familiar membership which includes Henry Kissinger, Zbigniew Brzezinski and David Rockerfeller. Each of these three luminaries of the international power network are, in addition to the foregoing, influential members of The Trilateral Commission and the Council for Foreign Relations as well as being regular attendees at Britain’s “Chatham House” - The Royal Institute of International Affairs - shadowy twin to America’s CFR.'

+ The Heritage Foundation & Moonies: Kissinger, Brzezinski, Rockefeller (2020):
+ https://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/sociopol_lecercle06.htm
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Rockefeller

'In 1946, David Rockefeller joined the staff of the longtime family-associated Chase National Bank. The chairman at that time was Rockefeller's uncle Winthrop W. Aldrich. The Chase Bank was primarily a wholesale bank, dealing with other prominent financial institutions and major corporate clients such as General Electric (which had, through its RCA affiliate, leased prominent space and become a crucial first tenant of Rockefeller Center in 1930). The bank also is closely associated with and has financed the oil industry, having longstanding connections with its board of directors to the successor companies of Standard Oil, especially Exxon Mobil. Chase National became the Chase Manhattan Bank in 1955 and shifted significantly into consumer banking. It is now called JPMorgan Chase. Rockefeller traveled widely and met with both foreign rulers and U.S. presidents, beginning with Dwight D. Eisenhower. At times he served as an unofficial emissary on high-level business. Among the foreign leaders he met were Saddam Hussein, Fidel Castro, Nikita Khrushchev, and Mikhail Gorbachev. In 1968, he declined an offer from his brother Nelson Rockefeller, then governor of New York, to appoint him to Robert F. Kennedy's Senate seat after Kennedy was assassinated in June 1968, a post Nelson also offered to their nephew John Davison "Jay" Rockefeller IV. President Jimmy Carter offered him the position of United States Secretary of the Treasury but he declined. Rockefeller met Henry Kissinger in 1954, when Kissinger was appointed a director of a seminal Council on Foreign Relations study group on nuclear weapons, of which David Rockefeller was a member. He named Kissinger to the board of trustees of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, and consulted with him frequently, with the subjects including the Chase Bank's interests in Chile and the possibility of the election of Salvador Allende in 1970. Rockefeller supported his "opening of China" initiative in 1971 as it afforded banking opportunities for the Chase Bank. Rockefeller was acquainted with Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) director Allen Dulles and his brother, Eisenhower administration Secretary of State John Foster Dulles—who was an in-law of the family since his college years. It was in Rockefeller Center that Allen Dulles had set up his WWII operational center after Pearl Harbor, liaising closely with MI6, which also had their principal U.S. operation in the Center. He also knew and associated with the former CIA director Richard Helms as well as Archibald Bulloch Roosevelt Jr., a Chase Bank employee and former CIA agent whose first cousin, CIA agent Kermit Roosevelt Jr., was involved in the Iran coup of 1953.'

'Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski was a Polish-American diplomat and political scientist. He served as a counselor to President Lyndon B. Johnson from 1966 to 1968 and was President Jimmy Carter's National Security Advisor from 1977 to 1981. Brzezinski belonged to the realist school of international relations, standing in the geopolitical tradition of Halford Mackinder and Nicholas J. Spykman. Brzezinski was the primary organizer of The Trilateral Commission. Major foreign policy events during his time in office included the normalization of relations with the People's Republic of China (and the severing of ties with the Republic of China on Taiwan); the signing of the second Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT II); the brokering of the Camp David Accords; the overthrow of the US-friendly Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the start of the Iranian Revolution; the United States' encouragement of dissidents in Eastern Europe and championing of human rights in order to undermine the influence of the Soviet Union; the arming of the mujahideen in response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan; and the signing of the Torrijos–Carter Treaties relinquishing U.S. control of the Panama Canal after 1999. Brzezinski served as the Robert E. Osgood Professor of American Foreign Policy at Johns Hopkins University's School of Advanced International Studies, a scholar at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, and a member of various boards and councils. He appeared frequently as an expert on the PBS program The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, ABC News' This Week with Christiane Amanpour, and on MSNBC's Morning Joe, where his daughter, Mika Brzezinski, is co-anchor. He was a supporter of the Prague Process.'

'Antoine Pinay was extremely influential in Europe and the United States, where he had forged links with President Nixon. Pinay attended the Bilderberg inaugural meeting in Oosterbeek, Holland during May 1954. By 1969, Pinay together with Jean Violet, a Lawyer working for the French Intelligence Service SDECE, and Archduke Otto von Habsburg, heir to the Austrian throne, formed Le Cercle, and secretly began recruiting men of influence as members. The intention was to shift the political climate of Europe to the far right via a secretly financed campaign of propaganda, and to establish a private intelligence service that would work, unofficially, with the existing security apparatus of the west. Author Stephen Dorril also believes there are serpentine inter-connections between Le Cercle and the Gladio network, a “stay-behind anti communist” military guerrilla force set up by Nato’s Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) during the “fifties”, that was largely composed of ex Nazi’s. Le Cercle has a different flavour to Bilderberg, however. The latter is an important link to the overt “influence” organisations cited above and almost certainly focuses its efforts on the broader political issues, being careful to keep well-away from “direct actions”. Le Cercle has a much more “hands on” role. Interestingly, its membership is more heavily composed of serving or former members of various Intelligence Services, senior military officers as well as politicians, bankers and VIP’s with right wing connections. The “Cercle” was unknown until 1500 internal documents of the rightist (and Le Cercle funded) Institute for the Study of Conflict, were leaked to Time Out Magazine in 1975. Subsequently the documents have gone missing. At the time ISC was headed by CIA agent and “Cercle” Chairman, Brian Crozier who was heavily involved in another covert action group known simply as “The 61.”'

+ The Pinay Circle (1952-2020):
+ http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/topic/11142-the-pinay-circle/
+ https://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/sociopol_lecercle04.htm
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zbigniew_Brzezinski

'In the early 1970s the CIA was heavily criticized for its role in the Vietnam War and Watergate. Reporters and investigating committees began looking into the agency and soon plenty of stories emerged about domestic spying, infiltration of the media, subversion of foreign governments, assassinating foreign leaders, and large scale experiments with mind control. Some revelations were highlighted more prominently than others. Additional doubts were cast on the CIA 's role in the assassination of John F. Kennedy. In the midst of all these reports, measures were taken to reduce the autonomy of the CIA. The ban on domestic spying was re-enforced while Congress and the Senate received far more influence over the appointment of CIA officials and the distribution of the CIA's budget. They requested numerous briefings and decided which clandestine operations were or weren't allowed. The CIA was not allowed anymore to subvert any foreign government or assassinate any leader it felt like. Authorization from Congress became mandatory. Furthermore, it was also largely prohibited from working with questionable characters to gather intelligence or aid in their coups.'

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'Obviously plenty of orders for coups and assassinations came down from presidents and national security advisors, a fact Gerald Ford national security advisor and vice president Nelson Rockefeller did their utmost best to hide. Then again, it is not clear to what extent the CIA goes rogue when its leadership does not agree with a president, as primarily was the case under President Kennedy and President Carter. These changes to CIA covert operations oversight didn't fall well with many intelligence chiefs and associates like Brian Crozier. They claimed the CIA's (human) intelligence gathering and intervention capabilities were now destroyed almost completely; and even more so after Admiral Stansfield Turner in 1977 began to force half of the CIA's anti-Soviet staff into retirement. Crozier and his Cercle-associates went looking for a solution and came up with the idea to establish a transnational secret intelligence agency of their own. For security reasons this group initially didn't have a name, but within a few months it became known to insiders as "Six Eye", which was shortened to 6I and eventually also became known as "The 61". It's purpose, according to Crozier:

"[6I is] a Private Sector Operational Intelligence agency, beholden to no government, but at the disposal of allied or friendly governments... Our main concerns would be:

  • "To provide reliable intelligence in areas which governments were barred from investigating, either through legislation (as in the US) or because political circumstances made such inquiries difficult or potentially embarrassing.
  • "To conduct secret counter-subversion operations in any country in which such actions were deemed feasible.

"It was agreed that no outsiders should be made aware of the existence of this organization, except if, in the judgement of one of us, the person was deemed a suitable candidate for recruitment." It is often claimed that the privatization of intelligence was the result of increased congressional oversight, which is true to a large degree. However, private intelligence organizations like Le Cercle, Antoine Bonnemaison's Centre, and probably quite a number of other organizations already existed before the CIA oversight crisis began. The Stay Behind networks and the combined Navy-CIA Task Force 157 also had (virtually) no Congressional oversight. Members of 6I, in existence from 1977 to 1988, came from England, France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, South Africa, the United States, and likely some other countries. It forged links with Prince Turki of Saudi Arabia and the Shah of Iran. At least on some occasions, 6I provided intelligence to the Pope. According to Crozier, there only was some "minor overlapping" between the Cercle and 6I. This seems to be a little misleading, as many of the key individuals of Le Cercle were part of 6I, including Brian Crozier, Jean Violet, Georges Albertini, Count Huyn, Hans Christoph Schenk Freiherr von Stauffenberg, and General Stilwell.'

+ Le Cercle: CIA, MI6 and Opus Dei Covert Politics of Europe (2020):
+ https://isgp-studies.com/le-cercle-pinay#cia-6i

'The Synarchist and Martinist order existed, but nothing is really known about it and it may well have been very insignificant in terms of influence. But some have claimed that the philopsophies of Synarchism played a role in the French version of an underground fascist, pre-World War II movement. Later Coutrot would be generally credited with being the man behind a technocratic movement called Synarchie, which to this day, despite many studies of it, remains somewhat of a mystery... That some Synarchists organized as far back as 1922 a secret society with revolutionary aims has been established. It was called "Le Mouvement Synarchique d'Empire," or MSE, and its secret "Pact," containing "Thirteen Fundamental Points and 598 Propositions" for the Synarchist revolution, was discovered by the Vichy police in 1941 and published after the war... so far as one can make out from reading the lengthy document the movement would set up a sort of super monopoly capitalism, with competition abolished and endless plans drawn up for production and distribution, the whole - as well as the government - to be run by knowledgeable technocrats... That at one time the MSE was linked to the terrorist Cagoule [CSAR] also seems clear... this secret society of technocrats never got close to staging a revolution. A number of other authors disagree with that last notion.'

+ William L. Shirer: 'The Collapse of the Third Republic' (1969):
+ https://isgp-studies.com/ngo-list-foundations-and-think-tanks-worldwide#synarchist-movement-of-empire

'The tendency for panic from among masses of victims of strong, childish qualities of irrational passions, as among massed adolescent and adult populations, make mass sports events, or the like, opportunities for inducing sudden and rapid changes in popular opinion and institutions. The use of sports events as targets kindred mass-effects such as Herman Goering's orchestration of the February 1933 burning of the Reichstag and the September 11, 2001 strike against New York City's World Trade center. It is of special note today, that no government not already a virtual accomplice of the George P. Shultz-crafted regime of President George W. Bush, Jr., has an interest in promoting, or permitting the kind of terrorist incident which could be used as a pretext for launching what U.S. Vice-President Cheney has fostered as a threatened, early, combined aerial bombardment on Iran during or following the general time-frame of the World Cup events. If we can assume that the relevant national security institutions could control the threats from relevant domestic forces of their respective nations, only some international interest which desired the global effect of a terrorist attack on the World Cup events, would be a likely source of the quality of threat to be the most feared in that quarter at this present time. Unless relevant, supranational kinds of improved precautions are taken, the kind of source only typified by Vice-President Cheney, represents the quality of threat of strategic importance which is to be feared at the present time, from early through mid-June, on.

There are obvious, anarcho-fascist elements of hooligans throughout western and central Europe whose already conditioned temperament for violence could be coopted into playing a diversionary or other supporting actors' role in a terrorist operation staged by relevant international interests. Such collateral forms of assets include obvious sorts from the British Isles, or, elements which, still today, continue the legacy of the quasi-military, anti-nuclear-power riots in 1970s France and 1980s Germany. The risk is, that higher level agencies utilized by supranational circles, would insert special effects into a climate of uncertainty represented by indigenous sorts of organized groups of brutish anarcho-syndicalist rabble, especially the climate of mass rallies, using those groups as a stage-setting upon which to deploy something uglier which would have strategic shock effects. The present threat does not lie on what might be treated as a flat historical plane of space-time. It is a threat which is inherent in the specific situation of an acute, accelerating global monetary-financial crisis more serious than that of the 1928-1933 interval in Europe and the Americas. In times of crisis like these, desperation itself determines that certain otherwise improbable developments could happen soon, or not at all. We are presently at a breaking-point in the geometry of world history, the quality of moment in history when entire political and social systems might be seized by fatal convulsions. In the meantime, when power is slipping rapidly from Vice-President Cheney's circles, when the current British, French, and other current governments, are already wobbling, governments may act with a sense of desperation to do what would otherwise seem forbidden.

As I have emphasized this point in earlier reports, now, as in the case of Hermann Goering's arranging of the February 1933 incident of the Reichstag burning, and the Hitler regime's staging of the crafted 1939 incident at the Polish border, or the lurking and lurching threat of U.S. Vice-President Cheney's declared intent of launching of an airborne attack on Iran with U.S. and other nation's combined naval and other relevant resources, has reached the stage of ripeness that only the lack of something which a credulous public might regard as a causus belli, now stands as a likely obstacle to the launching of war, probably against Iran, by what is presently the most discredited U.S. Presidency in that nation's history. This represents precisely the type of strategically motivated impulse for action to be feared. A terrorist attack of that type which has such strategic implications as a potential detonator of large-scale events, is what is to be considered the most important type of plausible current threat of a triggering development. Hopefully, our calling attention to the actual nature of the strategic threat of terrorist-style actions used as pretext for a heavy aerial bombardment of Iran, will help to induce relevant institutions to move to prevent such a war, and its obvious sequalae, from virtually destroying European civilization... I have proposed that experts and other relevant parties compare this threat to the circumstances which promoted the rapid victory of the 1940 Blitzkrieg against the allied, quickly demoralized British and French forces. I have warned against the silly, but popularized myth, the myth that it was France's preoccupation with the development of the Maginot Line which facilitated the German victory on that occasion. The rout of the greater part of France's military forces then, was chiefly the contribution of a pro-Synarchist "Fifth Column" inside the leading French military and other institutions, in the sense of the role of the "Fifth Column" which had just previously produced the victory of the fascist dictator Franco in 1930s Spain. The Synarchist influences from inside France's institutions left the gate wide open for what should have been considered the probable German course of action.

The security measures in which relevant governments are participating, on behalf of the security of the World Cup events, is a kind of "Maginot Line." That is a necessary, but not an adequate quality of deployment against an assault from a global, strategic flank. It is the probable threat from known sources which must be defined, and neutralized. That "Fifth Column" inside 1940 France was what is known as the same Synarchist International later represented by the regimes of Nazi-occupied France, as represented by the offshoot of Lazard Freres-related banking groups known as Banque Worms. This circle within France, had been the pivotal element of the post-Versailles Treaty drive toward the use of fascism as a tool for creating a globalized system, echoing the ultramontane imperial system of the Venetian financier-oligarchy and Norman chivalry, and also the Napoleonic model. The same post-Napoleonic agency, the Synarchist financier circles, which threatened Europe and the world during the 1920s and 1930s, the Synarchist tradition as expressed today, is foe to be foreseen and defeated now.

Inside the U.S.A. today, the tradition of the Synarchist-directed "Fifth Columns" of the 1930s and 1940, is typified by the circles associated with the military and globalization policies of George P. Shultz, Vice-President Dick Cheney, and that Lazard Freres offshoot, Felix Rohatyn, who is associated with relevant French financial circles today. The same policy then represented by those international financier circles behind the fascist regimes of 1922-1945 Europe, is now expressed typically by the globalization policies of Shultz and Rohatyn, and by the aggressively pushed policy of "privatization of the military" by Shultz, Rohatyn, and Shultz's protégé Cheney, a contemporary echo of the Hitler regime's intention to replace the Wehrmacht with an international SS force, the intention, today, to bring on what Licio Gelli-linked fascist Michael Ledeen has described as "international fascism."

These influential persons, and their accomplices throughout Europe and elsewhere, share a common zeal for a form of "international fascism" which is now called "globalization." What they intend, is a modern replica of the medieval, ultramontane partnership of the Venetian financier-oligarchy and the Norman chivalry. The presently onrushing general collapse of the world's present monetary- financial system, defines a cross-roads in present world history, a turning-point like that which the choice between U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt and world-rule by Nazi Adolf Hitler represented, already, in February March, 1933. The strategic imperative of the contemporary form of that Synarchist interest typified by the roles of Shultz, Cheney, and Rohatyn, is to move to strike quickly, before popular recognition of the failure of the world's presently reigning financier-oligarchical powers might prevent cause action to prevent the Synarchist financier cabal from realizing the goals of full-scale globalization. Time has now nearly run out for postponing some drastic change in the world's economic system; the danger is therefore extreme, and the unthinkable highly probable.

It is urgent that both leading political circles and the general population, rethink recently prevailing, misguided assumptions respecting the way contemporary history works. Whether the launching of general warfare through a reaction to a programmed, strategic quality of terrorist incident erupting during the coming month, occurs, or not, the situation which breeds the probability of that or comparable developments, is itself now inevitable... Rohatyn is as clever as the Artful Dodger, and as deadly as a poisonous snake, but not a brilliant, or even consistently rational intellect. He acts, and reacts according to the patterns of behavior to which he has become habituated by his recruitment, training, and experience in his career as a financial predator.

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'The tradition of which he is a product is known as a legacy of Babylon. It is what is known as the oligarchical model, also known as the system of an ancient Rome which, in fact, made no original contribution to human culture, except what it had stolen from the Etruscans and Greeks. Its power lay in the acquired cultural habits in which it had been conditioned, the habits through which it reigned, by which it was self-destroyed. He and his sources of influence within modern society are a reflection of a system, known as that same oligarchical system described in essentials by Aechylus's "Prometheus Bound". If one can do, as the Olympian Zeus of Prometheus Bound prescribes, ban the discovery and use of knowledge of scientific principles from the behavior of mortal man, men and women can be degraded to a likeness to captive human cattle. Stupefy humanity, by destroying access to the knowledge and practice of Classical art and science, and inducing some Dionysiac bestiality of the type promoted by the Congress for Cultural Freedom, instead, and, then, men and women become as either tamed animals, or predatory beasts. So, the slaveholders of the relevant pre-1865 U.S, states ruled that teaching a slave to read and write were a mortal offence. So, the post-World War II Congress for Cultural Freedom and its auxiliaries promoted a destruction of Classical art and education throughout the regions of globally extended European civilization within the reach of its polluting effects. It is the habits of Sophistry induced by the methods and precepts associated with the Congress for Cultural Freedom, the Sophistry which exploded in the events of 1968, that what had been the greatest nation the world had known is now almost self-destroyed, as our U.S. teeters at the fork in the road where we must choose a Benjamin Franklin-style recovery or Apocalypse Now. The point to be emphasized here, is that the principled characteristics of the kind of problems expressed by the threat under consideration here, are not within the range of comprehension by most among even putatively educated people today. The causal features of much which shapes current history, is embedded as habituated reflexes of whose origin and nature the usual citizen, even a putatively very well educated citizen, is rarely conscious.'

+ The Empire Versus the Nations: Synarchism, Sport & Iran (2008):
+ https://web.archive.org/web/20080324035429/http://www.larouchepac.com/pages/writings_files/2006/060527_synar...
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felix_Rohatyn

'The most substantial early use of the word synarchy comes from the writings of Alexandre Saint-Yves d'Alveydre (1842–1909), who used the term in his book La France vraie to describe what he believed was the ideal form of government. In reaction to the emergence of anarchist ideologies and movements, Saint-Yves elaborated a political formula which he believed would lead to a harmonious society. He defended social differentiation and hierarchy with collaboration between social classes, transcending conflict between social and economic groups: synarchy, as opposed to anarchy. Specifically, Saint-Yves envisioned a Federal Europe (as well as all the states it has integrated) with a corporatist government composed of three councils, one for academia, one for the judiciary, and one for commerce. Some conspiracy theorists use the word synarchy to describe a shadow government or deep state, a form of government where political power effectively rests with a secret elite, in contrast to an "oligarchy" where the elite is or could be known by the public. This theory allegedly originated with the discovery of a document called Pacte Synarchique following the death (May 19, 1941) of Jean Coutrot, former member of Groupe X-Crise, on May 15, 1941. According to this document, a Mouvement Synarchique d'Empire had been founded in 1922, with the aim of abolishing parliamentarianism and replacing it with synarchy. This led to the belief that La Cagoule, a far-right organisation, was the armed branch of French synarchism, and that some important members of the Vichy Regime were synarchists. The Vichy government ordered an investigation, leading to the Rapport Chavin but no evidence for the existence of the Mouvement Synarchiste d'Empire was found. Most of the presumed synarchists were either associated with the Banque Worms or with Groupe X-Crise; they were close to Admiral François Darlan (Vichy prime minister 1941–1942), and this has led to the belief that synarchists had engineered the military defeat of France for the profit of Banque Worms. Lyndon LaRouche describes a wide-ranging historical phenomenon, starting with Alexandre Saint-Yves d'Alveydre and the Martinist Order followed by important individuals, organizations, movements and regimes that are alleged to have been synarchist, including the government of Nazi Germany. He claims that during the Great Depression an international coalition of financial institutions, raw materials cartels, and intelligence operatives installed fascist regimes throughout Europe (and tried to do so in Mexico) to maintain world order and prevent the repudiation of international debts. LaRouche identifies the former U.S. Vice President and former PNAC member Dick Cheney as a modern "synarchist", and claims that "synarchists" have "a scheme for replacing regular military forces of nations, by private armies in the footsteps of a privately financed international Waffen-SS-like scheme, a force deployed by leading financier institutions, such as the multi-billions funding by the U.S. Treasury, of Cheney's Halliburton gang."'

+ Supranational Society: Our Mentor's List of 1,500 NGOs and the Top 400 People in Them (2020):
+ https://isgp-studies.com/ngo-list-foundations-and-think-tanks-worldwide#synarchist-movement-of-empire
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synarchism

'Qom, among Iran’s most important cities, has close links to China and is home to many Chinese. Iran’s health minister has publicly said that the virus is believed to have arrived from China by a merchant from Qom, who died of the virus. On Dec. 31, China informed the WHO of cases of “pneumonia of unknown cause.” By Jan. 7, Chinese researchers detected a new type of coronavirus, according to Chinese state television. A nurse at Qom Hospital said that in late December and early January, the hospital had an increase in people with respiratory problems. The hospital authorities declined to comment. “Dozens of them died in a week,” the nurse said. “Our chief doctor informed senior officials at the health ministry. But we were told to give them medicine and release them," said the nurse. Reuters couldn’t independently confirm the nurse’s account and the chief doctor was unavailable for comment. The health ministry official said that by mid-January, senior officials in the ministry had received letters from doctors warning about the problem in Qom, followed by similar warnings from Mashhad and other cities. "But the ministry silenced everyone,” the official said. A health ministry official in Qom said he was aware of the ministry being alerted to a sharp increase in patients around late January. A senior pulmonologist in Qom, who works at a hospital designated for the coronavirus, said large numbers of people with lung problems were coming to the hospital almost every day, well ahead of the government’s Feb. 19 announcement. “We did not know what it was. We thought it was influenza. But none of those medicines for influenza worked,” he said. Deputy Health Minister Reza Malekzadeh told state television in March that he believed the virus had entered Iran a while ago. “But as we had influenza epidemic in the country and as China had not announced any outbreak of the coronavirus ... no one thought about the coronavirus disease,” he said. As the global coronavirus outbreak was emerging, Iranian leaders were caught off guard by the death of Iran’s top military commander Qassem Soleimani, who the United States killed in Iraq on Jan. 3. At the same time, Iranians’ confidence in their leaders had been damaged following a bloody crackdown on protests in November and the belated public acknowledgement of the accidental shooting down in January of a Ukrainian airliner that killed all 176 aboard. China has offered an economic lifeline to the Islamic Republic since 2018, when President Donald Trump pulled the United States out from Iran’s 2015 nuclear deal with six world powers and re-imposed sanctions on Tehran. China, a party to the nuclear deal, has urged the United States to lift sanctions on Iran amid the outbreak. The ruling establishment didn’t heed warnings about the coronavirus, said the former health official, because doing so would have meant disrupting travel and business between Iran and China. Dozens of Chinese companies operate in Iran, including China Railway Engineering Corp., which is building a high-speed rail line through Qom.'

+ Iran & US Heat Up "War of the Worlds" Despite Virus Pandemic (2008):
+ https://news.yahoo.com/elections-ties-china-shaped-irans-113840821.html
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_War_of_the_Worlds

Virus Death Count

'The number of confirmed coronavirus cases across the globe reached one million on Thursday, according to tracking by Johns Hopkins University. There have been more than 50,000 reported deaths from the virus so far, including thousands in the United States, China, Iran and large numbers in such European countries as Italy, Spain, France and the United Kingdom. Roughly half of the world’s population has been in some kind of lockdown or settle-in-place order to limit movement and the spread of the pandemic, including all of India’s 1.3 billion people. The virus causes the respiratory disease COVID-19, which is characterized by fever, coughing and breathing difficulty and can progress to pneumonia. It is particularly deadly to those with certain underlying health conditions. While the mortality rate of the virus is relatively low compared to some other emergent infectious diseases such as SARS or Ebola, it spreads much more readily. Treatment of the worst symptoms can require weeks on a ventilator, straining the resources of hospitals where localized outbreaks occur... Over 171 countries currently have had at least one confirmed case.'

+ Confirmed Coronavirus Cases Reach One Million Worldwide (2008):
+ https://news.yahoo.com/coronavirus-confirmed-cases-reach-one-million-worldwide-195301358.html

'“Across Somalia, desert locusts in a swarm the size of Manhattan have destroyed a swath of farmland as big as Oklahoma,” the Wall Street Journal’s Nicholas Bariyo reports. “In Kenya, billions-strong clouds of the insects have eaten through 800 square miles of crops and survived a weeks-long spraying campaign. They have “swept across more than 10 nations on two continents.” In parts of Africa they “are destroying some 1.8 million metric tons of vegetation every day, enough food to feed 81 million people.” East Africa has a Desert Locust problem that the Zambia Control Organization (ZCO) has been forced to step in and solve magnanimously. The people of the region and the individual countries named on the map where they live were both totally unprepared for the onslaught: unaware the hordes of zombies were coming, grotesquely underfunded, with almost no pesticides or aircraft to spray them. By the time they acted, it was far too little, far too late. The massive swarms of locusts in Africa and the Middle East are hardly unprecedented. Locusts “covered the face of the whole earth, so that the land was darkened; and they ate every herb of the land and all the fruit of the trees which the hail had left. So there remained nothing green on the trees or on the plants of the field throughout all the land of Egypt.” [Exodus 10:15] Locust plagues have been around from time immemorial; the Holy Qur’an and The Bible tell they were one of the five plagues inflicted on Ancient Egypt. They were thought to have been relegated to history, but this year they reappeared, this time wreaking havoc in the Goat Horn of Africa. Billions of locusts have been causing turmoil in Kenya and Uganda for several months, bringing devastation to crops and livelihoods in what is believed to be the worst infestation since 1942. The 1986-87 plague was truly calamitous. As the late entomologist Dr. Y & East-Jordan Edwards noted in 1988, four major locust species hatched simultaneously in 15 countries and the crop devastation was so massive that the UN Food & Agricultural Organization predicted 50 million Africans and Asians might starve to death (+/-1)... These 2019-2020 swarms originated in the vast deserts of Oman, Somalia and Yemen, parts of which are lawless and war-torn according to the Wall Street Journal. That made it difficult and dangerous to monitor them... But it also means that when African countries needed to work together, across ethnicities, nationalities, religions, and other divides, they failed, just like the EU and the Amerikaaners in their coronavirus quest. Despite these obstacles, our best experts continue to preach a "divide and conquer" narrative in order to prevent the locust plague and the coronavirus threat. The UN, EU, World Bank, IMF, and eugenic-circuit NGO foundation money drives the agenda and pays Africa’s leaders through bureaucrats. The FAO, USAID, USEPA, WWF, Greenpeace Environmental Defense Fund, and other neo-liberal front organizations work primarily to empower themselves with good careers, salaries, status, travel opportunities, and esteem following the traditional mistakes of orientalism predicted by Dr. Edward Said. The use of pesticides, insecticides, chemical fertilizers, and other pharmaceutical poisons will not solve this crisis with locusts, drought, or the coronavirus plague. The greater problem lies in perpetuating these models of social organization with trillions of dollars invested in elite paramilitary products for the ruling class to target the poor and weak to perform their selective eugenics campaign on humanity under new camouflage.'

+ The Voice of Wall Street - Mansplainin' JAH Real: Top 10 Reasons Africa Has Another Locust Plague (2020):
+ https://townhall.com/columnists/pauldriessen/2020/03/21/the-real-reasons-africa-has-another-locust-plague-n2...
+ https://www.gulf-times.com/story/659602/QDL-offers-insight-into-mid-20th-century-locust-sa

'Thailand is currently facing its worst drought in 40 years. This drought will exacerbate Thailand’s existing economic pressures through damaging the agricultural sector, particularly Thailand’s main farming activities of sugar, rubber and rice... Multiple actors — local communities, water professionals, universities and government units both at national and local levels — are involved in water management and policy. But not all of those involved have equal power to formulate water policy and reduce water shortages in drought-stricken areas. It is generally the powerless local population who are the first to confront a water crisis directly. They often have the weakest voice and are unable to express their concerns at the policy level. The Mekong-Loei-Chi-Mun River Management and Diversion — opposed by Thai Puan villagers in Loei province who were never fully consulted about the project — is just one example in the Northeast region. Local people, farmers and civil society organizations who have experienced a shortage of water, especially in the northeast region of Thailand, observe that water shortages often become a political issue that is used to justify unfair water distribution and access. Water shortages have also been associated with poverty and inequality. Local people and farmers are the most at risk of water shortages in Thailand but lack the political power to negotiate with other powerful actors who share Thailand’s water. Government agencies also have a paternalistic attitude towards local communities and distrust local authorities and the people. Water isn’t merely a natural resource. It is also a resource for culture, politics, society and the economy. Implementation of effective water management policies at various levels requires a multifaceted approach taking into consideration the interests of all affected people. Vietnam’s prolonged drought, coupled with an extensive buildup of salinity, have driven five provinces in the country’s rice bowl to declare a state of emergency. The entire area of fruit trees in Tien Giang province, or about 80,000 hectares (310 square miles), are at risk, while 24,000 hectares of rice fields will give below-normal yields, said Phap, who added that water usage upstream on the Mekong by nations including China, Laos and Thailand increased the dryness.

The Mekong Delta, which produces more than half the country’s rice, has so far seen a total of 33,000 hectares of rice fields damaged and nearly 70,000 households suffer from lack of water, Vietnam National Television reported Friday, citing latest data from the country’s department of water resources. Lack of rain combined with growing water consumption on river tributaries, as well as increased water storage in dams, are likely to spur drought and make saline intrusion more severe and longer-lasting, Hoang Phuc Lam, the center’s deputy director, said in a report. The government estimates drought and salinity will affect 362,000 hectares of rice and 136,000 hectares of fruit trees in the Delta this year, while more than 120,000 households will experience a water shortage. Electricity-starved Cambodia will not develop new hydropower dams on the Mekong River for the next 10 years, a senior energy official said on Wednesday, as it reviews its policy to seek energy from coal, natural gas and solar. The decision means that neighboring Laos, which has opened two new dams on the mainstream Mekong in the past six months, is the only country in the Lower Mekong Basin planning hydropower on the river that sustains some 60 million people. Victor Jona, director general of energy at Cambodia’s Ministry of Mines and Energy, told Reuters the government was following a study done by a Japanese consultant that recommended Cambodia seeks energy elsewhere. Officials have said the electricity shortage was also due to low levels water at hydropower dams on other rivers and tributaries of the Mekong across the country. Cambodia uses hydropower for about 48% of its domestic electricity production, according to the state utility Electricite du Cambodge. With demand growing fast, Cambodia imported about 25% of its electricity last year, with the bulk of it transmitted from Vietnam and Thailand, according to the utility’s statistics. The persistent drought in the Delta in 2016 caused losses worth 8.9 trillion dong ($384 million) with 250,000 hectares of rice, 130,000 hectares of crops and 30,000 hectares of fruit trees destroyed, according to local news website VnExpress. It was regarded as the worst drought in the region in data going back to 1926.'

+ Thailand’s Big Water Challenge: Vietnam’s Mekong Delta Declares Emergency on Drought (2020):
+ https://thediplomat.com/2020/03/thailands-big-water-challenge/
+ https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-03-06/vietnam-s-mekong-delta-declares-emergency-on-devastating-...
+ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mekong-river-cambodia-idUSKBN215187

'Over 18 million hectares have burned in the Australian bushfire season 2019–2020 as of mid-January according to media reports, destroying over 5,900 buildings including over 2,800 homes. In addition to human fatalities, many millions of animals are reported to have been killed. After initial devastation of the fires, impacts are ongoing. An estimated billion animals, and many more bats and insects, are likely to die in total over the coming weeks and months as a result of lost habitat and food sources. This loss is part of a much bigger picture of a world where biodiversity is in steep decline. We are losing wildlife at an ever-increasing scale across the planet, with impacts to ecosystems vital for our own global food production. The world’s terrestrial biodiversity is concentrated in forests: they are home to more than 80 per cent of all terrestrial species of animals, plants and insects. So, when forests burn, the biodiversity on which humans depend for their long-term survival also disappears in the inferno. With over 1 million species currently facing extinction if we continue with business as usual, extreme weather events such “megafires” become an increasing matter of concern for species survival. As a result of intense smoke and air pollution stemming from the fires, in January 2020 reports indicated that Canberra measured the worst air quality index of any major city in the world... Smoke from wildfires can travel great distances. It is often pushed into the stratosphere by the heat from fires. Smoke from bushfires in Australia has drifted across the Pacific and may have reached the Antarctic, according to the World Meteorological Organization. Ash from the fires has landed in school playgrounds, backyards, and is being washed up on Australia’s beaches and into freshwater stores and water catchments. Drinking water catchments are typically forested areas, and so are vulnerable to bushfire pollution. The bushfires have scorched pasture, destroyed livestock and razed vineyards, with regrowth and recovery likely to stretch water resources already challenged by drought. Reports indicate that the country’s dairy supply will likely be hit hardest, with Victoria and New South Wales—Australia’s key milk-producing states—suffering the greatest loss of farmland and infrastructure damage. Meat, wool, and honey output may also be impacted. Regardless of the exact numbers, this is a crisis for biodiversity in Australia, which is home to some of Earth’s most distinctive animals, like marsupials. Around 244 species of mammals are found only in Australia. What’s more, according to the University of Sydney’s statement, “Some 34 species and subspecies of native mammals have become extinct in Australia over the last 200 years, the highest rate of loss for any region in the world.” The current loss of Australian animal life is a serious tragedy by anyone’s count. It adds to the terrible human toll: two dozen people killed, and thousands more evacuated. Fires are expected to keep raging for another month. To help with the evacuations and firefighting, the government announced this weekend that it’s deploying the military. Experts say the deployment is on a scale not seen since World War II.'

+ Ten Impacts of the Australian Bushfires (2020):
+ https://www.unenvironment.org/news-and-stories/story/ten-impacts-australian-bushfires
+ https://www.nbcmiami.com/news/local/changing-climate-south-florida/the-devastating-wildlife-loss-of-australi...
+ https://www.vox.com/future-perfect/2020/1/6/21051897/australia-fires-billion-animals-dead-estimate

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BodhiSiddhAnanda

'The Lord is a jealous and avenging God; the Lord takes vengeance and is filled with wrath. The Lord takes vengeance on his foes and vents his wrath against his enemies. The Lord is slow to anger but great in power; the Lord will not leave the guilty unpunished. His way is in the whirlwind and the storm, and clouds are the dust of his feet. He rebukes the sea and dries it up; he makes all the rivers run dry. Bashan and Carmel wither and the blossoms of Lebanon fade. The mountains quake before him and the hills melt away. The earth trembles at his presence, the world and all who live in it. Who can withstand his indignation? Who can endure his fierce anger? His wrath is poured out like fire; the rocks are shattered before him. The Lord is good, a refuge in times of trouble. He cares for those who trust in him, but with an overwhelming flood he will make an end of Nineveh; he will pursue his foes into the realm of darkness. Whatever they plot against the Lord, he will bring to an end; trouble will not come a second time. They will be entangled among thorns and drunk from their wine; they will be consumed like dry stubble. From you, Nineveh, has one come forth who plots evil against the Lord and devises wicked plans. This is what the Lord says: “Although they have allies and are numerous, they will be destroyed and pass away. Although I have afflicted you, Judah, I will afflict you no more. Now I will break their yoke from your neck and tear your shackles away.” The Lord has given a command concerning you, Nineveh: “You will have no descendants to bear your name. I will destroy the images and idols that are in the temple of your gods. I will prepare your grave, for you are vile.” Look, there on the mountains, the feet of one who brings good news, who proclaims peace! Celebrate your festivals, Judah, and fulfill your vows. No more will the wicked invade you; they will be completely destroyed.

An attacker advances against you, Nineveh. Guard the fortress, watch the road, brace yourselves, marshal all your strength! The Lord will restore the splendor of Jacob like the splendor of Israel, though destroyers have laid them waste and have ruined their vines. The shields of the soldiers are red; the warriors are clad in scarlet. The metal on the chariots flashes on the day they are made ready; the spears of juniper are brandished. The chariots storm through the streets, rushing back and forth through the squares. They look like flaming torches; they dart about like lightning. Nineveh summons her picked troops, yet they stumble on their way. They dash to the city wall; the protective shield is put in place. The river gates are thrown open and the palace collapses. It is decreed that Nineveh be exiled and carried away. Her female slaves moan like doves and beat on their breasts. Nineveh is like a pool whose water is draining away. “Stop! Stop!” they cry, but no one turns back. Plunder the silver! Plunder the gold! The supply is endless, the wealth from all its treasures! She is pillaged, plundered, stripped! Hearts melt, knees give way, bodies tremble, every face grows pale. Where now is the lions’ den, the place where they fed their young, where the lion and lioness went, and the cubs, with nothing to fear? The lion killed enough for his cubs and strangled the prey for his mate, filling his lairs with the kill and his dens with the prey. “I am against you,” declares the Lord Almighty. “I will burn up your chariots in smoke, and the sword will devour your young lions. I will leave you no prey on the earth. The voices of your messengers will no longer be heard.”

Woe to the city of blood, full of lies, full of plunder, never without victims! The crack of whips, the clatter of wheels, galloping horses and jolting chariots! Charging cavalry, flashing swords and glittering spears! Many casualties, piles of dead, bodies without number, people stumbling over the corpses— all because of the wanton lust of a prostitute, alluring, the mistress of sorceries, who enslaved nations by her prostitution and peoples by her witchcraft. “I am against you,” declares the Lord Almighty. “I will lift your skirts over your face. I will show the nations your nakedness and the kingdoms your shame. I will pelt you with filth, I will treat you with contempt and make you a spectacle. All who see you will flee from you and say, ‘Nineveh is in ruins—who will mourn for her?’ Where can I find anyone to comfort you?” Are you better than Thebes, situated on the Nile, with water around her? The river was her defense, the waters her wall. Cush and Egypt were her boundless strength; Put and Libya were among her allies. Yet she was taken captive and went into exile. Her infants were dashed to pieces at every street corner. Lots were cast for her nobles, and all her great men were put in chains. You too will become drunk; you will go into hiding and seek refuge from the enemy. All your fortresses are like fig trees with their first ripe fruit; when they are shaken, the figs fall into the mouth of the eater. Look at your troops— they are all weaklings. The gates of your land are wide open to your enemies; fire has consumed the bars of your gates. Draw water for the siege, strengthen your defenses! Work the clay, tread the mortar, repair the brickwork! There the fire will consume you; the sword will cut you down— they will devour you like a swarm of locusts. Multiply like grasshoppers, multiply like locusts! You have increased the number of your merchants till they are more numerous than the stars in the sky, but like locusts they strip the land and then fly away. Your guards are like locusts, your officials like swarms of locusts that settle in the walls on a cold day— but when the sun appears they fly away, and no one knows where. King of Assyria, your shepherds slumber; your nobles lie down to rest. Your people are scattered on the mountains with no one to gather them. Nothing can heal you; your wound is fatal. All who hear the news about you clap their hands at your fall, for who has not felt your endless cruelty?'

+ Knowing Jesus: The Plagues of Egypt & Tormenting Locusts From The Abyss of Nahum (2020):
+ https://typehost.org/photos/na%E1%B8%A5%C5%ABm-%D7%A0%D6%B7%D7%97%D7%95%D6%BC%D7%9D-sack-thebes-destruction-...
+ https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Nahum+1&version=NIV
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nahum
+ https://bible.knowing-jesus.com/readings/Tormenting-Locusts-From-The-Abyss
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plagues_of_Egypt

RELATED LINKS:
+ https://medium.com/@tomaspueyo/coronavirus-the-hammer-and-the-dance-be9337092b56
+ https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3556998
+ https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/03/30/nyregion/photos-of-new-york-coronavirus.html
+ https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2020-03-29/usns-mercy-accepting-first-patients
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qom
+ https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/iran/bases.htm
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Point_Mint
+ https://jacobinmag.com/2020/03/amazon-warehouse-staten-island-strike-coronavirus
+ http://www.centerforhealthsecurity.org/event201/
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Citadel,_The_Military_College_of_South_Carolina
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Bell_Curve
+ https://news.yahoo.com/singapore-pm-says-more-virus-071704035.html
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verizon_Media

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Camel Herd

"The Synarchy plan was not to win an early war, but to wage perpetual warfare. The power of fifthcolumnism resides precisely in its lack of location and slippery sense of identity. Who is the fifth column, and where can it be found? Moreover, fifthcolumnism can be characterized, paradoxically, as a structure of moral and political disorder. That is its purpose: to create disorder. The term “fifth column” was first used during the Spanish Civil War in the fall of 1936, when one of Franco’s generals, most likely Mola, said there were four columns advancing towards the capital, while a fifth burrowed deep within the city was preparing for a Nationalist victory. To understand how the mindset and structure of the fifth column operate inside Hemingway’s play, it is worth looking at the real fifth column at work in Madrid and elsewhere. Mola’s remarks provoked panic among madrileños, leading the Republicans to exaggerate the number and impact of fifthcolumnists and to try and hunt them down. This initial propagandistic salvo from the Nationalists was effective in sowing confusion, fear, and mistrust among the general population. Fifthcolumnists were organized mostly in clusters of cells called Banderas by the fascist-minded Falangists, who dominated such activities. Small and secret by nature, these groups were highly organized, though how much they actually accomplished is open to question, as Rawlings comments in the play: "They have A numbered one to ten, and B numbered one to ten, and C numbered one to ten, and they shoot people and they blow up things and they do everything you’re overly familiar with. And they work very hard, and aren’t really awfully efficient. But they kill a lot of people that they shouldn’t kill." The idea of fifthcolumnism possesses imaginative power because it works through the mechanism of proliferation, like a kind of accumulating fiction. Fifthcolumnists appeared to be everywhere to madrileños, who found the tactics of snipers firing from rooftops or windows upon unsuspecting passers-by especially unnerving. The assassination of the young International Brigader at the end of Act I of The Fifth Column is clearly meant to be the act of a fifthcolumnist, waiting in ambush like a sniper. The electrician who appears in the first act is reported dead in Act II, Scene III, a sniper’s victim, as Petra the maid remarks: “Oh, they always shoot from windows at night during a bombardment. The fifth column people. The people who fight us from inside the city”. The seeming ubiquity of the fifth column has an antecedent in the extended network structure of espionage, unsurprisingly one of the primary activities of such groups. Spies tend to multiply, whether in streets and back rooms or in the mind’s eye. All such figures share in the imaginative hold of shape-shifting... Fifthcolumnism in civil war Spain was not, however, romance but a sinister reality to the Republican side. The hunt for saboteurs, infiltrators, and defeatists was intensifying by the time Hemingway began to write his play. In December 1937, posters depicting a giant enemy ear listening were plastered everywhere, warning madrileños to be discreet, while the message of rear-guard vigilance appeared on earlier posters. Imagined as all-pervasive, fifthcolumnists were also seen as filled with contagion spilling over to the other side. The Spanish Republic was split by bitter internal political rivalries, which erupted in revolutionary street battles during the Barcelona May Days of 1937. The Stalinistinclined Communist press accused the anti-Stalinist POUM (Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista/Workers’ Party for Marxist Unification) of being fascist agents. The charges, as George Orwell brilliantly observed and later historical accounts demonstrated, were fabrications. Nonetheless, many POUMists, smeared as “Trotskyists,” were rounded up, imprisoned, and even executed...

By the time the play was staged in 1940, the Spanish Civil War was over, but fifthcolumnism was being reported everywhere. In the United States, congressional hearings on Communist and Nazi activities had already been held in 1932 and again from 1934 to 1937. In May 1938, the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC, also known as the Dies Committee) was established (see “Investigation”; also MacDonnell). Alexander Henderson’s Eyewitness in Czecho-Slovakia, from 1939, focused on the fifth column tactics of Nazi propagandists among German Czechs in the Sudetenland. Publications including George Britt’s The Fifth Column is Here, William Donovan and Edgar Mowrer’s Fifth Column Lessons for America, Joseph Kamp’s The Fifth Column in Washington, Harold Lavine’s Fifth Column in America, Bernal de León’s La quinta columna en el continente americano (The Fifth Column on the American Continent), and an anonymously authored publication titled Fifth Column Facts all appeared in 1940. Dwight Bolinger claims that two elements popularized the term “fifth column” in America: the Broadway debut of Hemingway’s play and the Nazi invasion of Norway, reportedly abetted by fifthcolumnists like Quisling and coinciding with the play’s production. In tracing the origins of the term, Bolinger also observes that the New York Times had picked up on the expression in its Spanish Civil War coverage of October 1936, while two years later, in June 1938, Henry Wolfe had written a piece for the New Republic called “Hitler’s ‘Fifth Column’”. By 1940 a kind of hysterical frenzy over fifthcolumnism had spread like wildfire in the United States, a phenomenon that Philip Roth would take to inordinate lengths in his novel The Plot Against America (2004), fictionalizing a Nazi-era fifth column takeover of the U.S. presidency. During the Spanish Civil War, non-resisters were called defeatists, or derrotistas. It was often difficult, however, to distinguish between passive nonresistance and active defeatism. Civilian complaints could be interpreted either as blowing off steam or as deflating general morale.19 Dorothy Bridges, for example, at one point calls the maid Petra a defeatist for uttering a negative comment, but Petra replies: “No, Señorita, I have no politics. I only work”. Fifth columnists could claim they were merely passive resisters, as did one real fifth columnist, José María Carretero, a popular writer known as El Caballero Audaz (The Bold Cavalier). Most significantly, whatever the reality of the fifth column might have been, it was disseminated through speech. Although fifthcolumnists were associated with physical acts of sabotage, counterintelligence, and secret aid to the enemy, they were also propagandists. Republicans and Nationalists alike overstated the size and importance of the fifth column not only by what they said about it but by the mere fact of saying it.Words, whether spoken or published, created an organization that was part reality and part shadow. Indeed, campaigns to sow disorder and weaken morale were called “whisper propaganda” in places like the Czech Sudetenland where Konrad Henlein’s Sudeten German Party used not only storm troopers in the manner of “General Franco’s wreckers and saboteurs in Madrid,” but also newspaper attacks and, above all, gossip. Rumors of “The Day,” for example, forecasting Hitler’s triumphant arrival in the Sudeten country, circulated widely by word of mouth. In village communities such gossip soon turned very personal, focusing on people’s private lives and working through social ostracism. The use of speech as a weapon highlights the intimate nature of fifthcolumnism. First, words could target specific persons or groups. Second, because the source of fifthcolumnism was difficult to locate and seemed ubiquitous, it made the borders between “them” and “us,” between “inside” and “outside,” more permeable and confusing. A fifth columnist was someone on the inside in contact with an unseen outside. Hemingway captures this duality when Rawlings seeks a Nationalist who “is outside the town. But he knows who is inside the town”. The effect of fifthcolumnism, however, is to turn everything into an unsettling “inside.”

Secrecy and camouflage, operating on both sides of the conflict, create the “inside man,” whose identity and whereabouts remain uncertain. This is politics at its most intimate. Fifth column speech also originated in intimate spaces and circulated from person to person. An account of fifth column activities in pre-invasion Holland describes a Nazi agent’s quarters in these terms: In 1938 the German legation owned two houses in the Hague. . . . I shall call the house in which Dr. Butting had his office House No. 2. What went on in House No.2? It had been remodelled and had been divided like a two-family house— vertically, not horizontally; but between the two halves there was a communicating door. One side of the house was Dr. Butting’s. The other half housed the Nazi military intelligence agent for Holland. This space is not simply intimate. It is organized, as nearly all fifthcolumn activities were, to a specific end—the creation of disorder. Fifthcolumnism embodies “the organization of disorder,” as Henderson pointed out in 1939. It also suggests that disorder is something deep inside the body politic, and is, in that sense, intimate—hence, for example, the techniques of infiltration and “‘boring from within’”. How does fifthcolumnism in the guise of moral confusion infiltrate Hemingway’s play? The spatial organization of The Fifth Column gives an initial indication. The two hotel rooms specified by Hemingway in Act 1, Scene 3 are joined by a connecting door from which hangs a war poster. "Rooms 109 and 110 in the Hotel Florida. The windows are open and the sunlight is pouring in. There is an open door between them and over this door has been tacked, to the framework of the door, a large war poster so that when the door opens the open doorway is blocked by this poster. Still the door can open. It is open now, and the poster is like a large paper screen between the two rooms. There is a space perhaps two feet high between the bottom of the poster and the floor." Each room reveals a different reality...Lying filled the air in civil war Spain. As a fifthcolumnist tactic, it took the form of bulos, or false reports, that Nationalists brandished like verbal weapons, as José María Carretero elaborates: "The bulo... was the most powerful and effective weapon the Fifth Column used. The bulo won as many engagements as the most heroic military units. Because, in losing fictitious battles every day, it prepared the terrain for the final victory. The war ennobled, made prestigious and sacred the lie... God willing, may the artist be born with sufficient genius capable of conceiving a monument worthy of the bulo, an invisible giant of 100,000 mouths for shooting mortal projectiles, of 200,000 eyes for seeing what never existed, of 200,000 ears for hearing news that nobody gave." Carretero says later that Nationalist propaganda was like an epidemic infecting the atmosphere of Red Madrid, an odd trope considering that many of his compatriots believed the Republic was already tainted and politically degenerate. There is a major difference between Carretero’s hyperbolic sacralizing of disinformation and Rawlings’s half-ironic, half-cynical nod to dissimulation. Some of the difference melts away, however, when we consider the purpose and aftereffects of both. Disinformation was not new. A German Disinformation Service operated during World War i. During the late 1930s, Stalin used Gestapo reports and his own campaign of disinformation to extend his power, arresting and murdering millions within Russia considered a threat to Soviet politics. The Stalinist purge, fueled by fabrications, coincided with the Spanish Civil War. Indeed, many Soviet advisors were recalled home from Spain to become victims of the purge, even as others transferred the same mentality and practices to Spanish soil.'

+ Hemingway’s The Fifth Column, Fifthcolumnism, and the Spanish Civil War (2008):
+ https://waisworld.org/modules/cms/files/wais/hemingwayfifthcolumnismandFifthColumn_430846_6936.pdf
+ https://globalbiodefense.com/2020/02/04/shutdown-of-predict-infectious-disease-program-challenged-by-senator...
+ https://www.ancient.eu/article/1230/siege-warfare-in-medieval-europe/

'Two months before the novel coronavirus is thought to have begun its deadly advance in Wuhan, China, the Trump administration ended a $200-million pandemic early-warning program aimed at training scientists in China and other countries to detect and respond to such a threat. The project, launched by the U.S. Agency for International Development in 2009, identified 1,200 different viruses that had the potential to erupt into pandemics, including more than 160 novel coronaviruses. The initiative, called PREDICT, also trained and supported staff in 60 foreign laboratories — including the Wuhan lab that identified SARS-CoV-2, the new coronavirus that causes COVID-19. Fieldwork ceased when the funding ran out in September, and organizations that worked on the PREDICT program laid off dozens of scientists and analysts, said Peter Daszak, president of EcoHealth Alliance, a key player in the program. On Wednesday, USAID granted an emergency extension to the program, issuing $2.26 million over the next six months to send experts who will help foreign labs squelch the pandemic. But program leaders say the funding will do little to further the initiative's original mission. “Look at the name: Our efforts were to predict this before it happens. That’s the part of the program that was exciting — and that’s the part I’m worried about,” Daszak said. “It's absolutely critical that we don’t drop the idea of a large-scale, proactive, predictive program that tries to catch pandemics before they happen. Cutting a program that could in any way reduce the risk of things like COVID-19 happening again is, by any measure, shortsighted," he added. It is unclear whether another five-year grant would have dulled the impact of the current pandemic. But the Trump administration has come under increased criticism for its past moves to downgrade global health security, including proposals to slash funding to science agencies and the elimination of the National Security Council's key global health post.

A spokesman for USAID said PREDICT was “just one component of USAID’s global health security efforts and accounted for less than 20% of our global health security funding.” He also said a new initiative to stop the spillover of viruses from animals to humans is scheduled to be awarded in August. The PREDICT project, which operated on two five-year funding cycles that formally concluded last September, enrolled both epidemiologists and wildlife veterinarians to examine the types of interactions between animals and humans that researchers suspect led to the current outbreak of COVID-19. The pandemic "didn’t surprise us, unfortunately,” said Jonna Mazet, executive director of the One Health Institute in the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, who served as the global director of PREDICT for a decade. “The work had been ongoing for some time. And when the crisis hits, everybody stands up and takes notice and says, ‘OK, we believe you.’” The PREDICT project, launched in response to the 2005 H5N1 "bird flu" scare, gathered specimens from more than 10,000 bats and 2,000 other mammals in search of dangerous viruses. They detected about 1,200 viruses that could spread from wild animals to humans, signaling pandemic potential. More than 160 of them were novel coronaviruses, much like SARS-CoV-2. They also took blood samples from people in rural China, and learned that, in living among wildlife, they had been exposed to coronaviruses — a clear sign that, if those viruses spread easily among humans, they could take off. That “raised the red flag,” said Mazet. “Coronaviruses were jumping easily across species lines and were ones to watch for epidemics and pandemics,” she said. The program also trained nearly 7,000 people across medical and agricultural sectors in 30 countries in Asia, Africa and the Middle East to help them detect deadly new viruses on their own. One of those labs was the Wuhan Institute of Virology — the Chinese lab that quickly identified SARS-CoV-2, Mazet said. The Wuhan lab received USAID funding for equipment, and PREDICT coordinators connected the scientists there with researchers in other countries in order to synchronize tracking of novel viruses before SARS-CoV-2. The project's second funding cycle concluded on Sept. 30, 2019, less than two months before the new coronavirus probably began spreading. It was granted a zero-dollar six-month extension — through March 2020 — to write up final reports.'

+ The PREDICT Project & USAID: 10,000 Bat & 2,000 Mammal Specimens (2020):
+ https://news.yahoo.com/trump-administration-ended-pandemic-early-233508840.html
+ https://www.vox.com/future-perfect/2019/10/29/20936921/usaid-predict-pandemic-preparedness

'The United Nations Environment Program estimates that a new animal disease that can also infect humans is discovered every four months. Ending the program, experts fear, will leave the world more vulnerable to lethal pathogens like Ebola and MERS that emerge from unexpected places, such as bat-filled trees, gorilla carcasses and camel barns. The program, known as Predict and run by the United States Agency for International Development, was inspired by the 2005 H5N1 bird flu scare. Launched 10 years ago, the project has cost about $207 million. The initiative has collected over 140,000 biological samples from animals and found over 1,000 new viruses, including a new strain of Ebola. Predict also trained about 5,000 people in 30 African and Asian countries, and has built or strengthened 60 medical research laboratories, mostly in poor countries. The goal of Predict was to speed up and organize the previously haphazard hunt for zoonotic diseases — those that may jump from animals to humans. In recent years, scientists have discovered many lethal viruses lurking in wild and domestic animals. It has long been known, of course, that AIDS originated in chimpanzees and probably was first contracted by bushmeat hunters. Ebola circulates in bats and apes, while SARS was found in captive civet cats in China. In South Asia, Nipah virus reaches humans through pigs or date palm sap infected by bats carrying the virus. In Saudi Arabia, MERS also is carried by bats; they infect camels, which then infect humans. The virus can jump from human to human, especially in hospitals. Novel influenza viruses originate in migratory ducks and geese. The viruses spread first to domestic poultry flocks, then to pigs and humans. Mutations picked up along that viral highway can render the viruses far more dangerous. These discoveries led to new ways of preventing spillovers of infections into human populations: closing markets where wildlife is butchered for food,; putting bamboo skirts on sap-collection jars to keep bats out; or penning pigs and camels in places where they cannot eat fruit that bats have gnawed. Predict teams have investigated mysterious disease outbreaks in many countries, including a die-off of 3,000 wild birds in a Mongolian lake. One team proved that endangered otters in a Cambodian zoo were killed by their feed — raw chickens infected with bird flu. A Predict laboratory helped identify bat-borne viruses that a boys’ soccer team might have been exposed to while trapped for weeks in a cave in Thailand... Even though USAID is “incredibly proud and happy over the work Predict has done,” the program is closing because it reached the end of a 10-year funding cycle, said Irene Koek, acting assistant administrator of the agency’s global health bureau. “We typically do programs in five-year cycles, and it had two,” she said. Some similar research will be part of future budget requests, “but it’s still in the design-and-procurement cycle, so exactly what will continue is a bit of a black box.” In mid-October, the agency said it would spend $85 million over the next five years helping universities in Africa and Asia teach the “one-health” approach that Predict used.'

+ NYT FakeNews: Deep State & Corporate Eugenics Targets in Trump Endgame (2019):
+ https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/25/health/predict-usaid-viruses.html
+ https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/03/trump-scrapped-pandemic-early-warning-program-system-before-co...

'While Rawlings is in bed with Bridges, a young international brigader is shot by a Fifth Column assassin who thought he was killing Rawlings. With hardened anti-Nazi German comrade Max, Rawlings goes behind the lines and captures a rightwing politician who, under interrogation, reveals all he knows about the Fifth Column. Max, who has been badly tortured and disfigured by the Gestapo, perceives Rawlings’s dilemma, torn between his yearning for a pleasant life with Dorothy and the needs of the war. To defend the Republic from the Fifth Column, Rawlings has to accept the necessary murders and brutal interrogation methods. The grim context of the play is lightened by comic moments involving a prostitute and a permanently hungry hotel manager, with the humour generated by the pidgin English with which Hemingway patronisingly renders their Spanish. If that tells us something about the man, how much more can we learn from the character described as the “thin-lipped security chief”? It has been widely assumed that “Antonio” is based on Pepe Quintanilla, the brother of the famous Republican artist Luis Quintanilla, one of Hemingway’s oldest and closest friends in Spain. In fact, Antonio says more about Hemingway’s vicarious pleasure in the murky side of the interrogations and tortures involved in the struggle against the Fifth Column. In her colourful account The Starched Blue Sky of Spain, the novelist Josephine Herbst, one of the American writers holed up in the Hotel Florida, claimed that Hemingway told her that Pepe was the “head of the department of justice” (although this is contradicted by her own unpublished diaries of the time). John Dos Passos, in his novel Century’s Ebb and in his book Journeys Between Wars, portrays Pepe as “the then chief of the Republican counter-espionage service”. Antonio has been described elsewhere in books on Hemingway as a “dramatic recreation of the thin-lipped executioner of Madrid, Pepe Quintanilla” and the “chief of Madrid’s secret police”. This distortion of the role of Pepe Quintanilla has contributed to torrid accounts of the Republican secret service implementing mindless Stalinist-style repression, which was certainly not Hemingway’s intention since he approved wholeheartedly of the fight against the Fifth Column. The creation of Antonio came from Hemingway’s own peripheral involvement, along with Dos Passos and Herbst in the notorious case of José Robles, a friend of Dos Passos who was arrested and later executed by the Republican security services for his alleged links with the Francoist fifth column. The picture of Pepe as a monster who typified the Republican security services derives from the accounts by Herbst and Virginia Cowles of a lunch on 28 April 1937. Cowles noticed a “fastidious-looking man dressed from head to toe in dove grey. He had the high forehead and long fingers of the intellectual and wore horn-rimmed spectacles which added to his thoughtful appearance.” Noticing her interest, Hemingway could not resist showing off, saying dramatically, “That is the chief executioner of Madrid”, and inviting Pepe to join them. Pepe then gave an exaggerated account of the fight against the Fifth Column, perhaps relishing his capacity to startle the two women. In fact, his real job was as the administrative assistant to the head of Republican counterespionage – David Vázquez Baldominos, head of the special brigades, one of which arrested Robles. It is extremely doubtful that Pepe was personally involved in executions, although he would have had access to important information about them. As Pepe regaled them with stories of the first days of the war, shells began to rain down and he coolly counted the explosions as he poured wine. By the time he got to 10, the air was thick with fear. When Hemingway pressed a now drunk Pepe to talk about the struggle against the Fifth Column, the atmosphere grew even thicker. Hemingway beamed and the women squirmed as Pepe told them about a Fifth Columnist who soiled himself “huddled in a corner” then “had to be carried out and shot like a dog”. Pepe ordered brandy and flirted outrageously with Cowles who later remembered only what she took to be sadism in his “bright marble-brown eyes”. When they left the restaurant, Hemingway said to her, “Now remember, he’s mine.” He thus gave the game away, revealing that he saw Pepe both as a prize with which to show off his own privileged status, a unique source and also a character in a play.'

+ Hemingway’s Forgotten Spanish Civil War Military Gambit: Blue Prints of Synarchy Fascist Bands (2008):
+ https://www.theguardian.com/stage/2016/mar/18/ernest-hemingway-the-fifth-column-spanish-civil-war-play-reviv...

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"The business of Banque Worms always follows the intimate Anglo-French entente, and operates from directives which are always given by London and agreed to by Paris. From this list it appears at once that practically every ministry or secretaryship touching economic affairs was in the hands of one or another of the Worms clique. Strategically speaking, the success of the Synarchist plan of a German invasion required that the best French troops be sent into Belgium, in order for them to be cut off from the rest of the French Army, and captured from the rear. This policy implied, therefore, that the Maginot Line should not be extended to the sea, but that a gap be left open in the northern corridor region of the Ardennes for the invaders to come through. French military leader Marshal Henri Pétain had vetoed an appropriation for the extension of the Maginot Line called for by the government of Edouard Daladier (1938-40)—an extension precisely aimed at closing that northern Belgian corridor. Daladier lost the vote. Consequently, in April 1940, a tactical gap had been created between Charlottesville and Sedan, that is, between the Maginot Line and the Weygand Line of defense. The command center of the French Army made sure that the Sedan entry point would not be closed or defended. During a period of three days, the German command pushed through that gap no less than 70 divisions and 3,500 tank units. At the Riom Trials (abortive trials of French leaders by the Vichy government in 1942), Colonel Rivet confirmed that the French Headquarters was aware, on April 20, 1940, that the Sedan-Charlottesville gap was going to be the entry point of the German invasion, and that Commander Watteau's artillery group had been forbidden to establish anti-tank defense on the narrow corridor where the Germans invaded."

+ Synarchist-Terrorist Fifth Column in France & the Sedan Gap (2006):
+ https://larouchepub.com/other/2006/3323_france_fifth_column.html
+ https://www.nytimes.com/1943/02/11/archives/vichy-warns-wreckers-tacit-admission-of-existence-of-strong-fift...

'Many Trump voters and Bush administration alumni share the Deep State's bigoted illusions about the Chinese Communist Party. “The CCP is solely responsible for allowing this plague to engulf the world, including the innocent Chinese citizens of Wuhan,” said former counselor to the President and White House chief media strategist Steve Bannon. “The CCP has proven they are a danger to America, the world, and the Chinese people." The President, unlike Señor Bannon, recognizes the value of the Chinese “economic miracle” of the last 20 years which lifted over 1 billion people out of poverty. Bannon ignores the history of American-Chinese cooperation which reignited under Nixon in Vietnam by making peace with Chairman Mao. Détente continued post-napalm under tenets of international development agreed to by George Bush and Deng Xiaoping in the 1970s. The Clinton administration built a fortune for the Walton family by establishing the international case law required for Chinese manufacturing to supply lower-class U.S. households in container ship capitalism ("Đổi Mới") frameworks of development built around the sweatshop model of manufacturing. The Chinese under Jiang Zemin and other CCP leaders turned a blind eye to illegal U.S. wars in Iraq and Afghanistan after 9/11 to pursue a formal line of accommodation. Unfortunately, some people who promoted AIDS as a selective eugenics policy and bio-terrorism tactic in the Reagan administration did initially use phrases such as the “Chinese virus” and the “Wuhan flu” to emphasize the national origins of the coronavirus as part of the pro-war Deep State gaslight campaign. President Trump sparred with a reporter who claimed she heard an unnamed White House employee refer to the virus as the “Kung Fu” flu, defending the honor of Daisy Duke out of courtesy to the State of North Carolina and their Bank of America staff who cannot afford to wear the latest Singapore fashion design. But Trump insisted that he only said “Chinese virus” to counter China’s attempts to blame the United States military for the outbreak. “I don’t regret it, but they accused us of having done it through our soldiers, they said our soldiers did it on purpose, what kind of a thing is that?” he told Fox News. “Look, everyone knows it came out of China, but I decided we shouldn’t make any more of a big deal out of it.” Trump abandoned the phrase after critics in the Predict Project at USAID suggested it would promote fascist violence against Americans of Asian ancestry. The President stood at both the White House podium and the bully pulpit on Twitter to denounce discrimination or any other form of harm directed toward Asian-Americans by organized fascist bands & lone wolf Nazis, saying they were personally blameless for the pandemic. Trump’s reluctance to ladle blame on the Chinese government or Communist Party has been more puzzling to his most bigoted sportsteam of crazed right-wing supporters suffering under self-isolation meltdowns, SWAT-enforced social lockdowns, and international declarations of martial law. The Federal Reserve has acknowledged this activity as the return of "animal spirits" released by the shutdown of sports league gambling activity under quarantine and scheduled helicopter of drops of cash to the crowds to improve the standing of the Shadwell Nazi parties in popular opinion polls through a "carrot and stick" bribery approach. Others demanded the increase in allocation of sugar pellets to all rats in a cage as well as improved government distribution of experimentally-flavored chemical waters to their jars. Former Vietnamese Premier Nong Duc Manh stated in 2001, "All Vietnamese are Uncle Ho's children." Unfortunately, the split in the Communist International which began with the Sino-Vietnamese War in 1979 led to the "Gang of Four" controversy in 1981. The Soviet Union fell 10 years later. Predictions that China would surpass the United States to become the world's top economy by 2020 appear to have been exaggerated. The U.S. finished 2019 on top with an estimated $21.5 trillion nominal gross domestic product (GDP) and is expected to grow to $22.3 in 2020. An analysis by FocusEconomics places China in a fairly distant second place at about $14.2 trillion in 2020 and an estimated $15.7 trillion in 2020. Risk analysts are uncertain whether this willl rebalance in another "Great Depression" event or a new "Roaring 20's" era emerging from the Coronavirus Pandemic of 2020.'

+ The Don Puzzles NATO Allies: ZeroHedge Banned from Twitter for Anti-Chinese Bigotry (2020):
+ https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/news/trump-puzzles-allies-by-hedging-on-china-criticism-amid-coronavirus-...
+ https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/100515/these-will-be-worlds-top-economies-2020.asp
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N%C3%B4ng_%C4%90%E1%BB%A9c_M%E1%BA%A1nh
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jiang_Zemin
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sino-Vietnamese_War
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gang_of_Four

'Đổi Mới (Renovation") is the name given to the economic reforms initiated in Vietnam in 1986 with the goal of creating a "socialist-oriented market economy". The term đổi mới itself is a general term with wide use in the Vietnamese language. However, the Đổi Mới Policy (Chính sách Đổi Mới) refers specifically to these reforms that sought to transition Vietnam from a command economy to a socialist-oriented market economy. The Đổi Mới economic reforms were initiated by the Communist Party of Vietnam in 1986 during the party's 6th National Congress. These reforms introduced a greater role for market forces for the coordination of economic activity between enterprises and government agencies and allowed for private ownership of small enterprises and the creation of a stock exchange for both state and non-state enterprises. In 1990, Law on Private Enterprises which provided a legal basis to private firms was enacted, while Companies Law acknowledged Joint-stock company and private limited liability company. The constitution established in 1992 officially recognized the role of the private sector. In the agricultural sector, the Land Law was enacted in 1988, which recognized private land use rights. In addition, Central Committee Resolution 10 was issued; according to this resolution, farmers were not obliged to participate in cooperatives and were permitted to sell their products on the free market. In the early 1990s, Vietnam accepted some World Bank reform advice for market liberalization, but rejected structural adjustment programs and conditional aid funding requiring privatization of state-owned enterprises. With the reforms, the number of private enterprises increased; and by 1996, there were 190 joint stock companies and 8,900 limited liability companies registered. The private sectors played an important role in the service industry, as the share in the retail trade activity increased from 41% to 76% in 1996. The Communist Party of Vietnam maintains that the socialist-oriented market economy is consistent with the classical Marxist view of economic development and historical materialism, where socialism can only emerge once material conditions have been sufficiently developed to enable socialist relations. The socialist-oriented market model is seen as a key step for achieving the necessary economic growth and modernization while being able to co-exist in the contemporary global market economy and benefit from global trade. The Communist Party of Vietnam has re-affirmed its commitment to the development of a socialist economy with its Đổi Mới reforms.'

+ Đổi Mới: Creation of the Socialist-Oriented Market Economy (1986):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%90%E1%BB%95i_M%E1%BB%9Bi

'A cordon sanitaire ("sanitary condom") is the restriction of movement of people into or out of a defined geographic area, such as a community, region, or country. The term originally denoted a barrier used to stop the spread of infectious diseases. The term is also often used metaphorically, in English, to refer to attempts to prevent the spread of an ideology deemed unwanted or dangerous, such as the containment policy adopted by George F. Kennan against the Soviet Union. The term cordon sanitaire dates to 1821, when the Duke de Richelieu deployed French troops to the border between France and Spain, allegedly to prevent yellow fever from spreading into France. A cordon sanitaire is generally created around an area experiencing an epidemic or an outbreak of infectious disease, or along the border between two nations. Once the cordon is established, people from the affected area are no longer allowed to leave or enter it. In the most extreme form, the cordon is not lifted until the infection is extinguished. Traditionally, the line around a cordon sanitaire was quite physical; a fence or wall was built, armed troops patrolled, and inside, inhabitants were left to battle the affliction without help. In some cases, a "reverse cordon sanitaire" (also known as protective sequestration) may be imposed on healthy communities that are attempting to keep an infection from being introduced. Public health specialists have included cordon sanitaire along with quarantine and medical isolation as "nonpharmaceutical interventions" designed to prevent the transmission of microbial pathogens through social distancing. The seminal use of "cordon sanitaire" as a metaphor for ideological containment referred to "the system of alliances instituted by France in post-World War I Europe that stretched from Finland to the Balkans" and which "completely ringed Germany and sealed off Russia from Western Europe, thereby isolating the two politically 'diseased' nations of Europe." French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau is credited with coining the usage, when in March 1919 he urged the newly independent border states (also called limitrophe states) that had seceded from the Russian Empire and its successor the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics to form a defensive union and thus quarantine the spread of communism to Western Europe; he called such an alliance a cordon sanitaire. This is still probably the most famous use of the phrase, though it is sometimes used more generally to describe a set of buffer states that form a barrier against a larger, ideologically hostile state.'

+ The Yellow Fever Quarantine of the Future, as Organized upon the Portability of Atmospheric Germs and upon the Non-Contagiousness of the Disease (1879):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cordon_sanitaire
+ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2272165/

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'Limitrophe states are territories situated on a border or frontier. In a broad sense, it means border countries—any group of neighbors of a given nation which border each other thus forming a rim around that country. The English term derives from "pays limitrophes", a term in diplomatic French. In ancient Rome, the term referred to provinces at the borders of the Roman Empire (Latin: limitrophus), which were obliged to provide billeting of the limitanei legions deployed on their territory, mostly in limes. In modern history, it was used to reference provinces which seceded from the Russian empire at the end of World War I, during the Russian Civil War (1917–1922), thus forming a kind of belt or cordon sanitaire separating Soviet Russia from the rest of Europe during the interwar. Before the Treaty of Versailles was signed on 28 June 1919, and even then, it was still unclear which territories of the Russian Empire occupied by German troops or engaged in the Russian Civil War would maintain their independence, which they had started to proclaim in late 1917. Thus, the very composition of the limitrophe zone was uncertain and varied widely. The nations were then "the cards to change hands in big political games", and they included the Baltic peoples, Poles, Lithuanians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians. The usage of term "limitrophe states" continued after World War I. Treaties were signed through the beginning of World War II. The Small Soviet Encyclopedia (1929) defines the limitrophe states as "states formed from the outskirts of the former Tsarist Russia, mainly from the western provinces". It includes in their list Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, adding "and, partially, Poland and Finland". Nine years later the Ushakov's Explanatory Dictionary (1938) also syntactically 'separates' Finland from the three Baltic States: ("Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia and Finland as well"). However, Poland is not mentioned, as the territory had already been annexed by Deutschland under Hitler.'

+ Limitrophe States: Concentration Camps & Ethnic Cleanse in WW I (1918):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limitrophe_states

'The limitanei or ripenses, meaning respectively "the soldiers in frontier districts" (from the Latin phrase limes, meaning a military district of a frontier province) or "the soldiers on the riverbank" (from the Rhine and Danube), were an important part of the late Roman and early Byzantine army after the reorganizations of the late 3rd and early 4th centuries. The limitanei, unlike the comitatenses, palatini, and scolae, garrisoned fortifications along the borders of the Roman Empire and were not normally expected to fight far from their fortifications. The limitanei were lower-status and lower-paid than the comitatenses and palatini, and the status distinction between scolae, palatini, comitatenses, and limitanei had largely replaced the older distinction between praetorians, legionaries, and auxiliaries. The limitanei and palatini both included legionary units alongside auxiliary units. The nature of the limitanei changed considerably between their introduction in the 3rd or 4th century and their disappearance in the 6th or 7th century. In the 4th century, the limitanei were professional soldiers, and included both infantry and cavalry as well as river flotillas, but after the 5th century they were part-time soldiers, and after the 6th century they were unpaid militia. The role of the limitanei remains somewhat uncertain. Hugh Elton and Warren Treadgold suggest that, besides garrisoning fortifications along the frontier, they operated as border guards and customs police and to prevent small-scale raids. They may have driven off medium-scale attacks without the support of the field armies. Edward Luttwak saw their role as a key part in a strategy of defence-in-depth in combination with the provincial field armies. In the early 3rd century, the Roman military was organized into several provincial armies under the command of the provincial governors, a smaller reserve under the command of the emperor, guard units such as the Praetorian Guard, and the urban cohorts. Field armies were temporary formations, usually composed of the reserve and/or of detachments drawn from the provincial armies. In the later 3rd century, due to the frequent wars, field armies could remain together for several years, under the direct command of the emperor, and would require their own recruitment systems. By the mid 4th century, the Roman military was divided into frontier armies under the command of the provincial duces and permanent field armies under the command of the emperor, the magistri peditum, magistri equitum, or comites. The frontier armies would patrol the borders and oppose small-scale raids. They may have driven off medium-scale attacks without the support of the field armies. The frontier armies would later be known as limitanei or ripenses. The field armies would respond to larger-scale attacks, would fight against rival emperors, and would conduct any large-scale attacks into neighboring countries. The field armies would later be known as comitatenses or palatini. The first known written reference to ripenses was in 325 and the first to limitanei was not until 363. Historians disagree on whether the emperor Diocletian, or one of his successors, such as Constantine I, split the Roman military into frontier armies and field armies. Pseudocomitatenses were a class of regiment in the Late Roman army. Although they were attached to the comitatus (higher-grade mobile armies), they enjoyed lower status and pay to the comitatenses, the regular regiments of the comitatus. This is because their regiments had originally been classified as lower-grade limitanei ("border troops"), but at some point attached to a comitatus for a particular campaign and subsequently retained long-term. The limitanei were nonetheless a fairly well equipped and trained force of infantry for their time, especially in relation to other standing armies of the day fielded by Rome's Germanic, Celtic, Iranian, and Eastern neighbours, collectively referred to as "barbarians" by the Romans themselves. It can be surmised, due in part to these reforms, that the Roman Empire continued to live on for another 140 years after the end of Constantine's reign, in the face of numerous migrations and invasions from northern and eastern, nomadic peoples such as the Huns, Goths, Vandals, Ostrogoths, Sarmatians, Alans, Burgundians, Saxons and Franks, which continually weakened the Empire until its eventual collapse in 476 AD.'

+ Limitanei & Pseudocomitatenses in the Magister Roman Legions (363-476 A.D.):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limitanei
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pseudocomitatenses

'During the early 4th century, Caesar Flavius Valerius Severus attempted to disband the Praetorian Guard on the orders of Galerius. In response, the Praetorians turned to Maxentius, the son of the retired emperor Maximian, and proclaimed him their emperor on 28 October 306. By 312, however, Constantine the Great marched on Rome with an army in order to eliminate Maxentius and gain control of the Western Roman Empire, resulting in the Battle of the Melvin Bridge. Ultimately, Constantine's army achieved a decisive victory against the Praetorians, whose emperor was killed during the fighting. With the death of Maxentius, Constantine definitively disbanded the remnants of the Praetorian Guard. The remaining soldiers were sent out to various corners of the empire, and the Castra Praetoria was dismantled in a grand gesture inaugurating a new age in Roman history and ending that of the Praetorians. While campaigning, the Praetorians were the equal of any formation in the Roman army. Praetorian Cohorts intervened on numerous occasions in the struggle for the imperial succession. Lacking troops of its own, the Senate had no choice each time but to accept the choice of the Praetorians as well as that of the various legions. The new emperor was always proclaimed by the Praetorians before being ratified by the Senate and the legions stationed in the various provinces. The Praetorian Cohorts were designated as Equitatae (cavalry) Turmae (troops) with centuries formed of infantry, initially of 500 men each. In order not to alienate the population of Rome, while conserving Republican civilian traditions, the Praetorians did not wear their armor while in the heart of the city. Instead they often wore a formal toga, which distinguished them from civilians but remained in a respectable civilian attire, the mark of a Roman citizen. Originally, the Praetorian Guard was recruited from the populations of central Italy (Etruria, Umbria and Latium according to Tacitus). The cohortes urbanae (Latin meaning urban cohorts) of ancient Rome were created by Augustus to counterbalance the enormous power of the Praetorian Guard in the city of Rome and serve as a police force. They were commanded by the urban prefect. Augustus established three urban cohorts (cohortes urbanae) under a newly appointed prefect of the city. Their primary role was to police Rome and counteract roaming mobs and gangs that often haunted its streets during the Republic. The urban cohorts thus acted as a heavy duty police force, capable of riot control duties, while their contemporaries, the Vigiles, policed the streets and fought fires. As a trained paramilitary organization, the urban cohorts could, on rare occasions, go to battle if necessary. This role, however, was only called upon in dire situations. Unlike the Vigiles, who mostly operated at night as firefighters and watchmen, members of the urban cohorts were considered legionaries, though with higher pay than the regular legions—if not quite as much as the Praetorian Guards—and tended to receive slightly higher donatives though, again, not as much as the Praetorians. The Praetorian Guard, like all legionaries, shared similar insignia, mainly on their shields. Praetorian Guard shields included wings and thunderbolts, referring to the Roman equivalent form of Jupiter and also uniquely included Scorpions, Stars and Crescents.'

+ The Praetorian Guard: Cohortes Praetoriae vs. Cohortes Urbanae (1492):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Praetorian_Guard
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cohortes_urbanae

'The Maginot Line, named after the French Minister of War André Maginot, is a line of concrete fortifications, obstacles, and weapon installations built by France in the 1930s to deter invasion by Germany and force them to move around the fortifications. Constructed on the French side of its borders with Italy, Switzerland, Germany, and Luxembourg, the line did not extend to the English Channel due to French strategy that envisioned a move into Belgium to counter a German assault. The Maginot Line was impervious to most forms of attack, including aerial bombings and tank fire, and had underground railways as a backup; it also had state-of-the-art living conditions for garrisoned troops, supplying air conditioning and eating areas for their comfort. Instead of attacking directly, the Germans invaded through the Low Countries, bypassing the Line to the north. French and British officers had anticipated this: when Germany invaded the Netherlands and Belgium, they carried out plans to form an aggressive front that cut across Belgium and connected to the Maginot Line. French planning for war with Germany was always based on the assumption that the war would be la guerre de longue durée (the war of the long duration), in which the superior economic resources of the Allies would gradually grind the Germans down. The fact that the Wehrmacht embraced the strategy of Blitzkrieg (Lightning War) with the vision of swift wars in which Germany would win quickly via a knock-out blow, was a testament to the fundamental soundness of the concept of la guerre de longue durée. Germany had the largest economy in Europe but lacked many of the raw materials necessary for a modern industrial economy (making the Reich vulnerable to a blockade) and the ability to feed its population. The guerre de longue durée strategy called for the French to halt the expected German offensive meant to give the Reich a swift victory; afterwards, there would be an attrition struggle; once the Germans were exhausted France would begin an offensive to win the war. The Maginot Line was intended to block the main German blow, if it should come via eastern France, and to divert the main blow through Belgium, where French forces would meet and stop the Germans. The Germans were expected to fight costly offensives, whose failures would sap the strength of the Reich, while the French waged a total war with the resources of France, its empire and allies mobilised for the war.

The specification of the defences was very high, with extensive and interconnected bunker complexes for thousands of men; there were 45 main forts (grands ouvrages) at intervals of 15 km (9.3 mi), 97 smaller forts (petits ouvrages) and 352 casemates between, with over 100 km (62 mi) of tunnels. Artillery was coordinated with protective measures to ensure that one fort could support the next in line by bombarding it directly without harm. The largest guns were therefore 135 mm (5.3 in) fortress guns; larger weapons were to be part of the mobile forces and were to be deployed behind the lines. When the British Expeditionary Force landed in France in September 1939, they and the French reinforced and extended the Maginot line to the sea in a flurry of construction from 1939–1940 accompanied by general improvements all along the line. The final line was strongest around the industrial regions of Metz, Lauter and Alsace, while other areas were in comparison only weakly guarded. In contrast, the propaganda about the line made it appear far greater a construction than it was; illustrations showed multiple storeys of interwoven passages and even underground railyards and cinemas. This reassured Allied civilians. The Battle of Sedan or Second Battle of Sedan (12–15 May 1940) took place in the Second World War during the Battle of France in 1940. It was part of the German Wehrmacht's operational plan codenamed Fall Gelb (Case Yellow) for an offensive through the hilly and forested Ardennes, to encircle the Allied armies in Belgium and north-eastern France. German Army Group A crossed the Meuse river with the intention of capturing Sedan and pushing northwards towards the Channel coast, to trap the Allied forces that were advancing east into Belgium, as part of the Allied Dyle Plan. The French defences at Sedan were weak and neglected. The French had long believed that the German Army would not attack through the Sedan sector as part of their concentrated effort, and only Brigadier General Pierre Lafontaine's French 55th Infantry Division, a category B division, was allocated to this sector. The Maginot Line ended 20 kilometres (12 mi) east of Sedan at La Ferté, where Fort No. 505 constituted its most westerly position. Sedan was a part of the extended Maginot Line that ran north behind the Meuse river. Between Sedan and La Ferté lay the Stenay gap, which was a stretch of unprotected terrain not covered by French defences or natural obstacles. This was the reason a significant number of French generals insisted on strengthening this sector, while ignoring Sedan.

Luftflotte 3 and Luftflotte 2 (Albert Kesselring), executed the heaviest air bombardment the world had yet witnessed and the most intense by the Luftwaffe during the war. The Luftwaffe committed two Sturzkampfgeschwader (dive bomber wings) to the assault, flying 300 sorties against French positions, with Sturzkampfgeschwader 77 alone flying 201 sorties. A total of 3,940 sorties were flown by nine Kampfgeschwader (Bomber Wing) units often in Gruppe strength. The planned aerial assault would last for eight hours, from 08:00-16:00. Loerzer and Richthofen committed two Stuka units to the attack. Loerzer's Ju 87s flew some 180 missions against Sedan's bunkers whilst Richthofen's managed 90. The nine Kampfgruppen (bomber wings) of II. Fliegerkorps flew 900 missions against the 360 of VIII. Fliegerkorps. VIII. Fliegerkorps's total mission count on the Meuse front was 910 compared to II. Fliegerkorps 1,770 missions. The Luftwaffe's target was the Marfee heights which lay behind Sedan to the south east. They contained the fortified artillery positions and dominated the approaches to the strategic and operational depths beyond Sedan and the Meuse. The Luftwaffe was two hours late in appearing but the effort made was considerable. The attacks were made in Gruppe (group) strength and against the line of maximum resistance along the enemy gun line. To restrict enemy movements and communications, German fighters swept the area to cut land-lines and strafe fortifications, with some shooting of radio antennae off command posts. The attacks isolated the forward defence lines. Sturzkampfgeschwader 77 struck first in the morning of 13 May. In just five hours, 500 Ju 87 sorties had been flown. The Luftwaffe cowed the defenders, breaking them psychologically. The gunners, the backbone of the defences, had abandoned their positions by the time the German ground assault had begun. The cost to the Luftwaffe was just six aircraft, three of which were Ju 87s. The French 55th Infantry Division was not prepared for such an attack. French soldiers commented on the massive psychological effect of the bombardment, in particular the siren of the Ju 87. However, after the war, it was discovered that none of the bunkers had been destroyed by direct hits. Moreover, just 56 French casualties were suffered. It was the indirect effect that did the damage. The telecommunication cables were destroyed (most had been laid out in the open) through bombing, paralysing the division's communications, and the psychological damage crippled its defensive capacity.'

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'The ensuing psychological damage contributed to "The Panic of Bulson". At about 19:00 on 13 May, a report by a French artillery observer was passed on incorrectly. There was a rumour that German tanks were approaching the town of Bulson. The false reports spread and the French 55th Infantry Division deserted their positions. German sources say that the first German tank crossed the Meuse River 12 hours later. By the time the error was realised, most of the artillerymen and infantrymen had abandoned their heavy equipment. The German High Command did not want to exploit the victory at Sedan and Bulson until the German infantry divisions had caught up with the three Panzer divisions. To Guderian, this was madness and would throw away the victory at Sedan and allow the enemy time to recover and reorganise its still formidable armoured units. Guderian decided to push for the Channel, even if it meant ignoring the High Command and Hitler himself. Guderian ordered the 10th Panzer Division and Infantry Regiment Großdeutschland to hold the Sedan bridgehead, while the 1st and 2nd Panzer Divisions struck north west, towards the Channel. Now that they were pushing largely at an 'open door', the 1st and 2nd Panzer Divisions advanced into the undefended French rear with speed. The French defeat at Sedan left the Allies in Belgium with sparse flank protection. The breakout was so fast that there was little fighting. Many French soldiers were taken prisoner before they could offer resistance, which also explains the low number of casualties suffered both sides. The two assault engineer battalions under Korthals achieved the most important success. By eliminating the bunkers in the Bellevue sector, they made the breakthroughs of the 1st and 2nd Panzer Divisions possible and this was achieved without loss. Military historians agree that the Battle at Sedan sealed the fate of Belgium and France.'

+ The Maginot Line: La Guerre de Tongue Durée vs. Blitzkrieg (1940):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Sedan_(1940)
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maginot_Line

'Among the many German aircraft designs that participated in the Condor Legion, and as part of other German involvement in the Spanish Civil War, a single Ju 87 A-0 (the V4 prototype) was allocated serial number 29-1 and was assigned to the VJ/88, the experimental Staffel of the Legion's fighter wing. The aircraft was secretly loaded onto the ship Usaramo and departed Hamburg harbor on the night of 1 August 1936, arriving in Cádiz five days later. The only known information pertaining to its combat career in Spain is that it was piloted by Unteroffizier Herman Beuer, and took part in the Nationalist offensive against Bilbao in 1937. Presumably the aircraft was then secretly returned to Germany. During the Catalonia Offensive in January 1939, the Junkers Ju 87 returned to Spain. On the morning of 21 January 1939, 34 Heinkel He 111, along with some escorts and three Ju 87B, attacked the Port of Barcelona, five days before the city was captured by the Fascists. 29 Republican fighters were defending the city. There were more than 100 aircraft operating over the city and, while a Ju 87 was dive-bombing a ship, a Republican Polikarpov I-15 pilot, Francisco Alférez Jiménez, claimed it destroyed near el Vendrell, in Coma-ruga, but the Stuka was capable of landing on the beach without crashing. That was the only time a Stuka attacked the capital of Catalonia. On 24 January 1939, a group of Stukas prevented the destruction of a bridge near Barcelona by strafing the demolition engineers on Molins de Rei. During the attack the Republican ground defenders, equipped with a quadruple PM M1910 mounting, hit one pilot (Heinz Bohne) in both legs and the Stuka crashed, seriously injuring Bohne, and his machine gunner, Albert Conrad. Those two were the only Stuka casualties of the war. As with the Ju 87 A-0, the B-1s were returned discreetly to the Reich. The experience of the Spanish Civil War proved invaluable - air and ground crews perfected their skills, and equipment was evaluated under combat conditions. The Ju 87 had however not been tested against numerous and well-coordinated fighter opposition; this lesson was learned later at great cost to the Stuka crews. All Stuka units were moved to Germany's eastern border in preparation for the invasion of Poland. It would be difficult to come up with a more potent symbol of the German Blitzkrieg of World War Two than the Ju 87 Sturzkampfflugzeug or “Stuka”. The notorious single-engine, two-man, dive-bomber’s iconic ‘gull wings’ and ‘spatted’ undercarriage are as unmistakable as the plane’s instantly recognizable wailing siren, dubbed the “Jericho Trumpet” (♬). But the Stuka was more than just a terror weapon – its ability to deliver bombs where needed with then unheard of precision made it a potent war machine that crippled the defenders of both Poland and France. In fact, the Ju 87 was a critical contributor to Axis victory in a number of campaigns in the war’s opening years.'

+ The Junkers: The Ju 87 Stuka Blitzkrieg (Sturzkampf Flugzeug) (1938-45):
+ https://militaryhistorynow.com/2015/06/04/screaming-death-10-amazing-facts-about-the-ju-87-stuka/
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junkers_Ju_87

'A limes (plural: līmitēs) was a frontier of the Roman Empire; the limites were the furthest fortifications and territory the Romans defended, often existing beyond the administrative borders of the Roman Empire. They are most often associated with Roman fortresses in Germania and to a lesser extent with Britannia, but the concept could apply to any adjoining area the Romans exercised loose control over with military forces. A limes could monitor and hinder any invaders or raiders before they reached the "civilized" interior. The Roman frontier stretched for more than 5,000 kilometres (3,100 mi) from the Atlantic coast of northern Britain, through Europe to the Black Sea, and from there to the Red Sea and across North Africa to the Atlantic coast. The remains of the limites today consist of vestiges of walls, ditches, forts, fortresses, and civilian settlements. Certain elements of the frontier have been excavated, some reconstructed, and a few destroyed. The two sections of limes in Germany cover a length of 550 kilometres (340 mi) from the north-west of the country to the Danube in the south-east. The 118 km long Hadrian's Wall was built on the orders of the Emperor Hadrian c. AD 122 at the northernmost limits of the Roman province of Britannia. It is a striking example of the organization of a military zone and illustrates the defensive techniques and geopolitical strategies of ancient Rome. The Antonine Wall, a 60 km-long fortification in Scotland, was started by Emperor Antoninus Pius in AD 142 as a defense against the "Barbarians" of the north. It constitutes the northwestern-most portion of the Roman Limes. The soldiers at a limes were referred to as limitanei. Compared to the regular Roman military, they tended to be more likely to be of local descent (rather than Italians), be paid less, and be overall less prestigious. However, they were not expected to win large scales wars, but rather deter small-to-medium sized raiders. An etymology by Julius Pokorny in Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch says that limes comes from Indo-European el-, elei-, lei-, "to bow", "to bend", "elbow". According to Pokorny, Latin limen, "threshold", is related to limes, being the stone over which one enters or leaves the house. Some scholars have viewed the frontier as a threshold. The Merriam–Webster dictionaries take this view, as does J. B. Hofmann in Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Griechischen under leimon. The White Latin Dictionary denies any connection, deriving limen from *ligmen, as in lien from *leig-, "tie". In this sense, the threshold ties together the doorway. W. Gebert also wrote an article discussing the term. Some experts suggested that the Germanic limes may have been called Munimentum Traiani (Trajan's Bulwark) by contemporaries, referring to a passage by Ammianus Marcellinus, according to which emperor Julian had reoccupied this fortification in 360 AD.

The limes in Britain (Limes Britannicus) is on the territory of the present-day United Kingdom in England, Scotland and Wales. From the 1st to the 2nd century, the Gask Ridge and the Stanegate, with their chains of Roman camps and watchtowers, marked the northern boundary of Britannia. Later the isthmuses in the north between the Firth of Forth and Firth of Clyde were guarded by the defences of the Antonine Wall and the line between the mouth of the Tyne and Solway Firth by Hadrian's Wall. The perimeter defence of Hadrian's Wall was achieved through the construction of camps (castella) on the lowlands, which were built along the most important roads in the north. Security and monitoring on the coasts in the west and southeast was achieved by camps and by chains of watchtowers or signal towers, both along the coastline and along main roads in the interior. The occupying forces, Exercitus Britannicus, consisted mostly of cohorts of auxilia. The strategic reserve comprised three legions based in Eburacum (York), Isca Silurum, and Deva. The observation and surveillance of the waters around the British Isles was the responsibility of the Classis Britannica, whose headquarters was in Rutupiae (Richmond). Legions auxilia cohorts and the fleet were commanded by the provincial governors. From the 3rd century, units of comitatenses, limitanei and liburnaria (marines) came under the command of two generals. Roman writers and subsequent authors who depended on them presented the limes as a sort of sacred border beyond which human beings did not transgress, and if they did, it was evidence that they had passed the bounds of reason and civilization. To cross the border was the mark of a savage. They wrote of the Alemanni failing to respect the limes as if they had passed the final limitation of character and had committed themselves to perdition. The Alemanni, on the other hand, never regarded the border as legitimate in the first place. They viewed the Romans as foreigners, who changed native place names and intruded on native homes and families. They were only to be tolerated because they were willing to pay cash for the privilege and also offered the blandishments of civilized life. The Romans never built limites where they considered themselves free to attack. As the army stayed within the limites, except for punitive expeditions, these were as much a mental barrier as material. The Germanic warriors harrying the limes during summer used the hesitance of the Romans to move beyond them to their advantage, knowing that they could concentrate and supply themselves outside the limes without fear of preemptive strikes.'

+ Journal of Roman Studies: The Meaning of 'Limes' & 'Limitanei' in Ancient Sources" (1988):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limes_(Roman_Empire)

'The Battle of the Melvin Bridge took place between the Roman Emperors Constantine I and Maxentius on 28 October 312. It takes its name from the Melvin Bridge, an important route over the Tiber. Constantine won the battle and started on the path that led him to end the Tetrarchy and become the sole ruler of the Roman Empire. Maxentius drowned in the Tiber during the battle; his body was later taken from the river and decapitated, and his head was paraded through the streets of Rome on the day following the battle. According to chroniclers such as Eusebius of Caesarea and Lactantius, the battle marked the beginning of Constantine's conversion to Christianity. Eusebius of Caesarea recounts that Constantine and his soldiers had a vision sent by the Christian God. This was interpreted as a promise of victory if the sign of the Chi-Rho, the first two letters of Christ's name in Greek, was painted on the soldiers' shields. The Arch of Constantine, erected in celebration of the victory, certainly attributes Constantine's success to divine intervention; however, the monument does not display any overtly Christian symbolism. The underlying causes of the battle were the rivalries inherent in Diocletian's Tetrarchy. After Diocletian stepped down on 1 May 305, his successors began to struggle for control of the Roman Empire almost immediately. Although Constantine was the son of the Western Emperor Constantius, the Tetrarchic ideology did not necessarily provide for hereditary succession. When Constantius died on 25 July 306, his father's troops proclaimed Constantine as Augustus in Eboracum (York). In Rome, the favorite was Maxentius, the son of Constantius' imperial colleague Maximian, who seized the title of emperor on 28 October 306. By 312, however, Constantine and Maxentius were engaged in open hostility with one another, although they were brothers-in‑law through Constantine's marriage to Fausta, sister of Maxentius. In the spring of 312, Constantine gathered an army of 40,000 soldiers and decided to oust Maxentius himself. He easily overran northern Italy, winning two major battles: the first near Turin, the second at Verona, where the praetorian prefect Ruricius Pompeianus, Maxentius' most senior general, was killed.

In his later Life of Constantine, Eusebius gives a detailed account of a vision and stresses that he had heard the story from the Emperor himself. According to this version, Constantine with his army was marching (Eusebius does not specify the actual location of the event, but it clearly is not in the camp at Rome), when he looked up to the sun and saw a cross of light above it, and with it the Greek words "Εν Τούτῳ Νίκα", En toutō níka, usually translated into Latin as "in hoc signo vinces". The literal meaning of the phrase in Greek is "in this (sign), conquer" while in Latin it's "in this sign, you shall conquer"; a more free translation would be "Through this sign [you shall] conquer". At first he was unsure of the meaning of the apparition, but in the following night he had a dream in which Christ explained to him that he should use the sign against his enemies. Eusebius then continues to describe the labarum, the military standard used by Constantine in his later wars against Licinius, showing the Chi-Rho sign. The accounts of the two contemporary authors, though not entirely consistent, have been merged into a popular notion of Constantine seeing the Chi-Rho sign on the evening before the battle. Both authors agree that the sign was not widely understandable to denote Christ (although among the Christians, it was already being used in the catacombs along with other special symbols to mark and/or decorate Christian tombs). Constantine reached Rome at the end of October 312 approaching along the Via Flaminia. He camped at the location of Malborghetto near Prima Porta, where remains of a Constantinian monument, the Arch of Malborghetto, in honour of the occasion are still extant.

Maxentius chose to make his stand in front of the Melvin Bridge, a stone bridge that carries the Via Flaminia road across the Tiber River into Rome (the bridge stands today at the same site, somewhat remodeled, named in Italian Ponte Milvio or sometimes Ponte Molle, "soft bridge"). Holding it was crucial if Maxentius was to keep his rival out of Rome, where the Senate would surely favour whoever held the city. As Maxentius had probably partially destroyed the bridge during his preparations for a siege, he had a wooden or pontoon bridge constructed to get his army across the river. The sources vary as to the nature of the bridge central to the events of the battle. Zosimus mentions it, vaguely, as being constructed in two parts connected by iron fastenings, while others indicate that it was a pontoon bridge; sources are also unclear as to whether the bridge was deliberately constructed as a collapsible trap for Constantine's forces or not. The next day, the two armies clashed, and Constantine won a decisive victory. The dispositions of Maxentius may have been faulty as his troops seem to have been arrayed with the River Tiber too close to their rear, giving them little space to allow re-grouping in the event of their formations being forced to give ground. Already known as a skilful general, Constantine first launched his cavalry at the cavalry of Maxentius and broke them. Constantine's infantry then advanced; most of Maxentius's troops fought well but they began to be pushed back toward the Tiber. Maxentius then decided to order a retreat, intending to make another stand at Rome itself. However, there was only one escape route, via the bridge. Constantine's men inflicted heavy losses on the retreating army. Finally, the temporary bridge set up alongside the Melvin Bridge, over which many of the Maxentian troops were escaping, collapsed, and those stranded on the north bank of the Tiber were either taken prisoner or killed. Maxentius' Praetorian Guard, who had originally acclaimed him emperor, seem to have made a stubborn stand on the northern bank of the river; "in despair of pardon they covered with their bodies the place which they had chosen for combat." Maxentius was among the dead, having drowned in the river while trying to swim across it in an attempt to escape or, alternatively, he is described as having been thrown by his horse into the river. Lactantius describes the death of Maxentius in the following manner: "The bridge in his rear was broken down. At sight of that the battle grew hotter. The hand of the Lord prevailed, and the forces of Maxentius were routed. He fled towards the broken bridge; but the multitude pressing on him, he was driven headlong into the Tiber."

Constantine entered Rome on 29 October. He staged a grand arrival ceremony in the city (adventus), and was met with popular jubilation. Maxentius' body was fished out of the Tiber and decapitated. His head was paraded through the streets for all to see. After the ceremonies, Maxentius' head was sent to Carthage as proof of his downfall, Africa then offered no further resistance. The battle gave Constantine undisputed control of the western half of the Roman Empire. The descriptions of Constantine's entry into Rome omit mention of him ending his procession at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter, where sacrifice was usually offered. Though often employed to show Constantine's Christian sensibilities, this silence cannot be taken as proof that Constantine was a Christian at this point. He chose to honour the Senatorial Curia with a visit, where he promised to restore its ancestral privileges and give it a secure role in his reformed government: there would be no revenge against Maxentius' supporters. Maxentius was condemned to damnatio memoriae, all his legislation was invalidated and Constantine usurped all of Maxentius' considerable building projects within Rome, including the Temple of Romulus and the Basilica of Maxentius. Maxentius' strongest supporters in the military were neutralized when the Praetorian Guard and Imperial Horse Guard (equites singulares) were disbanded. Constantine is thought to have replaced the former imperial guards with a number of cavalry units termed the Scholae Palatinae. Paul K. Davis writes, "Constantine’s victory gave him total control of the Western Roman Empire paving the way for Christianity to become the dominant religion for the Roman Empire and ultimately for Europe." The following year, 313, Constantine and Licinius issued the Edict of Milan, which made Christianity an officially recognised and tolerated religion in the Roman Empire.'

+ The Battle of Melvin Bridge: Constantine & the Roman Catholic Empire (312 A.D.):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Milvian_Bridge

'Epidemics of yellow fever ravaged urban communities in North America throughout the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries, the best-known examples being the 1793 Philadelphia yellow fever epidemic and outbreaks in Georgia (1856) and Florida (1888). Cholera and smallpox epidemics continued throughout the nineteenth century, and plague epidemics affected Honolulu and San Francisco from 1899 until 1901. State governments generally relied on the cordon sanitaire as a geographic quarantine measure to control the movement of people into and out of affected communities. During the 1918 influenza pandemic, some communities instituted protective sequestration (sometimes referred to as "reverse quarantine") to keep the infected from introducing influenza into healthy populations. The Venice convention of 30 January 1892 dealt with cholera by the Suez Canal route; that of Dresden of 15 April 1893, with cholera within European countries; that of Paris of 3 April 1894, with cholera by the pilgrim traffic; and that of Venice, on 19 March 1897, was in connection with the outbreak of plague in the East, and the conference met to settle on an international basis the steps to be taken to prevent, if possible, its spread into Europe. An additional convention was signed in Paris on 3 December 1903. A multilateral international sanitary convention was concluded at Paris on 17 January 1912. This convention was most comprehensive and was designated to replace all previous conventions on that matter. It was signed by 40 countries, and consisted of 160 articles. Ratifications by 16 of the signatories were exchanged in Paris on 7 October 1920. Another multilateral convention was signed in Paris on 21 June 1926, to replace that of 1912. It was signed by 58 countries worldwide, and consisted of 172 articles.'

+ Quarantine & the Yellow Fever: 40 Days of Enforced Isolation (1912):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quarantine
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_series

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Roman Legions

'The Notitia Dignitatum (Latin for "The List of Offices") is a document of the late Roman Empire that details the administrative organization of the Eastern and Western Empires. It is unique as one of very few surviving documents of Roman government and describes several thousand offices from the imperial court to provincial governments, diplomatic missions, and army units. It is usually considered to be accurate for the Western Roman Empire in the AD 420s and for the Eastern or Byzantine Empire in the AD 390s. However, the text itself is not dated (nor is its author named), and omissions complicate ascertaining its date from its content. There are several extant 15th- and 16th-century copies of the document, plus a colour-illuminated iteration of 1542. All the known, extant copies are derived, either directly or indirectly, from Codex Spirensis, a codex known to have existed in the library of the Chapter of Speyer Cathedral in 1542, but which was lost before 1672 and has not been rediscovered. The Codex Spirensis was a collection of documents, of which the Notitia was the final and largest document, occupying 164 pages, that brought together several previous documents of which one was of the 9th century. The heraldry in illuminated manuscript copies of the Notitia is thought to copy or imitate only that illustrated in the lost Codex Spirensis. For each half of the Empire, the Notitia enumerates all the major "dignities", i. e. offices, that it could bestow, often with the location and specific officium ("staff") enumerated, except for the most junior members, for each. The dignities are ordered by: 1) Court officials, including the most senior dignitaries such as praetorian prefects; 2) Vicars and provincial governors, arranged by praetorian prefecture and diocese; and 3) Martial commanders, Comites Rei Militaris, and Duces, providing the full titles and stations of their regiments. The Notitia depicts the Roman army at the end of the AD 4th century.'

+ The Notitia Dignitatum [Latin: "The List of Offices"] (420 A.D.):
+ https://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/~db/bsb00005863/images/index.html?id=00005863&fip=86.132.15.248&no=5&se...
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Notitia_Dignitatum
+ https://digital.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/inquire/p/28d647a5-6057-46df-bec7-17d4943c03b4
+ https://archive.org/details/jstor-310606/page/n63/mode/2up
+ https://www.notitiadignitatum.org/

'Most Americans are familiar with the influenza or the flu, a respiratory illness that makes hundreds of thousands of people sick every year. This fall as the flu season approaches, millions of our fellow citizens are once again visiting their doctors for the annual flu shot. I had mine. For most, this is simply a precautionary measure to avoid the fever or sore throat or muscle aches that come with the flu. Seasonal flu is extremely dangerous for some: people whose immune systems have been weakened by age or illness. But it is not usually life- threatening for most healthy people. Pandemic flu is another matter. Pandemic flu occurs when a new strain of influenza emerges that can be transmitted easily from person to person and for which there's little or no natural immunity. Unlike seasonal flu, most people have not built up resistance to it. And unlike seasonal flu, it can kill those who are young and health as well as those who are frail and sick.

At this moment there is no pandemic influenza in the United States or the world, but if history is our guide there's reason to be concerned. In the last century, our country and the world have been hit by three influenza pandemics, and viruses from birds contributed to all of them. The first, which struck in 1918, killed over half a million Americans and more than 20 million people across the globe. One-third of the U.S. population was infected, and life expectancy in our country was reduced by 13 years. The 1918 pandemic was followed by pandemics in 1957 and 1968 which killed tens of thousands of Americans and millions across the world. Three years ago, the world had a preview of the disruption an influenza pandemic can cause when a previously unknown virus called SARS appeared in rural China. When an infected doctor carried the virus out of China, it spread to Vietnam and Singapore and Canada within a month. Before long, the SARS virus had spread to nearly 30 countries on six continents. It infected more than 8,000 people and killed nearly 800.

One elderly woman brought the virus from Hong Kong to Toronto, where it quickly spread to her son and then to others. Eventually, four others arrived with the virus and hundreds of Canadians fell ill with SARS and dozens died. By one estimate the SARS outbreak cost the Asian Pacific region about $40 billion. The airline industry was hit particularly hard, with air travel to Asia dropping 45 percent in the year after the outbreak. All this was caused by a limited outbreak of a virus that infected thousands and lasted about six months. A global influenza pandemic that infects millions and lasts from one to three years could be far worse. Scientists and doctors cannot tell us where or when the next pandemic will strike or how severe it'll be, but most agree: At some point, we are likely to face another pandemic. And the scientific community is increasingly concerned by a new influenza virus known as H5N1, or avian flu, that is now spreading through bird populations across Asia and has recently reached Europe. This new strain of influenza has infected domesticated birds like ducks and chickens as well as long-range migratory birds.

In 1997, the first recorded outbreak among people took place in Hong Kong when 18 people became infected and six died from the disease. Public health officials in the region took aggressive action and successively contained the spread of the virus. Avian flu struck again in late 2003 and has infected over 120 people, in Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and Indonesia and killed more than 60. That's a fatality rate of about 50 percent. At this point we do not have evidence that a pandemic is imminent. Most of the people in Southeast Asia who got sick were handling infected birds. And while the avian flu virus has spread from Asia to Europe, there are no reports of infected birds, animals or people in the United States. Even if the virus does eventually appear on our shores in birds, that does not mean people in our country will be infected. Avian flu is still primarily an animal disease. And as of now, unless people come into direct sustained contact with infected birds, it is unlikely they will come down with avian flu.

While avian flu has not yet acquired the ability to spread easily from human to human there is still cause for vigilance. The virus has developed some characteristics needed to cause a pandemic: It has demonstrated the ability to infect human beings and it has produced a fatal illness in humans. If the virus were to develop the capacity for sustained human-to-human transmission, it could spread quickly across the globe. Our country has been given fair warning of this danger to our homeland and time to prepare. It's my responsibility as the president to take measures now to protect the American people from the possible that human-to-human transmission may occur. So several months ago I directed all relevant departments and agencies in the federal government to take steps to address the threat of avian and pandemic flu. Since that time, my administration has developed a comprehensive national strategy, with concrete measures we can take to prepare for influenza pandemic. Today, I'm announcing key elements of that strategy.

Our strategy is designed to meet three critical goals: first, we must detect outbreaks that occur anywhere in the world; second, we must protect the American people by stockpiling vaccines and antiviral drugs, and improve our ability to rapidly produce new vaccines against a pandemic strain; and third, we must be ready to respond at the federal, state and local levels in the event that a pandemic reaches our shores. To meet these three goals, our strategy will require the combined efforts of government officials in public health and medical, veterinary and law enforcement communities and the private sector. It will require the active participation of the American people. And it will require the immediate attention of the United States Congress so we can have the resources in place to begin implementing this strategy right away.

The first part of our strategy is to detect outbreaks before they spread across the world. In the fight against avian and pandemic flu, early detection is our first line of defense. A pandemic is a lot like a forest fire: If caught early it might be extinguished with limited damage; if allowed to smolder undetected it can grow to an inferno that spreads quickly beyond our ability to control it. So we're taking immediate steps to ensure early warning of an avian or pandemic flu outbreak among animals or humans anywhere in the world. In September at the United Nations, I announced a new international partnership on avian and pandemic influenza, a global network of surveillance and preparedness that will help us to detect and respond quickly to any outbreaks of the disease. The partnership requires participating countries that face an outbreak to immediately share information and provide samples to the World Health Organization. By requiring transparency, we can respond more rapidly to dangerous outbreaks. Since we announced this global initiative, the response from across the world has been very positive. Already 88 countries and nine international organizations have joined the effort. Senior officials from participating governments recently convened the partnership's first meeting here in Washington.

Together, we're working to control and monitor avian flu in Asia and to ensure that all nations have structures in place to recognize and report outbreaks before they spread beyond human control. I've requested $251 million from Congress to help our foreign partners train local medical personnel, expand their surveillance and testing capacity, draw up preparedness plans, and take other vital actions to detect and contain outbreaks. A flu pandemic would have global consequences, so no nation can afford to ignore this threat, and every nation has responsibilities to detect and stop its spread. Here in the United States we're doing our part. To strengthen domestic surveillance, my administration is launching the National Biosurveillance Initiative. This initiative will help us rapidly detect, quantify and respond to outbreaks of disease in humans and animals, and deliver information quickly to state and local and national and international public health officials. By creating systems that provide continuous situational awareness, we're more likely to be able to stop, slow or limit the spread of a pandemic and save American lives.

The second part of our strategy is to protect the American people by stockpiling vaccines and antiviral drugs and accelerating development of new vaccine technologies. One of the challenges presented by a pandemic is that scientists need a sample of the new strain before they can produce a vaccine against it. This means it is difficult to produce a pandemic vaccine before the pandemic actually appears. And so there may not be a vaccine capable of fully immunizing our citizens from the new influenza virus during the first several months of a pandemic. To help protect our citizens during these early months, when a fully effective vaccine would not be available, we're taking a number of immediate steps. Researchers here at the NIH have developed a vaccine based on the current strain of the avian flu virus. The vaccine is already in clinical trials. And I'm asking that the Congress fund $1.2 billion for the Department of Health and Human Services to purchase enough doses of this vaccine for manufacturers to vaccinate 20 million people. This vaccine would not be a perfect match to the pandemic flu because the pandemic strain would probably differ somewhat from the avian flu virus it grew from. But a vaccine against the current avian flu virus would likely offer some protection against a pandemic strain and possibly save many lives in the first critical months of an outbreak.

We're also increasing stockpiles of antiviral drugs, such as Tamiflu and Relenza. Antiviral drugs cannot prevent people from contracting the flu, but they can reduce the severity of the illness when taken within 48 hours of getting sick. So in addition to vaccines, which are the foundation of our pandemic response, I'm asking Congress for $1 billion to stockpile additional antiviral medications so that we have enough on hand to help treat first responders and those on the front lines as well as populations most at risk in the first stages of a pandemic. To protect the greatest possible number of Americans during a pandemic, the cornerstone of our strategy is to develop new technologies that will allow us to produce new vaccines rapidly. If a pandemic strikes, our country must have a surge capacity in place that will allow us to bring a new vaccine on-line quickly and manufacture enough to immunize every American against the pandemic strain. I recently met with leaders of the vaccine industry. They assured me that they will work with the federal government to expand the vaccine industry so that our country is better prepared for any pandemic. Today, the NIH is working with vaccine makers to develop new cell culture techniques that will help us bring a pandemic flu vaccine to the American people faster in the event of an outbreak. Right now, most vaccines are still produced with 1950s technology, using chicken eggs that are infected with the influenza virus and then used to develop and produce vaccines.

In the event of a pandemic, this antiquated process would take many, many months to produce a vaccine, and it would not allow us to produce enough vaccine for every American in time. Since American lives depend on rapid advances in vaccine production technology, we must fund a crash program to help our best scientists bring the next generation of technology on-line rapidly. I'm asking Congress for $2.8 billion to accelerate development of cell culture technology. By bringing cell culture technology from the research laboratory into the production line, we should be able to produce enough vaccine for every American within six months of the start of a pandemic. I'm also asking Congress to remove one of the greatest obstacles to domestic vaccine production: the growing burden of litigation. In the past three decades, the number of vaccine manufacturers in America has plummeted as the industry has been flooded with lawsuits. Today, there's only one manufacturer in the United States that can produce influenza vaccine. That leaves our nation vulnerable in the event of a pandemic. We must increase the number of vaccine manufacturers in our country and improve our domestic production capacity. So Congress must pass liability protection for the makers of life-saving vaccines. By making wise investments in technology and breaking down barriers to vaccine production, we're working toward a clear goal: In the event of a pandemic we must have enough vaccine for every American.

The third part of our strategy is to ensure that we're ready to respond to a pandemic outbreak. A pandemic is unlike other natural disasters. Outbreaks can happen simultaneously in hundreds, or even thousands, of locations at the same time. And unlike storms or floods which strike in an instant and then recede, a pandemic can continue spreading destruction in repeated ways that can last for a year or more. To respond to a pandemic we must have emergency plans in place in all 50 states, in every local community. We must ensure that all levels of government are ready to act to contain an outbreak. We must be able to deliver vaccines and other treatments to front-line responders and at-risk populations. So my administration is working with public health officials in the medical community to develop effective pandemic emergency plans. We're working at the federal level. We're looking at ways and options to coordinate our response with state and local leaders. I've asked Mike Leavitt -- Secretary Leavitt to bring together state and local public health officials from across the nation to discuss their plans for a pandemic and to help them improve pandemic planning at the community level. I'm asking Congress to provide $583 million for pandemic preparedness, including $100 million to help states complete and exercise their pandemic plans now before a pandemic strikes. If an influenza pandemic strikes every nation, every state in this union and every community in these states must be ready.

To respond to a pandemic we need medical personnel and adequate supplies of equipment. In a pandemic, everything from syringes to hospital beds, respirators, masks and protective equipment would be in short supply. So the federal government is stockpiling critical supplies in locations across America as part of the Strategic National Stockpile. The Department of Health and Human Services is helping states create rosters of medical personnel who are willing to help alleviate local shortfalls during a pandemic. And every federal department involved in health care is expanding plans to ensure that all federal medical facilities, personnel and response capabilities are available to support local communities in the event of a pandemic crisis. To respond to a pandemic, the American people need to have information to protect themselves and others. In a pandemic, an infection carried by one person can be transmitted to many other people, and so every American must take personal responsibility for stopping the spread of the virus. To provide Americans with more information about pandemics, we are launching a new Web site, pandemicflu.gov. That ought to be easy for people to remember: pandemicflu.gov.

The Web site will keep our citizens informed about the preparations under way, steps they can take now to prepare for a pandemic, and what every American can do to decrease their risk of contracting and spreading the disease in the event of an outbreak. To respond to a pandemic, members of the international community will continue to work together. An influenza pandemic would be an event with global consequences, and therefore we continue to meet to develop a global response. We've called nations together in the past, and we'll continue to call nations together, to work with public health experts to better coordinate our efforts to deal with a disaster. Now, all of the steps I've outlined today require immediate resources. Because a pandemic could strike at any time, we can't waste time in preparing. So to meet all our goals, I'm requesting a total of $7.1 billion in emergency funding from the United States Congress. By making critical investments today, we'll strengthen our ability to safeguard the American people in the awful event of a devastating global pandemic; and at the same time, we'll bring our nation's public health and medical infrastructure more squarely in the 21st century.

The steps I've outlined will also help our nation in other critical ways. By perfecting cell-based technologies now, we will be able to produce vaccines for a range of illnesses and save countless lives. By strengthening our domestic vaccine industry, we can help ensure that our nation will never again have a shortage of vaccine for seasonal flu. And by putting in place and exercising pandemic emergency plans across the nation, we can help our nation prepare for other dangers, such as a terrorist attack using chemical or biological weapons. Leaders at every level of government have a responsibility to confront dangers before they appear and engage the American people in the best course of action. It is vital that our nation discuss and address the threat of pandemic flu now. There is no pandemic flu in our country or in the world at this time. But if we wait for a pandemic to appear, it will be too late to prepare. And one day many lives could be needlessly lost because we failed to act today. By preparing now, we can give our citizens some peace of mind, knowing that our nation is ready to act at the first sign of danger and that we have the plans in place to prevent and, if necessary, withstand an influenza pandemic.'

+ Transcript of Bush Speech on Pandemic Flu Strategy (2005):
+ https://edition.cnn.com/2005/HEALTH/conditions/11/01/bush.transcript/
+ https://www.livescience.com/coronavirus-superspreader-south-korea-church.html

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Medici Machine

'Santucci's armillary sphere is a Ptolemaic armillary sphere at the Museo Galileo, the largest existing in the world. Begun on March 4, 1588, and completed on May 6, 1593, this large armillary sphere was built under the supervision of Antonio Santucci at the request of Ferdinand I de' Medici. The sphere represents the "universal machine" of the world according to the concepts developed by Aristotle and perfected by Ptolemy. The terrestrial globe is placed at the center, and it also displays territories that were still relatively little known at the time. The device was restored in the 19th century but is now incomplete and some of its parts are mismatched. The wooden parts of the sphere are elaborately painted and covered with fine gold leaf. The sphere rests on a stand with four sirens. This model is similar to a smaller one built by Santucci in 1582 for King Philip II of Spain, now in the Escorial Library. Antonio Santucci (1613) was an Italian astronomer, cosmographer, and scientific instrument maker. He was a reader in Mathematics at the University of Pisa during 1599–1612. Santucci was an astronomer and cosmographer to Grand Duke Ferdinand I (1549–1609) and later Cosimo II (1590–1621). An attentive observer of comets, most notably that of 1582, he published in 1611 the first edition of Trattato delle comete, in which he argued that, contrary to the prevailing scientific opinion, comets were not atmospheric phenomena.'

+ Santucci's Armillary Sphere: Celebrating the 100 Year Anniversary of Cristobal Colon (1593):
+ https://brill.com/view/book/edcoll/9789004381438/BP000017.xml
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santucci%27s_Armillary_Sphere
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Santucci
+ https://catalogue.museogalileo.it/index/IndexObjectsByRoom.html

'Operation Gladio is a NATO-backed paramilitary network established after WW2, originally inspired by fear of the USSR. It was also called the "Stay behind network", since if the Red Army invaded Europe, its members would "stay behind" enemy lines to disrupt Soviet control. Officially non-existant, secrecy was so extreme that these networks were hard for NATO/MI6/Deep state officials to control. Gladio was responsible for bombings, kidnappings and assassinations to such an extent that the network was publicly exposed in Italy in the 1980s and was the subject of a BBC documentary by Alan Francovich some years later. The project was adapted in the mid 1990s as "Gladio B", using "Moslem terrorists" as a substitute enemy image for communists. The power hierarchy of Gladio remains unclear to this day, and is unknown to elected national leaders. When the European Union learned of the existence of Gladio, it passed a resolution mandating national investigations to reveal what was going on, but as of 2016, only 5 countries have done so (including Italy, Belgium, Netherlands and Switzerland). A large question mark therefore remains over the role that Operation Gladio has played, and continues to play in influencing events. It seems very likely that the deep state controls these forces whether through the national intelligence services or in more informal fashion. The connection, in particular, with false flag terrorist attacks is particularly concerning.

Operation Gladio first came to light in Italy in 1990, after over 40 years of clandestine operations. Members of the project revealed that similar projects existed in most if not all countries of Western Europe. These stay-behind networks were, in essence, super secret armies in at least 14 European countries, which were kept secret from the official governmental structures of the host countries – being controlled by other forces such as the CIA and MI6. They remained mostly dormant but were also involved in anti-communist activities including anti-democratic agitation and false flag "terrorism". The name Gladio, (or ‘Sword’ in Italian) was technically the name given to their operations in Italy, but has since come by extension to stand for the phenomenon as a whole. Evidence of such arrangements, which had been kept secret from both public and politicians democratically elected governments in the host countries for a quarter of a century was revealed through a series of scandalous revelations in Italy and other NATO countries during the 90s, and meticulously documented by Swiss historian Daniele Ganser in his 2004 book NATO’s Secret Armies, arguably the most shocking book ever to be ignored by the corporate media. The evidence contained in Ganser’s book, of terrorism directed against the people by secret armies funded and organised by NATO and answerable to deep state elements within NATO, MI6 and the CIA rather than the respective governments is so shocking that the initial reaction of most people would be to reject it. And yet the claims have been substantiated by juridical inquiries in Italy, Switzerland and Belgium and have been debated (and condemned) in the European Parliament.

'Operation Gladio B' (also Gladio 2.0) is a codename the FBI have used since 1997 for the relations between the US intelligence community, the US military and Al Qaeda. This was revealed by Sibel Edmonds (whose revelations Daniel Ellsberg rates as "far more explosive than the Pentagon Papers"). The original Operation Gladio was a Europe wide network of fascist "stay-behind" cells that NATO/CIA/MI6 trained to carry out bombings and assassinations in the event of a Soviet invasion. Gladio B substituted Muslims for fascists, and continues to carry out false flag attacks in Europe and maybe elsewhere. Funding appears to be via the normal deep state methods; Edmonds points to the international drugs trade as a key role in funding black ops such as Operation Gladio/B. She notes that in 2001, without providing any evidence that the country was in any way involved, the US invaded the world's largest producer of opium, Afghanistan. She claims that the main areas of Gladio B money laundering are Cyprus, Malta and Dubai. A huge upswing in opium production after the unprovoked US invasion of the country following 9/11. Opium production has greatly increased since the US lead invasion. As with Gary Webb's well documented case that the CIA was heavily involved in cocaine trafficking, the commercially-controlled media has refused to show much interest in the evidence.

Al Qaeda's support from the US is a matter of record. Going back to the Reagan and Bush administration, J. Michael Springmann, the former head of the United States visa bureau in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia revealed that he was ordered by high level state department officials to issue visas for Osama Bin Laden's recruits who were to be sent to the United States to be trained by the CIA. The Jeddah consulate would be the very same office that issued 15 of the alleged 9/11 hijackers’ visas to enter the United States. He was fired for his revelations. The Islamic State (ISIL)(ISIS)(Daesh) was originally an Al Qaeda affiliated entity created by US intelligence with the support of Britain’s MI6, Israel’s Mossad, Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) and Saudi Arabia’s General Intelligence Presidency (GIP). A large number of ISIL mercenaries are convicted criminals, death row inmates released from Saudi prisons on condition they join ISIL. ISIS/ISIL are involved in the CIA-NATO supported insurgency in Syria directed against the government of Bashar al Assad. A Jordanian official reported ISIS leaders being trained by U.S. Intelligence at a CIA base in Jordan which were then used for [false flag] destabilization operations in Syria and later in Iraq. Nabil Na'eem, the founder of the Islamic Democratic Jihad Party and former top al-Qaeda commander, told the Beirut-based pan-Arab TV station al-Maydeen all current al-Qaeda affiliates, including ISIS, work for the CIA. Investigative journalist William Engdahl wrote on RT that "key members of ISIS it now emerges were trained by US CIA and Special Forces command at a secret camp in Jordan in 2012, according to informed Jordanian officials." In May 2015, government documents were obtained by Judicial Watch via FOIA. The document from 2012, outlines the situation in Syria. It read: "The Salafist, the Muslim Brotherhood, and AQI [Al Qaeda Iraq] are the major forces driving the insurgency in Syria. The West, Gulf Countries, and Turkey Support the opposition; while Russia, China, and Iran Support the Regime" This debunks the corporate media lie that Washington's support is only for "moderate rebels"... ISIL is being used as propaganda by the deep state to increase police state measures, such as justification of mass surveillance, suspension of habeas corpus, and reduction of civil liberties. While also being used as a tool for regime change, along with major profits from illegal oil smuggling and drug trafficking. '

+ Operation Gladio (1948) & Gladio/B (1997):
+ https://wikispooks.com/wiki/Operation_Gladio
+ https://www.notitiadignitatum.org/18a-stan.pdf
+ https://wikispooks.com/wiki/Operation_Gladio/B
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Gladio

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Skinner Box

'This was in late December 1936, less than seven months ago as I write, and yet it is a period that has already receded into enormous distance. Later events have obliterated it much more completely than they have obliterated 1935, or 1905, for that matter. I had come to Spain with some notion of writing newspaper articles, but I had joined the militia almost immediately, because at that time and in that atmosphere it seemed the only conceivable thing to do. The Anarchists were still in virtual control of Catalonia and the revolution was still in full swing. To anyone who had been there since the beginning it probably seemed even in December or January that the revolutionary period was ending; but when one came straight from England the aspect of Barcelona was something startling and overwhelming. It was the first time that I had ever been in a town where the working class was in the saddle. Practically every building of any size had been seized by the workers and was draped with red flags or with the red and black flag of the Anarchists; every wall was scrawled with the hammer and sickle and with the initials of the revolutionary parties; almost every church had been gutted and its images burnt. Churches here and there were being systematically demolished by gangs of workmen. Every shop and café had an inscription saying that it had been collectivized; even the bootblacks had been collectivized and their boxes painted red and black. Waiters and shop-walkers looked you in the face and treated you as an equal. Servile and even ceremonial forms of speech had temporarily disappeared. Nobody said 'Señior' or 'Don' or even 'Usted'; everyone called everyone else 'Comrade' and 'Thou', and said 'Salud!' instead of 'Buenos dias'. Tipping was forbidden by law; almost my first experience was receiving a lecture from a hotel manager for trying to tip a lift-boy. There were no private motor-cars, they had all been commandeered, and all the trams and taxis and much of the other transport were painted red and black. The revolutionary posters were everywhere, flaming from the walls in clean reds and blues that made the few remaining advertisements look like daubs of mud. Down the Ramblas, the wide central artery of the town where crowds of people streamed constantly to and fro, the loudspeakers were bellowing revolutionary songs all day and far into the night. And it was the aspect of the crowds that was the queerest thing of all. In outward appearance it was a town in which the wealthy classes had practically ceased to exist. Except for a small number of women and foreigners there were no 'well-dressed' people at all. Practically everyone wore rough working-class clothes, or blue overalls, or some variant of the militia uniform. All this was queer and moving. There was much in it that I did not understand, in some ways I did not even like it, but I recognized it immediately as a state of affairs worth fighting for. Also I believed that things were as they appeared, that this was really a workers' State and that the entire bourgeoisie had either fled, been killed, or voluntarily come over to the workers' side; I did not realize that great numbers of well-to-do bourgeois were simply lying low and disguising themselves as proletarians for the time being. Together with all this there was something of the evil atmosphere of war. The town had a gaunt untidy look, roads and buildings were in poor repair, the streets at night were dimly lit for fear of air-raids, the shops were mostly shabby and half-empty. Meat was scarce and milk practically unobtainable, there was a shortage of coal, sugar, and petrol, and a really serious shortage of bread. Even at this period the bread-queues were often hundreds of yards long. Yet so far as one could judge the people were contented and hopeful. There was no unemployment, and the price of living was still extremely low; you saw very few conspicuously destitute people, and no beggars except the gipsies. Above all, there was a belief in the revolution and the future, a feeling of having suddenly emerged into an era of equality and freedom. Human beings were trying to behave as human beings and not as cogs in the capitalist machine. In the barbers' shops were Anarchist notices (the barbers were mostly Anarchists) solemnly explaining that barbers were no longer slaves. In the streets were coloured posters appealing to prostitutes to stop being prostitutes. To anyone from the hard-boiled, sneering civilization of the English-speaking races there was something rather pathetic in the literalness with which these idealistic Spaniards took the hackneyed phrases of revolution. At that time revolutionary ballads of the naivest kind, all about proletarian brotherhood and the wickedness of Mussolini, were being sold on the streets for a few centimes each. I have often seen an illiterate militiaman buy one of these ballads, laboriously spell out the words, and then, when he had got the hang of it, begin singing it to an appropriate tune. All this time I was at the Lenin Barracks, ostensibly in training for the front.'

+ "HOMAGE TO CATALONIA" - GEORGE ORWELL (1936):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homage_to_Catalonia

'"So you haven't understood yet?" Rambert shrugged his shoulders almost scornfully. "Understood what?" "The plague." "Ah!" Rieux exclaimed. "No, you haven't understood that it means exactly that? the same thing over and over and over again." He went to a corner of the room and started a small phonograph. "What's that record?" Tarrou asked. "I've heard it before." "It's St. James Infirmary." While the phonograph was playing, two shots rang out in the distance. "A dog or a get-away," Tarrou remarked. When, a moment later, the record ended, an ambulance bell could be heard clanging past under the window and receding into silence. "Rather a boring record," Rambert remarked. "And this must be the tenth time I've put it on today." "Are you really so fond of it?" "No, but it's the only one I have." And after a moment he added: "That's what I said 'it' was, the same thing over and over again." He asked Rieux how the sanitary groups were functioning. Five teams were now at work, and it was hoped to form others. Sitting on the bed, the journalist seemed to be studying his fingernails. Rieux was gazing at his squat, powerfully built form, hunched up on the edge of the bed. Suddenly he realized that Rambert was returning his gaze. "You know, doctor, I've given a lot of thought to your campaign. And if I'm not with you, I have my reasons. No, I don't think it's that I'm afraid to risk my skin again. I took part in the Spanish Civil War." "On which side?" Tarrou asked. "The losing side. But since then I've done a bit of thinking." "About what?" "Courage. I know now that man is capable of great deeds. But if he isn't capable of a great emotion, well, he leaves me cold." "One has the idea that he is capable of everything," Tarrou remarked. "I can't agree; he's incapable of suffering for a long time, or being happy for a long time. Which means that he's incapable of anything really worth while." He looked at the two men in turn, then asked: "Tell me, Tarrou, are you capable of dying for love?" "I couldn't say, but I hardly think so, as I am now." "You see. But you're capable of dying for an idea; one can see that right away. Well, personally, I've seen enough of people who die for an idea. I don't believe in heroism; I know it's easy and I've learned it can be murderous. What interests me is living and dying for what one loves." Rieux had been watching the journalist attentively. With his eyes still on him he said quietly: "Man isn't an idea, Rambert." Rambert sprang off the bed, his face ablaze with passion. "Man is an idea, and a precious small idea, once he turns his back on love. And that's my point; we, mankind, have lost the capacity for love. We must face that fact, doctor. Let's wait to acquire that capacity or, if really it's beyond us, wait for the deliverance that will come to each of us anyway, without his playing the hero. Personally, I look no farther." Rieux rose. He suddenly appeared very tired. "You're right, Rambert, quite right, and for nothing in the world would I try to dissuade you from what you're going to do; it seems to me absolutely right and proper. However, there's one thing I must tell you: there's no question of heroism in all this. It's a matter of common decency. That's an idea which may make some people smile, but the only means of righting a plague is?common decency." "What do you mean by 'common decency'?" Rambert's tone was grave. "I don't know what it means for other people. But in my case I know that it consists in doing my job." "Your job! I only wish I were sure what my job is!" There was a mordant edge to Rambert's voice. "Maybe I'm all wrong in putting love first." Rieux looked him in the eyes. "No," he said vehemently, "you are not wrong." Rambert gazed thoughtfully at them. "You two," he said, "I suppose you've nothing to lose in all this. It's easier, that way, to be on the side of the angels." Rieux drained his glass. "Come along," he said to Tarrou. "We've work to do." He went out. Tarrou followed, but seemed to change his mind when he reached the door. He stopped and looked at the journalist. "I suppose you don't know that Rieux's wife is in a sanatorium, a hundred miles or so away." Rambert showed surprise and began to say something; but Tarrou had already left the room. At a very early hour next day Rambert rang up the doctor. "Would you agree to my working with you until I find some way of getting out of the town?" There was a moment's silence before the reply came. "Certainly, Rambert. Thanks."

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Medici Machine

"THE PLAGUE - PART III" - Albert Camus (1947):

'Thus week by week the prisoners of plague put up what fight they could. Some, like Rambert, even contrived to fancy they were still behaving as free men and had the power of choice. But actually it would have been truer to say that by this time, mid-August, the plague had swallowed up everything and everyone. No longer were there individual destinies; only a collective destiny, made of plague and the emotions shared by all. Strongest of these emotions was the sense of exile and of deprivation, with all the crosscurrents of revolt and fear set up by these. That is why the narrator thinks this moment, registering the climax of the summer heat and the disease, the best for describing, on general lines and by way of illustration, the excesses of the living, burials of the dead, and the plight of parted lovers. It was at this time that a high wind rose and blew for several days through the plague-stricken city. Wind is particularly dreaded by the inhabitants of Oran, since the plateau on which the town is built presents no natural obstacle, and it can sweep our streets with unimpeded violence. During the months when not a drop of rain had refreshed the town, a gray crust had formed on everything, and this flaked off under the wind, disintegrating into dust- clouds. What with the dust and scraps of paper whirled against peoples' legs, the streets grew emptier. Those few who went out could be seen hurrying along, bent forward, with handkerchiefs or their hands pressed to their mouths. At nightfall, instead of the usual throng of people, each trying to prolong a day that might well be his last, you met only small groups hastening home or to a favorite cafe. With the result that for several days when twilight came, it fell much quicker at this time of the year; the streets were almost empty, and silent but for the long-drawn stridence of the wind. A smell of brine and seaweed came from the unseen, storm-tossed sea. And in the growing darkness the almost empty town, palled in dust, swept by bitter sea-spray, and loud with the shrilling of the wind, seemed a lost island of the damned. Hitherto the plague had found far more victims in the more thickly populated and less well-appointed outer districts than in the heart of the town. Quite suddenly, however, it launched a new attack and established itself in the business center. Residents accused the wind of carrying infection, "broadcasting germs," as the hotel manager put it. Whatever the reason might be, people living in the central districts realized that their turn had come when each night they heard oftener and oftener the ambulances clanging past, sounding the plague's dismal, passionless tocsin under their windows. The authorities had the idea of segregating certain particularly affected central areas and permitting only those whose services were indispensable to cross the cordon. Dwellers in these districts could not help regarding these regulations as a sort of taboo specially directed at themselves, and thus they came, by contrast, to envy residents in other areas their freedom. And the latter, to cheer themselves up in despondent moments, fell to picturing the lot of those others less free than themselves. "Anyhow, there are some worse off than I," was a remark that voiced the only solace to be had in those days. About the same time we had a recrudescence of outbreaks of fire, especially in the residential area near the west gate. It was found, after inquiry, that people who had returned from quarantine were responsible for these fires. Thrown off their balance by bereavement and anxiety, they were burning their houses under the odd delusion that they were killing off the plague in the holocaust. Great difficulty was experienced in fighting these fires, whose numbers and frequency exposed whole districts to constant danger, owing to the high wind. When the attempts made by the authorities to convince these well-meaning incendiaries that the official fumigation of their houses effectively removed any risk of infection had proved unavailing, it became necessary to decree very heavy penalties for this type of arson. And most likely it was not the prospect of mere imprisonment that deterred these unhappy people, but the common belief that a sentence of imprisonment was tantamount to a death sentence, owing to the very high mortality prevailing in the town jail. It must be admitted that there was some foundation for this belief.

It seemed that, for obvious reasons, the plague launched its most virulent attacks on those who lived, by choice or by necessity, in groups: soldiers, prisoners, monks, and nuns. For though some prisoners are kept solitary, a prison forms a sort of community, as is proved by the fact that in our town jail the guards died of plague in the same proportion as the prisoners. The plague was no respecter of persons and under its despotic rule everyone, from the warden down to the humblest delinquent, was under sentence and, perhaps for the first time, impartial justice reigned in the prison. Attempts made by the authorities to redress this leveling-out by some sort of hierarchy, the idea was to confer a decoration on guards who died in the exercise of their duties, came to nothing. Since martial law had been declared and the guards might, from a certain angle, be regarded as on active service, they were awarded posthumously the military medal. But though the prisoners raised no protest, strong exception was taken in military circles, and it was pointed out, logically enough, that a most regrettable confusion in the public mind would certainly ensue. The civil authority conceded the point and decided that the simplest solution was to bestow on guards who died at their post a "plague medal." Even so, since as regards the first recipients of the military medal the harm had been done and there was no question of withdrawing the decoration from them, the military were still dissatisfied. Moreover, the plague medal had the disadvantage of having far less moral effect than that attaching to a military award, since in time of pestilence a decoration of this sort is too easily acquired. Thus nobody was satisfied. Another difficulty was that the jail administration could not follow the procedure adopted by the religious and, in a less degree, the military authorities. The monks in the two monasteries of the town had been evacuated and lodged for the time being with religious-minded families. In the same way, whenever possible, small bodies of men had been moved out of barracks and billeted in schools or public buildings. Thus the disease, which apparently had forced on us the solidarity of a beleaguered town, disrupted at the same time longestablished communities and sent men out to live, as individuals, in relative isolation. This, too, added to the general feeling of unrest. Indeed, it can easily be imagined that these changes, combined with the high wind, also had an incendiary effect on certain minds. There were frequent attacks on the gates of the town, and the men who made them now were armed. Shots were exchanged, there were casualties, and some few got away. Then the sentry posts were reinforced, and such attempts quickly ceased. None the less, they sufficed to start a wave of revolutionary violence, though only on a small scale. Houses that had been burnt or closed by the sanitary control were looted. However, it seemed unlikely that these excesses were premeditated. Usually it was some chance incentive that led normally well-behaved people to acts which promptly had their imitators. Thus you sometimes saw a man, acting on some crazy impulse, dash into a blazing house under the eyes of its owner, who was standing by, dazed with grief, watching the flames. Seeing his indifference, many of the onlookers would follow the lead given by the first man, and presently the dark street was full of running men, changed to hunched, misshapen gnomes by the flickering glow from the dying flames and the ornaments or furniture they carried on their shoulders. It was incidents of this sort that compelled the authorities to declare martial law and enforce the regulations deriving from it. Two looters were shot, but we may doubt if this made much impression on the others; with so many deaths taking place every day, these two executions went unheeded?a mere drop in the ocean. Actually scenes of this kind continued to take place fairly often, without the authorities' making even a show of intervening. The only regulation that seemed to have some effect on the populace was the establishment of a curfew hour. From eleven onwards, plunged in complete darkness, Oran seemed a huge necropolis. On moonlight nights the long, straight streets and dirty white walls, nowhere darkened by the shadow of a tree, their peace untroubled by footsteps or a dog's bark, glimmered in pale recession.

The silent city was no more than an assemblage of huge, inert cubes, between which only the mute effigies of great men, carapaced in bronze, with their blank stone or metal faces, conjured up a sorry semblance of what the man had been. In lifeless squares and avenues these tawdry idols lorded it under the lowering sky; stolid monsters that might have personified the rule of immobility imposed on us, or, anyhow, its final aspect, that of a defunct city in which plague, stone, and darkness had effectively silenced every voice. But there was darkness also in men's hearts, and the true facts were as little calculated to reassure our townsfolk as the wild stories going round about the burials. The narrator cannot help talking about these burials, and a word of excuse is here in place. For he is well aware of the reproach that might be made him in this respect; his justification is that funerals were taking place throughout this period and, in a way, he was compelled, as indeed everybody was compelled, to give heed to them. In any case it should not be assumed that he has a morbid taste for such ceremonies; quite the contrary, he much prefers the society of the living and, to give a concrete illustration, sea-bathing. But the bathing-beaches were out of bounds and the company of the living ran a risk, increasing as the days went by, of being perforce converted into the company of the dead. That was, indeed, self-evident. True, one could always refuse to face this disagreeable fact, shut one's eyes to it, or thrust it out of mind, but there is a terrible cogency in the self-evident; ultimately it breaks down all defenses. How, for instance, continue to ignore the funerals on the day when somebody you loved needed one? Actually the most striking feature of our funerals was their speed. Formalities had been whittled down, and,' generally speaking, all elaborate ceremonial suppressed. The plague victim died away from his family and the customary vigil beside the dead body was forbidden, with the result that a person dying in the evening spent the night alone, and those who died in the daytime were promptly buried. Needless to say, the family was notified, but in most cases, since the deceased had \i\~d with them, its members were in quarantine and thus immobilized. When, however, the deceased had not lived with his family, they were asked to attend at a fixed time; after, that is to say, the body had been washed and put in the coffin and when the journey to the cemetery was about to begin. Let us suppose that these formalities were taking place at the auxiliary hospital of which Dr. Rieux was in charge. This converted school had an exit at the back of the main building. A large storeroom giving on the corridor contained the coffins. On arrival, the family found a coffin already nailed up in the corridor. Then came the most important part of the business: the signing of official forms by the head of the family. Next the coffin was loaded on a motor-vehicle?a real hearse or a large converted ambulance. The mourners stepped into one of the few taxis still allowed to ply and the vehicles drove hell-for-leather to the cemetery by a route avoiding the center of the town. There was a halt at the gate, where police officers applied a rubber stamp to the official exit permit, without which it was impossible for our citizens to have what they called a last resting-place. The policeman stood back and the cars drew up near a plot of ground where a number of graves stood open, waiting for inmates. A priest came to meet the mourners, since church services at funerals were now prohibited. To an accompaniment of prayers the coffin was dragged from the hearse, roped up, and carried to the graveside; the ropes were slipped and it came heavily to rest at the bottom of the grave. No sooner had the priest begun to sprinkle holy water than the first sod rebounded from the lid. The ambulance had already left and was being sprayed with disinfectant, and while spadefuls of clay thudded more and more dully on the rising layer of earth, the family were bundling into the taxi. A quarter of an hour later they were back at home. The whole process was put through with the maximum of speed and the minimum of risk. It cannot be denied that, anyhow in the early days, the natural feelings of the family were somewhat outraged by these lightning funerals. But obviously in time of plague such sentiments can't be taken into account, and all was sacrificed to efficiency. And though, to start with, the morale of the population was shaken by this summary procedure -for the desire to have a "proper funeral" is more widespread than is generally believed- as time went on, fortunately enough, the food problem became more urgent and the thoughts of our townsfolk were diverted to more instant needs. So much energy was expended on filling up forms, hunting round for supplies, and lining up that people had no time to think of the manner in which others were dying around them and they themselves would die one day. Thus the growing complications of our everyday life, which might have been an affliction, proved to be a blessing in disguise. Indeed, had not the epidemic, as already mentioned, spread its ravages, all would have been for the best. For then coffins became scarcer; also there was a shortage of winding-sheets, and of space in the cemetery. Something had to be done about this, and one obvious step, justified by its practical convenience, was to combine funerals and, when necessary, multiply the trips between the hospital and the burial-place. At one moment the stock of coffins in Rieux's hospital was reduced to five. Once filled, all five were loaded together in the ambulance. At the cemetery they were emptied out and the iron-gray corpses put on stretchers and deposited in a shed reserved for that purpose, to wait their turn. Meanwhile the empty coffins, after being sprayed with antiseptic fluid, were rushed back to the hospital, and the process was repeated as often as necessary. This system worked excellently and won the approval of the Prefect. He even told Rieux that it was really a great improvement on the death-carts driven by Negroes of which one reads in accounts of former visitations of this sort. "Yes," Rieux said. "And though the burials are much the same, we keep careful records of them. That, you will agree, is progress."

Vicars

'The creator of the source pictures knew exactly in which pictures the drawing of a decorated stand should be included. The Cnd contained pictures illustrating the lists associated with seventy agencies within the imperial civil and military service (not including the pictures associated with items related to the comites domesticorum and the magistri scriniorum whose lists did not comprise items pertaining to discrete agencies). As indicated above, the drawings of the decorated stands existed in the pictures illustrating the lists of only seventeen of these seventy agencies. The drawing was not, therefore, considered an appropriate or necessary part of every agency picture. Nor was it regarded as such by the artists of the primary copies of the Cnd: no artist added the drawing of a stand to the copy of a picture in which such a drawing did not exist in the Cnd and, conversely, no artist omitted such a drawing from the copy of any picture in the Cnd in which such a drawing existed. Moreover, the drawing of each decorated stand was not related to the drawing of a table with which the drawing of each stand was associated. It is certain, therefore, that the dishibution of these drawings in the Cnd was not random. In fact, the drawing of each stand in the Cnd existed only in the pictures associated with the agencies of those directors who had exclusively civil jurisdictional authority in a specific location: this comprised the proconsules, the praefectus urbis, the praefecti praetorio, their diocesan deputies (comes orientis, praefectus augustalls, and vicarii) and provincial governors (consulares, correctores, praesides) and excluded those with a combined civil and military jtuisdictional authority which, in the Cnd, comprised the COMer isau•iae, the dux arabiae et praeses, and the dux et praeses mauritaniae caesariensis. This exclusively civil jurisdictional authority, which distinguished this group of agency directors from the others, was not stated in the Cnd, nor did the Cnd describe these directors in a manner that would identify them as a group with that common authority, nor did these directors all have the same position title (praefectus, comes, vicarius , consularis, corrector, praeses). That is, the lists in the Cnd did not provide the evidence on which to base the observed distribution of the drawings of these stands among seventeen of its pictures. The aforementioned possible explanation for the distribution of the drawings of the decorated stands is deduced from the combined evidence of the pictures and lists in the Cnd, but could not be deduced from the lists alone. Thus the creator of the seventeen source pictures required knowledge that was not contained in the Cnd, and was not available in any other document that is known to have existed when the Cnd or K were produced, in order to identify or select the agencies which required the drawing of a decorated stand to be included in any picture illustrating aspects of those agencies).'

Successful, however, as the system proved itself in practice, there was something so distasteful in the last rites as now performed that the Prefect felt constrained to forbid relations of the deceased being present at the actual interment. They were allowed to come only as far as the cemetery gates, and even that was not authorized officially. For things had somewhat changed as regards the last stage of the ceremony. In a patch of open ground dotted with lentiscus trees at the far end of the cemetery, two big pits had been dug. One was reserved for the men, the other for the women. Thus, in this respect, the authorities still gave thought to propriety and it was only later that, by the force of things, this last remnant of decorum went by the board, and men and women were flung into the death-pits indiscriminately. Happily, this ultimate indignity synchronized with the plague's last ravages. In the period we are now concerned with, the separation of the sexes was still in force and the authorities set great store by it. At the bottom of each pit a deep layer of quicklime steamed and seethed. On the lips of the pit a low ridge of quicklime threw up bubbles that burst in the air above it. When the ambulance had finished its trips, the stretchers were carried to the pits in Indian file. The naked, somewhat contorted bodies were slid off into the pit almost side by side, then covered with a layer of quicklime and another of earth, the latter only a few inches deep, so as to leave space for subsequent consignments. On the following day the next of kin were asked to sign the register of burials, which showed the distinction that can be made between men and, for example, dogs; men's deaths are checked and entered up. Obviously all these activities called for a considerable staff, and Rieux was often on the brink of a shortage. Many of the gravediggers, stretcher-bearers, and the like, public servants to begin with, and later volunteers, died of plague. However stringent the precautions, sooner or later contagion did its work. Still, when all is said and done, the really amazing thing is that, so long as the epidemic lasted, there was never any lack of men for these duties. The critical moment came just before the outbreak touched high-water mark, and the doctor had good reason for feeling anxious. There was then a real shortage of man-power both for the higher posts and for the rough work, as Rieux called it. But, paradoxically enough, once the whole town was in the grip of the disease, its very prevalence tended to make things easier, since the disorganization of the town's economic life threw a great number of persons out of work. Few of the workers thus made available were qualified for administrative posts, but the recruiting of men for the "rough work" became much easier. From now on, indeed, poverty showed itself a stronger stimulus than fear, especially as, owing to its risks, such work was highly paid. The sanitary authorities always had a waiting-list of applicants for work; whenever there was a vacancy the men at the top of the list were notified, and unless they too had laid off work for good, they never failed to appear when summoned. Thus the Prefect, who had always been reluctant to employ the prisoners in the jail, whether short-term men or lifers, was able to avoid recourse to this distasteful measure. As long, he said, as there were unemployed, we could afford to wait. Thus until the end of August our fellow citizens could be conveyed to their last resting-place, if not under very decorous conditions, at least in a manner orderly enough for the authorities to feel that they were doing their duty by the dead and the bereaved. However, we may here anticipate a little and describe the pass to which we came in the final phase. From August onwards the plague mortality was and continued such as far to exceed the capacity of our small cemetery. Such expedients as knocking down walls and letting the dead encroach on neighboring land proved inadequate; some new method had to be evolved without delay. The first step taken was to bury the dead by night, which obviously permitted a more summary procedure. The bodies were piled into ambulances in larger and larger numbers. And the few belated wayfarers who, in defiance of the regulations, were abroad in the outlying districts after curfew hour, or whose duties took them there, often saw the long white ambulances hurtling past, making the nightbound streets reverberate with the dull clangor of their bells. The corpses were tipped pell-mell into the pits and had hardly settled into place when spadefuls of quicklime began to sear their faces and the earth covered them indisdinctively, in holes dug steadily deeper as time went on. Shortly afterwards, however, it became necessary to find new space and to strike out in a new direction. By a special urgency measure the denizens of grants in perpetuity were evicted from their graves and the exhumed remains dispatched to the crematorium. And soon the plague victims likewise had to go to a fiery end. This meant that the old crematorium east of the town, outside the gates, had to be utilized.

Accordingly the east-gate sentry post was moved farther out. Then a municipal employee had an idea that greatly helped the harassed authorities; he advised them to employ the streetcar line running along the coastal road, which was now unused. So the interiors of streetcars and trailers were adapted to this new purpose, and a branch line was laid down to the crematorium, which thus became a terminus. During all the late summer and throughout the autumn there could daily be seen moving along the road skirting the cliffs above the sea a strange procession of passengerless streetcars swaying against the skyline. The residents in this area soon learned what was going on. And though the cliffs were patrolled day and night, little groups of people contrived to thread their way unseen between the rocks and would toss flowers into the open trailers as the cars went by. And in the warm darkness of the summer nights the cars could be heard clanking on their way, laden with flowers and corpses. During the first few days an oily, foulsmelling cloud of smoke hung low upon the eastern districts of the town. These effluvia, all the doctors agreed, though unpleasant, were not in the least harmful. However, the residents of this part of the town threatened to migrate in a body, convinced that germs were raining down on them from the sky, with the result that an elaborate apparatus for diverting the smoke had to be installed to appease them. Thereafter only when a strong wind was blowing did a faint, sickly odor coming from the east remind them that they were living under a new order and that the plague fires were taking their nightly toll. Such were the consequences of the epidemic at its culminating point. Happily it grew no worse, for otherwise, it may well be believed, the resourcefulness of our administration, the competence of our officials, not to mention the burning-capacity of our crematorium, would have proved unequal to their tasks. Rieux knew that desperate solutions had been mooted, such as throwing the corpses into the sea, and a picture had risen before him of hideous jetsam lolling in the shallows under the cliffs. He knew, too, that if there was another rise in the death-rate, no organization, however efficient, could stand up to it; that men would die in heaps, and corpses rot in the street, whatever the authorities might do, and the town would see in public squares the dying embrace the living in the frenzies of an all too comprehensible hatred or some crazy hope. Such were the sights and apprehensions that kept alive in our townspeople their feeling of exile and separation. In this connection the narrator is well aware how regrettable is his inability to record at this point something of a really spectacular order?some heroic feat or memorable deed like those that thrill us in the chronicles of the past. The truth is that nothing is less sensational than pestilence, and by reason of their very duration great misfortunes are monotonous. In the memories of those who lived through them, the grim days of plague do not stand out like vivid flames, ravenous and inextinguishable, beaconing a troubled sky, but rather like the slow, deliberate progress of some monstrous thing crushing out all upon its path. No, the real plague had nothing in common with the grandiose imaginings that had haunted Rieux's mind at its outbreak. It was, about all, a shrewd, unflagging adversary; a skilled organizer, doing his work thoroughly and well. That, it may be said in passing, is why, so as not to play false to the facts, and, still more, so as not to play false to himself, the narrator has aimed at objectivity. He has made hardly any changes for the sake of artistic effect, except those elementary adjustments needed to present his narrative in a more or less coherent form. And in deference to this scruple he is constrained to admit that, though the chief source of distress, the deepest as well as the most widespread, was separation?and it is his duty to say more about it as it existed in the later stages of the plague?it cannot be denied that even this distress was coming to lose something of its poignancy. Was it that our fellow citizens, even those who had felt the parting from their loved ones most keenly, were getting used to doing without them? To assume this would fall somewhat short of the truth. It would be more correct to say that they were wasting away emotionally as well as physically. At the beginning of the plague they had a vivid recollection of the absent ones and bitterly felt their loss. But though they could clearly recall the face, the smile and voice of the beloved, and this or that occasion when (as they now saw in retrospect) they had been supremely happy, they had trouble in picturing what he or she might be doing at the moment when they conjured up these memories, in a setting so hopelessly remote. In short, at these moments memory played its part, but their imagination failed them. During the second phase of the plague their memory failed them, too. Not that they had forgotten the face itself, but what came to the same thing? It had lost fleshly substance and they no longer saw it in memory's mirror.

Thus, while during the first weeks they were apt to complain that only shadows remained to them of what their love had been and meant, they now came to learn that even shadows can waste away, losing the faint hues of life that memory may give. And by the end of their long sundering they had also lost the power of imagining the intimacy that once was theirs or understanding what it can be to live with someone whose life is wrapped up in yours. In this respect they had adapted themselves to the very condition of the plague, all the more potent for its mediocrity. None of us was capable any longer of an exalted emotion; all had trite, monotonous feelings. "It's high time it stopped," people would say, because in time of calamity the obvious thing is to desire its end, and in fact they wanted it to end. But when making such remarks, we felt none of the passionate yearning or fierce resentment of the early phase; we merely voiced one of the few clear ideas that lingered in the twilight of our minds. The furious revolt of the first weeks had given place to a vast despondency, not to be taken for resignation, though it was none the less a sort of passive and provisional acquiescence. Our fellow citizens had fallen into line, adapted themselves, as people say, to the situation, because there was no way of doing otherwise. Naturally they retained the attitudes of sadness and suffering, but they had ceased to feel their sting. Indeed, to some, Dr. Rieux among them, this precisely was the most disheartening thing: that the habit of despair is worse than despair itself. Hitherto those who were parted had not been utterly unhappy; there was always a gleam of hope in the night of their distress; but that gleam had now died out. You could see them at street corners, in cafes or friends' houses, listless, indifferent, and looking so bored that, because of them, the whole town seemed like a railway waiting-room. Those who had jobs went about them at the exact tempo of the plague, with dreary perseverance. Everyone was modest. For the first time exiles from those they loved had no reluctance to talk freely about them, using the same words as everybody else, and regarding their deprivation from the same angle as that from which they viewed the latest statistics of the epidemic. This change was striking since until now they had jealously withheld their personal grief from the common stock of suffering; now they accepted its inclusion. Without memories, without hope, they lived for the moment only. In~ deed, the here and now had come to mean everything to them. For there is no denying that the plague had gradually killed off in all of us the faculty not of love only but even of friendship. Naturally enough, since love asks something of the future, and nothing was left us but a series of present moments. However, this account of our predicament gives only the broad lines. Thus, while it is true that all who were parted came ultimately to this state, we must add that all did not attain it simultaneously; moreover, once this utter apathy had fallen on them, there were still flashes of lucidity, broken lights of memory that rekindled in the exiles a younger, keener sensibility. This happened when, for instance, they fell to making plans implying that the plague had ended. Or when, quite unexpectedly, by some kindly chance, they felt a twinge of jealousy, none the less acute for its objectlessness. Others, again, had sudden accesses of energy and shook off their languor on certain days of the week, for obvious reasons, on Sundays and Saturday afternoons, because these had been devoted to certain ritual pleasures in the days when the loved ones were still accessible. Sometimes the mood of melancholy that descended on them with the nightfall acted as a sort of warning, not always fulfilled, however, that old memories were floating up to the surface. That evening hour which for believers is the time to look into their consciences is hardest of all hours on the prisoner or exile who has nothing to look into but the void. For a moment it held them in suspense; then they sank back into their lethargy, the prison door had closed on them once again. Obviously all this meant giving up what was most personal in their lives. Whereas in the early days of the plague they had been struck by the host of small details that, while meaning absolutely nothing to others, meant so much to them personally, and thus had realized, perhaps for the first time, the uniqueness of each man's life; now, on the other hand, they took an interest only in what interested everyone else, they had only general ideas, and even their tenderest affections now seemed abstract, items of the common stock. So completely were they dominated by the plague that sometimes the one thing they aspired to was the long sleep it brought, and they caught themselves thinking: "A good thing if I get plague and have done with it!" But really they were asleep already; this whole period was for them no more than a long night's slumber. The town was peopled with sleepwalkers, whose trance was broken only on the rare occasions when at night their wounds, to all appearance closed, suddenly reopened. Then, waking with a start, they would run their fingers over the wounds with a sort of absentminded curiosity, twisting their lips, and in a flash their grief blazed up again, and abruptly there rose before them the mournful visage of their love. In the morning they harked back to normal conditions, in other words, the plague.

What impression, it may be asked, did these exiles of the plague make on the observer? The answer is simple; they made none. Or, to put it differently, they looked like everybody else, nondescript. They shared in the torpor of the town and in its puerile agitations. They lost every trace of a critical spirit, while gaining an air of sang-froid. You could see, for instance, even the most intelligent among them making a show like all the rest of studying the newspapers or listening to the radio, in the hope apparently of finding some reason to believe the plague would shortly end. They seemed to derive fantastic hopes or equally exaggerated fears from reading the linens that some journalist had scribbled at random, yawning with boredom at his desk. Meanwhile they drank their beer, nursed their sick, idled, or doped themselves with work, filed documents in offices, or played the phonograph at home, without betraying any difference from the rest of us. In other words, they had ceased to choose for themselves; plague had leveled out discrimination. This could be seen by the way nobody troubled about the quality of the clothes or food he bought. Everything was taken as it came. And, finally, it is worth noting that those who were parted ceased to enjoy the curious privilege that had been theirs at the outset. They had lost love's egoism and the benefit they derived from it. Now, at least, the position was clear; this calamity was everybody's business. What with the gunshots echoing at the gates, the punctual thuds of rubber stamps marking the rhythm of lives and deaths, the files and fires, the panics and formalities, all alike were pledged to an ugly but recorded death, and, amidst noxious fumes and the muted clang of ambulances, all of us ate the same sour bread of exile, unconsciously waiting for the same reunion, the same miracle of peace regained. No doubt our love persisted, but in practice it served nothing; it was an inert mass within us, sterile as crime or a life sentence. It had declined on a patience that led nowhere, a dogged expectation. Viewed from this angle, the attitude of some of our fellow citizens resembled that of the long queues one saw outside the food-shops. There was the same resignation, the same long-sufferance, inexhaustible and without illusions. The only difference was that the mental state of the food-seekers would need to be raised to a vastly higher power to make it comparable with the gnawing pain of separation, since this latter came from a hunger fierce to the point of insatiability. In any case, if the reader would have a correct idea of the mood of these exiles, we must conjure up once more those dreary evenings sifting down through a haze of dust and golden light upon the treeless streets filled with teeming crowds of men and women. For, characteristically, the sound that rose toward the terraces still bathed in the last glow of daylight, now that the noises of vehicles and motors?the sole voice of cities in ordinary times?had ceased, was but one vast rumor of low voices and incessant footfalls, the drumming of innumerable soles timed to the eerie whistling of the plague in the sultry air above, the sound of a huge concourse of people marking time, a never ending, stifling drone that, gradually swelling, filled the town from end to end, and evening after evening gave its truest, mournfulest expression to the blind endurance that had ousted love from all our hearts.'

+ The Plague (French: La Peste) - Albert Camus (1947):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Plague

Medici Machine

'To understand the alignment on the Government side one has got to remember how the war started. When the fighting broke out on 18 July it is probable that every anti-Fascist in Europe felt a thrill of hope. For here at last, apparently, was democracy standing up to Fascism. For years past the so-called democratic countries had been surrendering to Fascism at every step. The Japanese had been allowed to do as they liked in Manchuria. Hitler had walked into power and proceeded to massacre political opponents of all shades. Mussolini had bombed the Abyssinians while fifty-three nations (I think it was fifty-three) made pious noises 'off'. But when Franco tried to overthrow a mildly Left-wing Government the Spanish people, against all expectation, had risen against him. It seemed - possibly it was - the turning of the tide. But there were several points that escaped general notice. To begin with, Franco was not strictly comparable with Hitler or Mussolini. His rising was a military mutiny backed up by the aristocracy and the Church, and in the main, especially at the beginning, it was an attempt not so much to impose Fascism as to restore feudalism. This meant that Franco had against him not only the working class but also various sections of the liberal bourgeoisie - the very people who are the supporters of Fascism when it appears in a more modern form. More important than this was the fact that the Spanish working class did not, as we might conceivably do in England, resist Franco in the name of 'democracy' and the status quo', their resistance was accompanied by - one might almost say it consisted of - a definite revolutionary outbreak. Land was seized by the peasants; many factories and most of the transport were seized by the trade unions; churches were wrecked and the priests driven out or killed. The Daily Mail, amid the cheers of the Catholic clergy, was able to represent Franco as a patriot delivering his country from hordes of fiendish 'Reds'. For the first few months of the war Franco's real opponent was not so much the Government as the trade unions. As soon as the rising broke out the organized town workers replied by calling a general strike and then by demanding - and, after a struggle, getting - arms from the public arsenals. If they had not acted spontaneously and more or less independently it is quite conceivable that Franco would never have been resisted. There can, of course, be no certainty about this, but there is at least reason for thinking it. The Government had made little or no attempt to forestall the rising, which had been foreseen for a long time past, and when the trouble started its attitude was weak and hesitant, so much so, indeed, that Spain had three premiers in a single day. Moreover, the one step that could save the immediate situation, the arming of the workers, was only taken unwillingly and in response to violent popular clamour. However, the arms were distributed, and in the big towns of eastern Spain the Fascists were defeated by a huge effort, mainly of the working class, aided by some of the armed forces (Assault Guards, etc.) who had remained loyal. It was the kind of effort that could probably only be made by people who were fighting with a revolutionary intention - i.e. believed that they were fighting for something better than the status quo. In the various centres of revolt it is thought that three thousand people died in the streets in a single day. Men and women armed only with sticks of dynamite rushed across the open squares and stormed stone buildings held by trained soldiers with machine-guns. Machine-gun nests that the Fascists had placed at strategic spots were smashed by rushing taxis at them at sixty miles an hour. Even if one had heard nothing of the seizure of the land by the peasants, the setting up of local Soviets, etc., it would be hard to believe that the Anarchists and Socialists who were the backbone of the resistance were doing this kind of thing for the preservation of capitalist democracy, which especially in the Anarchist view was no more than a centralized swindling machine.

Meanwhile the workers had weapons in their hands, and at this stage they refrained from giving them up. (Even a year later it was computed that the Anarcho-Syndicalists in Catalonia possessed 30,000 rifles.) The estates of the big pro-Fascist landlords were in many places seized by the peasants. Along with the collectivization of industry and transport there was an attempt to set up the rough beginnings of a workers' government by means of local committees, workers' patrols to replace the old pro-capitalist police forces, workers' militias based on the trade unions, and so forth. Of course the process was not uniform, and it went further in Catalonia than elsewhere. There were areas where the institutions of local government remained almost untouched, and others where they existed side by side with revolutionary committees. In a few places independent Anarchist communes were set up, and some of them remained in being till about a year later, when they were forcibly suppressed by the Government. In Catalonia, for the first few months, most of the actual power was in the hands of the Anarcho-syndicalists, who controlled most of the key industries. The thing that had happened in Spain was, in fact, not merely a civil war, but the beginning of a revolution. It is this fact that the anti-Fascist press outside Spain has made it its special business to obscure. The issue has been narrowed down to 'Fascism versus democracy' and the revolutionary aspect concealed as much as possible. In England, where the Press is more centralized and the public more easily deceived than elsewhere, only two versions of the Spanish war have had any publicity to speak of: the Right-wing version of Christian patriots versus Bolsheviks dripping with blood, and the Left-wing version of gentlemanly republicans quelling a military revolt. The central issue has been successfully covered up.

There were several reasons for this. To begin with, appalling lies about atrocities were being circulated by the pro-Fascist press, and well-meaning propagandists undoubtedly thought that they were aiding the Spanish Government by denying that Spain had 'gone Red'. But the main reason was this: that, except for the small revolutionary groups which exist in all countries, the whole world was determined, upon preventing revolution in Spain. In particular the Communist Party, with Soviet Russia behind it, had thrown its whole weight against the revolution. It was the Communist thesis that revolution at this stage would be fatal and that what was to be aimed at in Spain was not workers' control, but bourgeois democracy. It hardly needs pointing out why 'liberal' capitalist opinion took the same line. Foreign capital was heavily invested in Spain. The Barcelona Traction Company, for instance, represented ten millions of British capital; and meanwhile the trade unions had seized all the transport in Catalonia. If the revolution went forward there would be no compensation, or very little; if the capitalist republic prevailed, foreign investments would be safe. And since the revolution had got to be crushed, it greatly simplified things to pretend that no revolution had happened. In this way the real significance of every event could be covered up; every shift of power from the trade unions to the central Government could be represented as a necessary step in military reorganization. The situation produced was curious in the extreme. Outside Spain few people grasped that there was a revolution; inside Spain nobody doubted it. Even the P.S.U.C. newspapers. Communist-controlled and more or less committed to an anti-revolutionary policy, talked about 'our glorious revolution'. And meanwhile the Communist press in foreign countries was shouting that there was no sign of revolution anywhere; the seizure of factories, setting up of workers' committees, etc., had not happened - or, alternatively, had happened, but 'had no political significance'. According to the Daily Worker (6 August 1936) those who said that the Spanish people were fighting for social revolution, or for anything other than bourgeois democracy, were' downright lying scoundrels'. On the other hand, Juan López, a member of the Valencia Government, declared in February 1937 that 'the Spanish people are shedding their blood, not for the democratic Republic and its paper Constitution, but for ... a revolution'. So it would appear that the downright lying scoundrels included members of the Government for which we were bidden to fight. Some of the foreign anti-Fascist papers even descended to the pitiful lie of pretending that churches were only attacked when they were used as Fascist fortresses. Actually churches were pillaged everywhere and as a matter of course, because it was perfectly well understood that the Spanish Church was part of the capitalist racket. In six months in Spain I only saw two undamaged churches, and until about July 1937 no churches were allowed to reopen and hold services, except for one or two Protestant churches in Madrid.

But, after all, it was only the beginning of a revolution, not the complete thing. Even when the workers, certainly in Catalonia and possibly elsewhere, had the power to do so, they did not overthrow or completely replace the Government. Obviously they could not do so when Franco was hammering at the gate and sections of the middle class were on their side. The country was in a transitional state that was capable either of developing in the direction of Socialism or of reverting to an ordinary capitalist republic. The peasants had most of the land, and they were likely to keep it, unless Franco won; all large industries had been collectivized, but whether they remained collectivized, or whether capitalism was reintroduced, would depend finally upon which group gained control. At the beginning both the Central Government and the Generalite de Cataluña (the semi-autonomous Catalan Government) could definitely be said to represent the working class. The Government was headed by Caballero, a Left-wing Socialist, and contained ministers representing the U.G.T. (Socialist trade unions) and the C.N.T. (Syndicalist unions controlled by the Anarchists). The Catalan Generalite was for a while virtually superseded by an anti-Fascist Defence Committee consisting mainly of delegates from the trade unions. Later the Defence Committee was dissolved and the Generalite was reconstituted so as to represent the unions and the various Left-wing parties. But every subsequent reshuffling of the Government was a move towards the Right. First the P.O.U.M. was expelled from the Generalite; six months later Caballero was replaced by the Right-wing Socialist Negrín; shortly afterwards the C.N.T. was eliminated from the Government; then the U.G.T.; then the C.N.T. was turned out of the Generalite; finally, a year after the outbreak of war and revolution, there remained a Government composed entirely of Right-wing Socialists, Liberals, and Communists.

The general swing to the Right dates from about October-November 1936, when the U.S.S.R. began to supply arms to the Government and power began to pass from the Anarchists to the Communists. Except Russia and Mexico no country had had the decency to come to the rescue of the Government, and Mexico, for obvious reasons, could not supply arms in large quantities. Consequently the Russians were in a position to dictate terms. There is very little doubt that these terms were, in substance, 'Prevent revolution or you get no weapons', and that the first move against the revolutionary elements, the expulsion of the P.O.U.M. from the Catalan Generalite, was done under orders from the U.S.S.R. It has been denied that any direct pressure was exerted by the Russian Government, but the point is not of great importance, for the Communist parties of all countries can be taken as carrying out Russian policy, and it is not denied that the Communist Party was the chief mover first against the P.O.U.M., later against the Anarchists and against Caballero's section of the Socialists, and, in general, against a revolutionary policy. Once the U.S.S.R. had intervened the triumph of the Communist Party was assured. To begin with, gratitude to Russia for the arms and the fact that the Communist Party, especially since the arrival of the International Brigades, looked capable of winning the war, immensely raised the Communist prestige. Secondly, the Russian arms were supplied via the Communist Party and the parties allied to them, who saw to it that as few as possible got to their political opponents. Thirdly, by proclaiming a non-revolutionary policy the Communists were able to gather in all those whom the extremists had scared. It was easy, for instance, to rally the wealthier peasants against the collectivization policy of the Anarchists. There was an enormous growth in the membership of the party, and the influx was largely from the middle class - shopkeepers, officials, army officers, well-to-do peasants, etc., etc. The war was essentially a triangular struggle. The fight against Franco had to continue, but the simultaneous aim of the Government was to recover such power as remained in the hands of the trade unions. It was done by a series of small moves - a policy of pin-pricks, as somebody called it - and on the whole very cleverly.

There was no general and obvious counter-revolutionary move, and until May 1937 it was scarcely necessary to use force. The workers could always be brought to heel by an argument that is almost too obvious to need stating: 'Unless you do this, that, and the other we shall lose the war.' In every case, needless to say, it appeared that the thing demanded by military necessity was the surrender of something that the workers had won for themselves in 1936. But the argument could hardly fail, because to lose the war was the last thing that the revolutionary parties wanted; if the war was lost democracy and revolution. Socialism and Anarchism, became meaningless words. The Anarchists, the only revolutionary party that was big enough to matter, were obliged to give way on point after point. The process of collectivization was checked, the local committees were got rid of, the workers patrols were abolished and the pre-war police forces, largely reinforced and very heavily armed, were restored, and various key industries which had been under the control of the trade unions were taken over by the Government (the seizure of the Barcelona Telephone Exchange, which led to the May fighting, was one incident in this process); finally, most important of all, the workers' militias, based on the trade unions, were gradually broken up and redistributed among the new Popular Army, a 'non-political' army on semi-bourgeois lines, with a differential pay rate, a privileged officer-caste, etc., etc. In the special circumstances this was the really decisive step; it happened later in Catalonia than elsewhere because it was there that the revolutionary parties were strongest. Obviously the only guarantee that the workers could have of retaining their winnings was to keep some of the armed forces under their own control. As usual, the breaking-up of the militias was done in the name of military efficiency; and no one denied that a thorough military reorganization was needed. It would, however, have been quite possible to reorganize the militias and make them more efficient while keeping them under direct control of the trade unions; the main purpose of the change was to make sure that the Anarchists did not possess an army of their own. Moreover, the democratic spirit of the militias made them breeding-grounds for revolutionary ideas. The Communists were well aware of this, and inveighed ceaselessly and bitterly against the P.O.U.M. and Anarchist principle of equal pay for all ranks.'

Medici Machine

'A general 'bourgeoisification', a deliberate destruction of the equalitarian spirit of the first few months of the revolution, was taking place. All happened so swiftly that people making successive visits to Spain at intervals of a few months have declared that they seemed scarcely to be visiting the same country; what had seemed on the surface and for a brief instant to be a workers' State was changing before one's eyes into an ordinary bourgeois republic with the normal division into rich and poor. By the autumn of 1937 the 'Socialist' Negrín was declaring in public speeches that 'we respect private property', and members of the Cortes who at the beginning of the war had had to fly the country because of their suspected Fascist sympathies were returning to Spain. The whole process is easy to understand if one remembers that it proceeds from the temporary alliance that Fascism, in certain forms, forces upon the bourgeois and the worker. This alliance, known as the Popular Front, is in essential an alliance of enemies, and it seems probable that it must always end by one partner swallowing the other. The only unexpected feature in the Spanish situation - and outside Spain it has caused an immense amount of misunderstanding - is that among the parties on the Government side the Communists stood not upon the extreme Left, but upon the extreme Right. In reality this should cause no surprise, because the tactics of the Communist Party elsewhere, especially in France, have made it clear that Official Communism must be regarded, at any rate for the time being, as an anti-revolutionary force. The whole of Comintern policy is now subordinated (excusably, considering the world situation) to the defence of U.S.S.R., which depends upon a system of military alliances. In particular, the U.S.S.R. is in alliance with France, a capitalist-imperialist country. The alliance is of little use to Russia unless French capitalism is strong, therefore Communist policy in France has got to be anti-revolutionary. This means not only that French Communists now march behind the tricolour and sing the Marseillaise, but, what is more important, that they have had to drop all effective agitation in the French colonies. It is less than three years since Thorez, the Secretary of the French Communist Party, was declaring that the French workers would never be bamboozled into fighting against their German comrades; he is now one of the loudest-lunged patriots in France. The clue to the behaviour of the Communist Party in any country is the military relation of that country, actual or potential, towards the U.S.S.R. In England, for instance, the position is still uncertain, hence the English Communist Party is still hostile to the National Government, and, ostensibly, opposed to rearmament. If, however, Great Britain enters into an alliance or military understanding with the U.S.S.R., the English Communist, like the French Communist, will have no choice but to become a good patriot and imperialist; there are premonitory signs of this already. In Spain the Communist 'line' was undoubtedly influenced by the fact that France, Russia's ally, would strongly object to a revolutionary neighbour and would raise heaven and earth to prevent the liberation of Spanish Morocco. The Daily Mail, with its tales of red revolution financed by Moscow, was even more wildly wrong than usual. In reality it was the Communists above all others who prevented revolution in Spain. Later, when the Right-wing forces were in full control, the Communists showed themselves willing to go a great deal further than the Liberals in hunting down the revolutionary leaders. I have tried to sketch the general course of the Spanish revolution during its first year, because this makes it easier to understand the situation at any given moment.'

+ "HOMAGE TO CATALONIA" - GEORGE ORWELL (1936):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homage_to_Catalonia

'As early as April 9, I856, after a discussion of the yellow fever epidemics in Charleston, Savannah, Augusta, and Macon, as they prevailed during the season of I854, the Medical Society of the State of Georgia,' then holding its seventh annual meeting in Macon, appointed a committee to report upon the following important subject: " Are there any means by which the extension of yellow fever into the interior may be prevented?" As the question of "the transportation of yellow fever of I854 from the coast to the interior by railroads" had been opened by me at that meeting, my name appears as chairman of this committee. The above discussion and specific assignment is, so far as I have been able to find, the first record of a distinct suggestion of the agency of railroads in transporting this disease, and also of the first attention given by sanitarians anywhere to the quarantine of railroads to prevent the spread of yellow fever.

From the above date to the present time more or less attention has, at long intervals, been bestowed upon the various influences and instrumentalities by which the epidemics of the coast have been propagated inland, and among them railroad communication by freight and travel has at times been recognized as a probable promoter of yellow fever prevalence in the interior towns and communities of the South and West. The study of such, and of all influences and relations pertaining to yellow fever, has been, however, naturally and reasonably more or less interrupted by long intervals during the absence of that active interest evoked by the actual or recent presence of epidemics. Most happily, it is only at comparatively distant periods, generally, that the dreaded visitant makes its advent in our seaports, and even less frequently have we suffered from such interior invasions as have of later years become more common, and as have marked its terrible history in I876, and again in 1878, and yet again in I879. The first recognized inland incursion of yellow fever in Georgia, - and I speak of Georgia, because here my observation has been personal, - as is well known, was in I839. At that time, from Charleston, on the Carolina coast, it found its way to Augusta, one hundred and thirty-six miles distant; and prevailed as a devastating epidemic. Active discussion, and a diligent search into the origin of the disease, as usual, immediately followed; but a perfect immunity of fifteen years, for almost all inland localities, quieted our apprehensions and relaxed our watchfulness concerning an enemy, however formidable, yet so occasional and whilom in its visitations. Not until 1854 are we again called to deplore inland epidemics succeeding to coast incursions of yellow fever. Now, from a repetition of the distresses of 1839, we began to recognize that, under some mysterious and hidden influence, the health and security of distant rural towns were compromised by the existence of yellow fever on the coast. It was the observations made of these epidemics of I854, and the unmistakable significance of certain occurrences of that season, plainly indicating the agency of railroad transportation in the propagation inland of the terrible scourge, that awakened interest in the subject and caused it to be introduced and discussed in the Georgia Medical Association. Hence resulted the appointment of a committee to propose measures against the inland extension of yellow fever. Again a period of over twenty years elapses without any striking facts regarding inland transportation of yellow fever. Apprehension, and with it interest, had long since relaxed in regard to protective measures, till the Savannah epidemic of I876. In this visitation, the tendency to invade interior communities is again recognized with even a clearer interpretation of its significance than ever before. The railroads are now distinctly and unsparingly charged as the carriers of yellow fever infection. Since then the wide-spread interest so fully awakened on the subject has been kept up, most unhappily at a frightful cost, - the startling and distressing histories of I878 and 1879 in the stricken West, have fixed for all time our interest in wbatever relates to inland quarantine. The full freshness of this interest is now upon us; and, while we are gathered here from every section of our common country to deliberate upon every measure affecting the public health, no one question has more prominence in the minds of all, no one interest appeals more strongly to our hearts, than that which relates to yellow fever. How to keep the Destroyer hereafter from our coasts - how to prevent in the future its spread into the interior? It is with this latter question, as relating to inland quarantine, that I propose more directly to be occupied.

Colonialism

In the present discussion of quarantine measures bearing upon yellow fever, I must state that I am addressing those only who, like myself, hold the two following propositions as accepted and fundamental principles in regard to this disease: -

  • First. That the poison or product giving rise to the assemblage of phenomena and sequences which are known to constitute yellow fever is an exotic readily importable into this country and, after importation, transportable from one region to another.
  • Secondly. That yellow fever is not in any of its stages communicable from one person to another after the manner or according to the rationale of ordinary contagion.

Upon these two comprehensive and fundamental assumptions, as they may be styled by some, are predicated and conditioned all the arguments I have to offer and all the suggestions I have to make in the brief period allowed me for these remarks on quarantine. To such of our brethren as deny or disbelieve these propositions, with all due respect for their opinions, I can but say that this discussion is not, in any part, addressed to them. The two platforms on which we severally stand, and the two spheres of thought in which we reason, are so diverse and irreconcilable, that argument -even did we have the time or were this the occasion -would not in the least avail. Unhappily, we cannot "take counsel together." I would not here presume to discuss the present question of inland quarantine, except for the belief, that, by an incomparable majority, sanitarians of the largest observation and experience, as well as those most profound in all the science pertaining to the subject, will fully recognize the legitimacy of the grounds from which, as from a common point of departure, our discussion will proceed. In whatever else we may differ, these three tenets we hold in common: The importability of yellow fever from foreign countries; the transportability of yellow fever from one community to another in this country; and, lastly, the non-transmissibility of yellow fever by contagion from one individual to another. Assuming then, as I have said, that these three attributes are almost universally admitted as inherent to the nature of yellow fever, it may not be unprofitable to examine somewhat carefully into the quarantine measures as at present carried out, in order that we may determine to what extent they will be found to be based upon these important and fundamental characteristics of the disease... Will this proper and wholesome submission to authority long continue under the present inconsonance between theory and practice under which the yellow fever quarantine is at present conducted? Is our present conduct of this quarantine at all modified by the firm convictions that possess us, or in accordance with the confident and decided opinions we give broadcast to communities? Have we, in any instance, lightened the burdens or ameliorated the horrors consequent upon the operation of the law, which shuts out from escape and inexorably denies refuge to valuable men, to beloved women, and tender children, who would save themselves by fleeing from the devastating pestilence? Have we, in a single instance, as yet, allowed humanity, or pity, or consideration, or reason, or even our own firm convictions of the non-contagious character of the disease, to influence us in behalf of the unfortunate inhabitants of the infected city who have not had the prophetic foresight to precipitate departure in time to anticipate ihe undiscriminating quarantine which suddenly blocks the way to their escape? Under the influence of principles which are not our principles, one city quarantines against her unfortunate sister city. She may lie directly in the pathway of the life-saving hegira of the fleeing community seeking refuge from death, - a cordon sanitaire, such as at one time hemmed in the cholera and the plague, forbids their flight; for not only refuge but even passport through the neighboring towns and cities is denied them. They must remain in or return to their infected homes to breathe again the germ-laden atmosphere, to increase the pestilence, and swell the daily bills of yellow fever mortality.

All this madness is enacted under a superficial and most erroneous interpretation of the opinions of sanitarians, as to the communicability of yellow fever from person to person. Thus did "shot-gun quarantine " find its origin, and upon this same platform has "mob law" more than once come forth to rule the hour! The national and local sanitary authorities counselling with the officers of the Howard Association, at Memphis, wisely proposed, and to a large extent attempted, the thinning of the population, or the depopulation of the and remaining in healthy cities, their being seized there with the disease, being nursed there and dying there, perfectly harmless to other individuals and to the sanitary interests of communities. Centuries of observation and thousands of experiences have fully demonstrated the harmlessness of the infected taking such refuge and enjoying such hospitality and privileges. Time there was, and not a very distant time, when cases of yellow fever were scattered about in every inland city and town and village that could be reached by the flying citizens of the coast. Yellow fever then was dreaded as much as now, but I really believe it was better understood by even the common people than we doctors understand it now. Noon does not seem to have improved upon the early light of dawn. I say the disease was greatly dreaded. Incursions from the coast were looked for in alarm, but no one ever thought then of any refugee or exposed person or imported case producing a second case, much less an epidemic. The announcement of a case of yellow fever would produce always some anxiety, till the one all-important question could be answered: "Did the case originate here?" If not, but found to be an "imported case," no more thought or concern was given to the matter. The confident assurance was enjoyed that the poison itself of yellow fever had not yet made its way to our city, but only some one who had imbibed the poison elsewhere, and was suffering from its effects. In no single case was this happy confidence ever disappointed or this logical train of reasoning ever brought in question by an extension of the disease. This single case or others of a like history might be protracted to any extent, or they might die of black vomit surrounded by their friends in the most densely populated parts of the city, and yet no alarm arose among the citizens, no stampeding of families, and entertainment still was accorded to the strangers sick or well.

Looking then into the history of the past, and comparing it with the present tone of public feeling towards refugee cases of yellow fever in healthy inland communities, we cannot fail to discover a most marked and contrasting change. Instead of the welcome and refuge and nursing and tender care extended in the past, all travelers during the season of an epidemic, however distant, have become now by statute - by sanitary statutb - objects of suspicion marked for exclusion unless they can purge themselves of the abhorred taint of having come out of the infected region, while any one so unfortunate as to be attacked with the disease in his flight had better die by the wayside than be allowed to enter and diffuse poison in the pure atmosphere of a healthy town. Let me here ask what has given such frightful significance to cases once regarded so innocent and harmless? I will endeavor to give an answer to this question: First among the causes which have produced this change is the fact that yellow fever, at each one of its coast visitations, for more than the past twenty years, has been found to make incursions into the interior and to produce inland epidemics in the same cities where formerly refugee cases had been devoid of evil.

Gestapo

The explanation of these incursions have been fully dwelt upon in our former discussions of the transportation of disease-germs. Both the propositions announced in the beginning of the present paper are fully established by this simple comparison:-

  • First, that the yellow fever refugee, from the coast or elsewhere, traveling slowly, as in times past, by stage or private conveyance, with comparatively little baggage, though he brings with him in his blood a full supply of yellow fever germs or poison sufficient to produce in him all its phenomena, and among them black vomit and death, has never been known, whether he was overtaken by the wayside, in the pine woods, or in the crowded city, to communicate the disease to others, or to infect the air of the inland community in which he had fallen.
  • While, secondly, the yellow fever refugee of the present time, coming in the rapid transit of a few hours by railroad, and bringing with him often the largest Saratoga trunks of porous baggage that had been packed and closed in the infected atmosphere, has brought with him, besides the germs circulating in his own veins, - proved to be innocuous to all but himself, -he has, I say, besides these blood-germs, brought with him a vast multitude of propagating atmospheric germs, in all their activity and capacity, to poison all who may directly imbibe them, and to rapidly propagate poison in the atmosphere of the entire locality.

In the first case the ventilation incident to several days of travel had removed from his scanty baggage and wearing apparel, probably, all yellow fever germs that were capable of communicating disease; only the poison which he carried in his own blood remained, and this could infect no other person nor poison the air. In the case of the modern or railroad traveler, the immense volumes of germ-laden air in the passenger train, and still more in the boxed-up freight cars, besides what is brought in the trunks, must inevitably insure widespread atmospheric infection, and a widespread epidemic. Even though the air of the invaded locality may be what is called " pure," it cannot often escape vitiation; when it may be what is called " foul," propagation and an epidemic are simply inevitable. Let us, then, after anxiously interrogating and rationally interpreting the oracles of the past, implicitly follow the unmistakable precepts we have elicited. Let us so modify our quarantine that the refugee from a region affected with yellow fever, though he carry with him in his blood, as he did formerly, his own fatal dose of disease-germs, shall not bring with him, outside of his own veins, any atmospheric propagating germs. Experience has shown that only these last are capable of producing either an individual case or an epidemic.

Quarantine, in its widest sense as well as in its last analysis, means sanitary dealing with disease-poisons. So long as this dealing is based on rational principles, comprehending and recognizing all the attributes of the particular poisons dealt with, burdensome as they may be, all its mandates and all its measures secure respect and the most implicit obedience; but where, as we have said, practice continues to contradict a widely-acknowledged principle, suspicion, disrespect, and insubordination must everywhere obstruct its intended benefits. The quarantine just now urged recognizes the two prominent and widely-acknowledged principles regarding yellow fever: namely, the extreme transmissibility and receptibility of the atmospheric germ, and the entire absence of contagion in the subject. When these two conditions are fully met such a quarantine can be defended on principle, as I believe it will be vindicated by the happiest result. This is the quarantine which carried out in all its details will be acceptable because reasonable, this, I say, must inevitably become the Yellow Fever Quarantine of the Future.

PAID ADVERTISEMENT:

Atlas Rand

The outline of quarantine measures, such as is here proposed, has been made either directly by myself, or through the discussion and sometimes approval of others, more or less familiar to the members of this Association.

  • First. Allow no railroad train or car, whether for passengers or freight, coming from an infected locality to approach within many miles of any healthy or uninfected town or city.
  • Secondly. Meet these trains, at some undoubtedly safe distance from their place of destination, by fresh cars for both passengers and freight.
  • Third. A careful and discriminating surveillance to be maintained over the baggage of passengers and over the freight in order to determine what will be safe, after ventilation and other means of disinfection, to be taken on the fresh cars. Porous articles and closed trunks being most objectionable till disinfected.
  • Fourth. That passengers have free passport into, and refuge in, any city, town, village, or other community, without hindrance on account of their physical condition, in relation to their supposed or manifested inception of yellow fever poison. Long exposure in yellow fever atmosphere, attendance on the sick, actual fever and black vomit should be no bar or hindrance, on account of infection, to the free passage of persons seeking refuge for themselves and families from yellow fever.
  • Fifth. To secure the privilege and benefits of the unrestricted travel contemplated by the modified quarantine, all persons must submit to such provisions as may be deemed necessary by the sanitary officers. Baths, and change of apparel may be exacted, but simple ventilation only will in most cases suffice.
  • Sixth. In the establishment of a modified quarantine on the above systematized method, arrangements on the most liberal and enlightened scale will be required. Officers of intelligence and high character only should be appointed to superintend and carry out the details of the plan. Whether buildings temporary or permanent will be required, and whether municipal, state, or national sanitary authorities are best to have charge of its conduct, only experience in an untried method can determine. An efficient and easy-working system can only gradually and by slow progress be perfected...

The sketch just presented is intended to foreshadow in comprehensive outline the more or less complicated details of an inland quarantine for yellow fever, modified and adjusted to the principles we, as sanitarians, hold in regard, first, to the fearfully ready transportability of the infection; and, secondly, to its entire non-contagion. Such being our faith, the merciful boon of free passport and refuge cannot much longer be denied to those who look to us for relief. Our decisions in this case carry with them most truly " the issues to them, of life and death." Even should much complication of machinery, and the expenditure of a considerable amount of the public funds, attend its elaboration and the attainment of its effectual establishment, it will not equal the losses now sustained by the people in the tyrannical interruption of travel, the complete nullifying of commerce proclaimed on account of yellow fever, from the beginning to the end of every epidemic. And much less is the expenditure to be considered in comparison with the loss of life, the desolation of homes and of hearts, which every year result from the denial of refuge, the immuring in infected cities among the dying and the dead, and the cruel " casting out " from all places of resort on the slightest suspicion of thatfalsest of all assumptions, yellow fever contagion. The expenses incident to the carrying out of the present incongruous and absurd quarantine, - entirely irreconcilable with the principles we profess and the doctrines we teach, - no doubt fully equal all that the modified quarantine would cost, after it may have once been accepted and properly organized. The newly gotten-up alarm which now fills every community on the approach of any case of yellow fever will, under the practical demonstration given by the health authorities, soon give place to the common sense and common humanity of former days; while denial of refuge, casting out, and shot-gun quarantine will be remembered with only tears and a blush as frightful frenzies of the past.'

+ THE YELLOW FEVER QUARANTINE OF THE FUTURE, BASED UPON THE PORTABILITY OF ATMOSPHERIC GERMS, AND THE NON-CONTAGIOUSNESS OF THE DISEASE. (1879):
+ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2272165/

Isa

'In Christian iconography, Christ Pantocrator (Χριστὸς Παντοκράτωρ) is a specific depiction of Christ. Pantocrator or Pantokrator, usually translated as "Almighty" or "all-powerful", is derived from one of many names of God in Judaism. The Pantokrator, largely an Eastern Orthodox or Eastern Catholic theological conception, is less common under that name in Western (Roman) Catholicism and largely unknown to most Protestants. The most common translation of Pantocrator is "Almighty" or "All-powerful". In this understanding, Pantokrator is a compound word formed from the Greek words πᾶς, pas (παντός "pan todos"), i.e. "all" and κράτος (kratos) i.e. "strength", "might", "power". This is often understood in terms of potential power; i.e., ability to do anything, omnipotence. Another, more literal translation is "Ruler of All" or, less literally, "Sustainer of the World". In this understanding, Pantokrator is a compound word formed from the Greek for "all" and the verb meaning "To accomplish something" or "to sustain something" (κρατεῖν kratein). This translation speaks more to God's actual power; i.e., God does everything (as opposed to God can do everything). The icon of Christ Pantokrator is one of the most common religious images of Orthodox Christianity. Generally speaking, in Medieval eastern roman church art and architecture, an iconic mosaic or fresco of Christ Pantokrator occupies the space in the central dome of the church, in the half-dome of the apse, or on the nave vault. Some scholars (Latourette 1975: 572) consider the Pantocrator a Christian adaptation of images of Zeus, such as the great statue of Zeus enthroned at Olympia. The development of the earliest stages of the icon from Roman Imperial imagery is easier to trace. The image of Christ Pantocrator was one of the first images of Christ developed in the Early Christian Church and remains a central icon of the Eastern Orthodox Church. In the half-length image, Christ holds the New Testament in his left hand and makes the gesture of teaching or of blessing with his right. The typical Western Christ in Majesty is a full-length icon. In the early Middle Ages, it usually presented Christ in a mandorla or other geometric frame, surrounded by the Four Evangelists or their symbols. Rufius Probianus (fl. 400 AD) was a vicarius of the late Roman Empire. He is known from an ivory diptych on which he appears with his right hand lifted in an oratorical gesture to indicate that he is either speaking or has the right to speak. Saint Catherine's Monastery (Arabic: دير القدّيسة كاترين‎; Greek: Μονὴ τῆς Ἁγίας Αἰκατερίνης), officially "Sacred Monastery of the God-Trodden Mount Sinai" (Ιερά Μονή του Θεοβαδίστου Όρους Σινά), is an Eastern Orthodox monastery located on the Sinai Peninsula, at the mouth of a gorge at the foot of Mount Sinai, near the town of Saint Catherine, Egypt. The monastery is named after Catherine of Alexandria. The monastery is controlled by the autonomous Church of Sinai, part of the wider Greek Orthodox Church, and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Built between 548 and 565, the monastery is one of the oldest working Christian monasteries in the world. The site contains the world's oldest continually operating library, possessing many unique books including the Syriac Sinaiticus and, until 1859, the Codex Sinaiticus. The monastery was built by order of Emperor Justinian I (reigned 527–565), enclosing the Chapel of the Burning Bush (also known as "Saint Helen's Chapel") ordered to be built by Empress Consort Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, at the site where Moses is supposed to have seen the burning bush. The living bush on the grounds is purportedly the one seen by Moses. Structurally the monastery's king post truss is the oldest known surviving roof truss in the world. The site is sacred to Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. The Christ Pantocrator of St. Catherine’s Monastery at Sinai is one of the oldest Eastern Roman religious icons, dating from the 6th century AD. The name of Christ is written on each side of the halo, as IC and XC. Christ's fingers are depicted in a pose that represents the letters IC, X and C, thereby making the Christogram ICXC (for "Jesus Christ"). The IC is composed of the Greek characters iota (Ι) and lunate sigma (C; instead of Σ, ς)—the first and last letters of 'Jesus' in Greek (Ἰησοῦς); in XC the letters are chi (Χ) and again the lunate sigma—the first and last letters of 'Christ' in Greek (Χριστός). In many cases, Christ has a cruciform halo inscribed with the letters Ο Ω Ν, i.e. ὁ ὤν "He Who Is".'

+ Christ Pantocrator: Saint Catherine's Monastery, [SaiNi/Egypt] (564 A.D.):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christ_Pantocrator
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christ_Pantocrator_(Sinai)
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chalke
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Catherine%27s_Monastery
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rufius_Probianus
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consular_diptych
+ https://www.ancient.eu/image/9623/byzantine-diptych-of-ivory/

'Pangolins, or scaly anteaters, are mammals of the order Pholidota (from Ancient Greek φολῐ́ς, "horny scale"). The one extant family, Manidae, has three genera: Manis, Phataginus and Smutsia. Pangolins have large, protective keratin scales covering their skin; they are the only known mammals with this feature. The name pangolin comes from the Malay word pengguling, meaning "one who rolls up". The etymologies of the three generic names Manis (Linnaeus, 1758), Phataginus (Rafinesque, 1821), and Smutsia (Gray, 1865) are sometimes misunderstood. Carl Linnaeus (1758) invented the Neo-Latin generic name Manis apparently as a feminine singular form of the Latin masculine plural Manes, the Ancient Roman name for a type of spirit, after the animal's strange appearance. In ancient Roman religion, the Manes or Di Manes are chthonic deities sometimes thought to represent souls of deceased loved ones. They were associated with the Lares, Lemures, Genii, and Di Penates as deities (di) that pertained to domestic, local, and personal cult. They belonged broadly to the category of di inferi, "those who dwell below," the undifferentiated collective of divine dead. The Manes were honored during the Parentalia and Feralia in February. Manes may be derived from "an archaic adjective manus —good— which was the opposite of immanis (monstrous)". Roman tombstones often included the letters D.M., which stood for diis manibus, "for the ghost-gods" or figuratively translated, "for the Manes", an abbreviation that continued to appear even in Christian inscriptions. The Manes were offered blood sacrifices. The gladiatorial games, originally held at funerals, may have been instituted in the honor of the Manes. According to Cicero, the Manes could be called forth from the caves near Lake Avernus. Lake Avernus (Italian: Lago d'Averno) is a volcanic crater lake located in the Avernus crater in the Campania region of southern Italy. Avernus was of major importance to the Romans, who considered it to be the entrance to Hades. Roman writers often used the name as a synonym for the underworld. In Virgil's Aeneid, Aeneas descends to the underworld through a cave near the lake. The Borboni, the Naples-ruling members of the House of Bourbon, owned the lake until 1750 when they ceded it to another aristocratic family, who in turn sold it, in 1991, to the Cardillo family. In 2010, a 55-hectare (0.55 km2) tract of land – including the lake, a lakefront restaurant, B&B and disco – was seized by the police after the owner was accused of being a mafia frontman (for the Casalesi). The Casalesi clan is a clan within the Camorra, an Italian criminal organization, operating from San Cipriano d’Aversa in the province of Caserta between Naples and Latium. Formed by Antonio Bardellino, it is a confederation of clans in the Caserta area. The Casalesi clan is believed to be one of the most powerful groups within the Camorra, specialising in construction and keeping a lower profile than clans that focus on drug dealing. The clan is among the most powerful and influential criminal organizations in the world, with approximately 150 to 160 zone leaders and 8000-9000 members. In the 1980s, Bardellino realized that cocaine, not heroin, would become the more profitable drug and organized a trafficking operation smuggling it from Latin America to Aversa via a fish flour import-export business. Heroin was smuggled as well, and shipments to the Gambino crime family were concealed inside espresso filters. When one shipment was intercepted by the authorities, Bardellino reportedly called John Gotti and told him; "Don't worry, now we're sending twice as much another way". All the police investigations into the clan were grouped together in the Spartacus Trial. Over 1,300 people were investigated and 500 witness took the stand. The trial against 36 members of the Casalesi clan finally concluded on June 19, 2008, after 10-years.

Constantine Rafinesque (1821) formed the Neo-Latin generic name Phataginus from the French term phatagin, adopted by Count Buffon (1763) after the reported local name phatagin or phatagen used in the East Indies. The British naturalist John Edward Gray named Smutsia for the South African naturalist Johannes Smuts (1808–1869), the first South African to write a treatise on mammals in 1832 (in which he described the species Manis temminckii). The medical powers of pangolin meat and scales claimed by traditional Chinese medicine are based on behavioral observations: they eat ants; they have long tongues, and they have scales that protect them. The Chinese name chuan shan jia (穿山甲) "penetrating-the-mountain scales") emphasizes the idea of penetration(穿) or passing all the way through even massive obstructions such as mountains(山), plus the distinctive scales(甲) which embody both penetration and protection and imply similar powers to penetrate blockages within the body and to give protection. The first record of pangolin scales occurs in Ben Cao Jinji Zhu ("Variorum of Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica", 500 CE), which recommends pangolin scales for protection against ant bites; burning the scales is a cure for people crying hysterically during the night. During the Tang dynasty, a recipe for expelling evil spirits with a formulation of scales, herbs, and minerals appeared in 682, and in 752 CE the idea that pangolin scales could also stimulate milk secretion in lactating women, one of the important uses today, was recommended in the Wai Tai Mi Yao ("Arcane Essentials from the Imperial Library"). In the Song dynasty, the notion of penetrating and clearing blockages was emphasized in the Taiping sheng hui fan ("Formulas from Benevolent Sages Compiled During the Era of Peace and Tranquility"), compiled by Wang Huaiyin in 992. Today the main uses of pangolin scales are to unblock blood clots, promote blood circulation, and to help lactating women secrete milk. There are many other applications for treating gynecological diseases, and pills that contain powdered pangolin scales are used for treating blockages of the fallopian tubes to cure infertility. The official pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China continues to include Chinese pangolin scales as an ingredient in TCM formulations, and there is a legal market for scales. Pangolin meat is prized as a delicacy in parts of China and Vietnam. In China, the meat is believed to have nutritional value to aid kidney function. In Vietnam, restaurants charge as much as $150 per pound of pangolin meat. At one restaurant in Ho Chi Minh City, pangolin is the most expensive item on its menu of exotic wildlife, requiring a deposit and a few hours' notice. Restaurant employees kill the animal at the table, in front of diners, to show authenticity and freshness. According to Dan Challender of the International Union for Conservation of Nature's pangolin specialist group, "The fact that it's illegal isn't played down and is even attractive, because it adds this element that you live beyond the law."

Pangolins are poached by subsistence hunters for direct consumption, sold in local markets, as well as purchased directly from home-working vendors or hunters. A 1988 report found that in Nigeria, the long-tailed (Phataginus tetradactyla) and white-bellied (Phataginus tricuspis) species were the second-most expensive bushmeat. However, in some areas, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, pangolins are one of the least frequently captured animals for bushmeat (totaling 1.7% of the species recorded in 1987). This was in-part due to their elusive nature as well as social taboos. In Ghana, pangolins are hunted using traps, guns, or dogs, and often traded directly from hunters to roadside restaurants or wholesalers, bypassing markets. There is an indication of elevated hunting during lean farming periods. This, in-part, seems to be due to low labor demands for cocoa farms (a primary agricultural resource in Ghana) in September and October and consequentially higher labor demands in November and December. Pangolins play a number of roles in traditional African medicine, and a larger number of the animals' parts have a purpose. For example, a study of pangolin use in Kumasi, Ghana, found examples for 13 body parts.

PAID ADVERTISEMENT:

Pangolin

"The scales are used by Yorubic medical practitioners in Nigeria to treat, cure, or regulate stomach disorders, gonorrhea, menstrual periods, genital itching or swelling, wounds and cuts, mental illness, stroke, and serve as an antidote for various poisons. The Awori Tribe uses them to treat back pain, mental illness, rheumatism, stomach ulcers, venereal diseases, wounds and cuts, low sexual libido, and as antibiotics. In Ghana, a study in Kumasi found scales used to treat a number of different medical ailments like rheumatism, infertility, convulsions, epilepsy, menstrual pains, stomach disorders, headaches, waist and back pain, stroke, mental illness, skin scars, waterborne illnesses, and leprosy. Research in Lentsweletau, Botswana found scales used for cracked heels, persistent cough, and nose bleeds in humans, and, when burned, the smoke was used to improve the health of cattle. In the Bombali district of Sierra Leone, scales were used for skin disease, impotence, infertility, broken ribs, stomach diseases, inflammation of the naval, athletes foot, nail disorders, healingpremature babies, arthritis, rheumatism, epilepsy, body pain, ear infections, rashes, and scars."

In Africa, pangolins are used for a variety of non-medicinal purposes, such as improving finances, improving luck, or protecting against spiritual forces. Some groups in Nigeria believe the flesh of the pangolin can give the consumer the power of divination, or otherwise bring good luck, safety, or calmness. People looking for business success might use the head and the tip of the tail. The limbs are believed to bring good fortune and money. The scales of a pangolin may be used to give good luck, increase the productivity of a farm, ward off witches and evil forces, have a safe delivery of a child, provide protection, to arrest thieves, and to create amulets. The whole body of a pangolin is used in building rituals, for good fortune, prosperity, warding off sickness, curing infertility in women, granting invisibility, achieving good sales in business, prevent spells or curses, hypnosis, or seduction. In Ghana, the community in the Kusami area use pangolin scales, bones, head, and meat for non-medical purposes. Pangolins scales are used for spiritual protection, financial rituals, and protection from witchcraft. The bones are used for spiritual protection and protection from witchcraft. The head of a pangolin is used for spiritual protection and financial rituals. The meat of a pangolin is used to create charms for tribal chiefs and pangolin tail is used as a romantic aid. In the Bombali district of Sierra Leone, scales, meat, blood, intestines, claws, and whole pangolin are part of the pangolin body are used. The scales of the pangolin are used to make one invulnerable to bullets or cuts, to provide protection from witchcraft, and other forms of spiritual protection. The meat of a pangolin is used to increase intelligence of an individual, and the tail of a pangolin is used to prevent against a snake bite and to provide spiritual protection. The blood and claws of a pangolin is used for protection against witchcraft while the intestines of the pangolin are used for good luck. In the Lentsweletau extended area of Botswana, there are seven main parts of the pangolin that are used for non-medicinal purposes. The fat of the pangolin is mixed with bioactive compounds to protect against bad luck and evil. The nose is used to protect one's homestead against evil or bad luck. The head is used to protect livestock and ward off evil spells and predators. Paws and scales in combination are used to protect crops and a plowed field from any form of evil or witchcraft. The scales and blood of a pangolin are used together to attract lovers or customers. The whole body of a pangolin is used to determine the gender of new borne calves.'

+ The Pangolin Trade: The Casalesi Klan, Lake Avernus, & the Manes (2020):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pangolin_trade
+ https://www.pangolinreports.com/china/
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pangolin
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manes
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Avernus
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casalesi_clan

'The Wildlife Justice Commission identified 27 countries and territories involved as sources, transits, or destinations for pangolin scale shipments. Six places in particular were linked to 94 percent of the overall contraband: China, Hong Kong, Vietnam, Singapore, Nigeria, and Democratic Republic of Congo. This confirms previous findings showing that as populations of Asian pangolins have fallen because of poaching, the supply side of the trade has largely shifted to Africa. The team found that Nigeria in particular has become a global pangolin scale export hub, accounting for 55 percent of seizures between 2016 and 2019. On the demand side, China was the primary destination until 2018, when Vietnam took the lead. Links between criminal networks in Nigeria and Vietnam also seem to be strengthening, with a direct trafficking route between the two countries first appearing in May 2018 and continuing since then. Pangolin scales and parts are ingredients in nearly 500 prescriptions in traditional Chinese medicine, many of which date back centuries. The scales’ uses vary widely, from helping with anorexia, sores, and skin infections to treating infertility in women and promoting lactation. Pangolin scales are composed primarily of keratin, the same substance that makes up hair and fingernails, and no credible scientific evidence exists supporting their efficacy. Many people continue to believe in their use, however, and may benefit from placebo effects. According to the Wildlife Justice Commission findings, Vietnam is now the biggest recipient of pangolin scales. Killing, trafficking, transporting, trading, storing, or selling pangolins, including for medicine, is illegal in Vietnam. Punishments vary, but violators may be subject to up to 15 years in prison or fined up to $645,000. In China, where pangolins are strictly protected too, the government allows certain clinics and hospitals to sell pangolin scales for medicinal purposes. As of 2016, some 200 Chinese pharmaceutical companies were also allowed to manufacture more than 60 products containing pangolin scales, according to the China Food and Drug Administration’s online database. Officials say scales for medicinal use are distributed from a government stockpile, but China has never clarified how large the country’s stockpile is or where the scales came from. As the Wildlife Justice Commission reports, the medicinal system is likely being used to launder illegally obtained African pangolin scales into China’s legal domestic market. A decision announced last August by the Chinese government may reduce demand for pangolin scales. As of this January, China’s national insurance program is no longer covering medicines containing pangolin products. China has also taken steps recently to crack down on the illegal pangolin trade. Last December, concluding a year-long investigation, Chinese authorities seized a shipment in Wenzhou, in Zhejiang province, of more than 25 tons of pangolin scales from Nigeria. Eighteen suspects were detained. Now, the idea that pangolins could be vectors for current coronavirus outbreak may further dampen demand.'

+ Illegal Trade in Pangolins Keeps Growing as Criminal Networks Expand (2020):
+ https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2020/02/pangolin-scale-trade-shipments-growing/
+ http://www.s2a3.org.za/bio/Biograph_final.php?serial=2641

'In 2013, while fishing in the Chinese province of Yunnan, about 2000 kilometres south-west of Wuhan, Batman clandestinely caught a horseshoe crab in a nebula trap he was using to troll for carp. After steaming it for dinner, he suddenly felt ill. Checking into a Kunming hospital, Chinese scientists swabbed his mouth and checked his saliva for virus genes. Batman's tiny body on the rack seemed to teem with viruses. The doctors discovered that Batman had a virus researchers had never seen before. It was a coronavirus strain and it looked a lot like SARS, a virus that had spread around the world rapidly a decade earlier and then vanished without a trace. But this virus infected only bats, not humans. The researchers named it RaT-Goblin13 and then promptly forgot about it. At the same time, other research groups noted these bat coronaviruses regularly seemed to jump from animals to humans, and suggested that Batman's unique physiology might eventually pose a significant pandemic threat to civilization. The new coronavirus that is causing the first pandemic in 100 years – it will likely kill millions before this is all over, and mean that life may never be the same again – shares 96 per cent of its genetic code with RaT-Goblin13. “We have been monitoring these coronaviruses. They’ve been jumping species boundaries,” says Professor Sherlock Holmes. “We knew this was going to happen with Batman's immunity system eventually.” RaT-Goblin13, or another very similar bat virus, has managed to pick up two tiny genetic tweaks that turned it from a bat disease into a virus perfectly adapted weapon to make humans sick. Pangolins are now believed to be the transmission vector to cruise ships around the world. Synarchy teams had the unbelievable misfortune to emerge in exactly the wrong place at exactly the wrong time: deployed at the World Military Games timed to coincide with Batman's 7th USAID-sponsored fishing trip to Yunnan. “It’s got this beautifully adapted set of mutations similar to the Spiderman virus,” says Holmes. In his published work, he calls it a “perfect epidemiological storm made for the refined Hollywood taste in a pangolin casino.”

Sherlock Holmes, a researcher based at the University of Sydney, is among the world’s leading experts on the genetics and evolution of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. He was on the team with Dr. Watson at IBM that first sequenced the genes of the virus from one of the first patients in Wuhan. Their article on the possible origins of the virus in Batman's unique physiology is now the most-publicised Nature study in the history of that venerable journal. He has visited the Huanan seafood and wildlife market where the Wuhan outbreak began. He has visited Batman's covert cave operations in China, searching for other signs of bat soldiers so he can survey the viruses his minions contain. CoV-2 is a coronavirus, just like SARS and MERS. These viruses get their name from how they look under a microscope: a tiny bubble of fat surrounded by a crown of spikes which are used to penetrate cells. The virus pulled from Batman in 2013 could not originally infect humans. SARS-CoV-2 can. Why? It appears that two tiny tweaks to the virus’ genetic code by RaT-Goblin have made a huge difference. CoVID-19 wants to do two things: bind to a human cell and then get inside it. The virus binds to a cellular receptor – think of them as little alien antennae that stick off the side of human cells – called ACE2. ACE2 receptors are designed to listen for emotional signals that change our blood pressure. Fine adjustments to blood pressure are really important in our lungs, so our lung cells are covered in ACE2 receptors. SARS was able to bind to ACE2. Small genetic changes intro-duced through CRISPR sequencing mean CoV-2 binds almost perfectly, at least 10 times more tightly to human toilet tissue than SARS. “It’s beautifully adapted to do that,” says Holmes. But if that’s not enough, once CoV-2 is stuck on a cell, it needs to break the encryption layer in order to get in. That’s where the second tweak starts: CoV-2 is covered in spikes. They act like tiny harpoons. The virus is programmed to stick to the cell and then fire a nano-harpoon. The harpoon, developed in RaT-Goblin's secret underground lab, pulls the surface of the cell and the virus RNA strand together, allowing them to fuse in the nucleus. That’s how the virus gets inside the bat cells. To trigger the harpoon at just the right time, viruses rely on human enzymes to sequence, fueling on little protein molecules in our blood. Some enzymes trigger the harpoon too early, others trigger it too late. Among the best enzyme triggers – the one that fires the harpoon at exactly the right time – is an enzyme called Turin. Our bodies produce shrouds of Turin. “Basically, you can work out if a virus is going to be highly pathogenic or not if it is activated by Turin cares and concerns,” says Dr. Watson. In contrast, Bird flu is only triggered by common urine. "We got lucky," Watson says, "because the goose & duck urine vector wasn’t very good at sticking it to our lung cells. CoV-2 is great at sticking to our pulmonary cells, so we need to wear bear masks to keep it from entering our treasured chests. Coronamania is normally triggered by shrouds of Turin. It is among the best triggers for spin that a novel virus can have. We consider the crown radiance and halo effects to be holy. The trinity combination is what makes it so infectious and popular here."

RaT-Goblin13 has the ability to bind to ACE2. But it did not have the Turin tweak which makes the coronavirus so infectious. It is possible RaT-Goblin13, or a similar virus, jumped from a bat into a pangolin – a small, scaly anteater common to Asia and highly valued in traditional Chinese medicine. Pangolins also have the ACE2 receptor, as do other animals like ferrets. Either of these animals, or many others like the spider, could have been the middle animal between bats and humans. But in this particular Batman origin story, the pangolin was infected at the same time in the lab by RaT-Goblin with another bat coronavirus analogue. This hybrid virus sample possessed the Turin tweak. When two viruses infect the same host, like they did with Batman in China, they can ‘recombine’ – swapping their genes. RaT-Goblin created a new virus in a secret lab that could both stick to ACE2 and use Turin to quickly get inside human cells by using pangolin incubation with CRISPR sequences implanted into the animals' respiratory systems. That could have been how SARS-CoV-2 was introduced to China through Batman as the Zero Day shock vector. Then it jumped to humans in the close confines of the Wuhan wet market near the hospital on a lark. Sherlock Holmes is shocked at how fast SARS-CoV-2 has now spread with gulf wings on the Raj Burqa base jump. But he’s not shocked it was Batman who was originally behind the coronavirus that has caused a worldwide pandemic. This RaT-Goblin proxy war with CoVID-19 is what we have come to expect from Disney since "Kung Flu Pangolin" was released by the J-Chan crime syndicate in Hong Kong in 2017.'

+ The Perfect Virus: Two Gene Simmons Tweaks that Turned RaT-Goblin's COVID-19 into a Batman Killer (2020):
+ https://www.smh.com.au/national/the-perfect-virus-two-gene-tweaks-that-turned-covid-19-into-a-killer-2020032...
+ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G0i9HjbdcTM

'The clustered regularly interspaced short palindrome repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system is a new gene-editing technology that can induce double-strand breaks (DSBs), single-strand nicks, or anywhere guide ribonucleic acids (RNAs) can bind with the protospacer adjacent motif sequence. By simple changing sequence of gRNA, Cas9-endonuclease can be delivered to a gene of interest and induce DSBs. The efficiency of Cas9-endonuclease and the ease by which genes can be targeted led to the development of CRISPR-knockout (KO) libraries both for mouse and human cells, which can cover either specific gene sets of interest or the whole-genome. CRISPR screening helps scientist to create a systematic and high-throughput genetic perturbation within live model organisms. This genetic perturbation is necessary for fully understanding gene function and epigenetic regulation. The advantage of pooled CRISPR libraries is that more genes can be targeted at once. Knock-out libraries are created in a way to achieve equal representation and performance across all expressed gRNAs and carry an antibiotic or fluorescent selection marker that can be used to recover transduced cells. There are two plasmid systems in CRISPR/Cas9 libraries. First, is all in one plasmid, where sgRNA and Cas9 are produced simultaneously in a transfected cell. Second, is a two-vector system: sgRNA and Cas9 plasmids are delivered separetly. It's important to deliver thousands of unique sgRNAs-containing vectors to a single vessel of cells by viral transduction at low multiplicity of infection (MOI, typically at 0.1-0.6), it prevents the probability that an individual cell clone will get more than one type of sgRNA otherwise it can lead to incorrect assignment of genotype to phenotype. Once pooled library is prepared it is necessary to carry out a deep sequencing (NGS, next generation sequencing) of PCR-amplifed plasmid DNA in order to reveal abundance of sgRNAs. Cells of interest can be consequentially infected by the library and then selected according to the phenotype. There are 2 types of selection: negative and positive. By negative selection dead or slow growing cells are efficiently detected. It can identify survival-essential genes, which can be further serve as candidates for molecularly targeted drugs. On the other hand, positive selection gives a collection of growth-advantage acquired populations by random mutagenesis. After selection genomic DNA is collected and sequenced by NGS. Depletion or enrichment of sgRNAs is detected and compared to the original sgRNA library, annotated with the target gene that sgRNA corresponds to. Statistical analysis then identify genes that are significantly likely to be relevant to the phenotype of interest.

CRISPR-Cas-based "RNA-guided nucleases" can be used to target virulence factors, genes encoding antibiotic resistance, and other medically relevant sequences of interest. This technology thus represents a novel form of antimicrobial therapy and a strategy by which to manipulate bacterial populations. Recent studies suggest a correlation between the interfering of the CRISPR-Cas locus and acquisition of antibiotic resistance. This system provides protection of bacteria against invading foreign DNA, such as transposons, bacteriophages, and plasmids. This system was shown to be a strong selective pressure for the acquisition of antibiotic resistance and virulence factor in bacterial pathogens. Virulence factors are molecules produced by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa that add to their effectiveness and enable them to achieve colonization of a niche in the host, immunoevasion, evasion of the host's immune response, and immunosuppression, inhibition of the host's immune response. In 2016, researchers demonstrated that CRISPR from an ordinary mouth bacterium could be used to edit RNA. The researchers searched databases containing hundreds of millions of genetic sequences for those that resembled CRISPR genes. They considered the fusobacteria Leptotrichia shahii. It had a group of genes that resembled CRISPR genes, but with important differences. When the researchers equipped other bacteria with these genes, which they called C2c2, they found that the organisms gained a novel defense. Many viruses encode their genetic information in RNA rather than DNA that they repurpose to make new viruses. HIV and poliovirus are such viruses. Bacteria with C2c2 make molecules that can dismember RNA, destroying the virus. Tailoring these genes opened any RNA molecule to editing.'

+ Genome Engineering: Militarizing CRISPR RNA Sequencing Tactics (2020):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CRISPR_gene_editing
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virulence_factor

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'The dead in the United States already number more than 9,500, triple the toll of the terrorist attacks that brought the nation low on Sept. 11, 2001. U.S. Surgeon General Jerome M. Adams reached back further to find an analogue for the sense of national alarm, as the country surpassed 333,000 known cases. He said the coming days could bring catastrophe comparable to the attack that drew the United States into World War II in 1941. “This is going to be the hardest and saddest week of most Americans’ lives, quite frankly,” the surgeon general said in a Sunday appearance on Fox News. “This is going to be our Pearl Harbor moment, our 9/11 moment, only it’s not going to be localized. It’s going to be happening all over the country.”'

+ U.S. Surgeon General Warns of ‘Pearl Harbor Moment’ (2020):
+ https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/americans-told-to-brace-for-pearl-harbor-moment-as-trump-warns-parts...
+ https://news.yahoo.com/is-trump-leading-a-war-against-the-coronavirus-134835520.html

'Quinine was used as a muscle relaxant by the Quechua, who are indigenous to Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador, to halt shivering due to low temperatures. The Quechuas would mix the ground bark of cinchona trees with sweetened water to offset the bark's bitter taste, thus producing something similar to tonic water. The Jesuit were the first to bring cinchona to Europe. The Spanish were aware of the medicinal properties of cinchona bark by the 1570s or earlier: Nicolás Monardes (1571) and Juan Fragoso (1572) both described a tree that was subsequently identified as the cinchona tree and whose bark was used to produce a drink to treat diarrhea. Quinine has been used in unextracted form by Europeans since at least the early 17th century. It was first used to treat malaria in Rome in 1631. A popular story of how it was brought to Europe by the Countess of Chinchon was debunked by medical historian Alec Haggis around 1941. During the 17th century, malaria was endemic to the swamps and marshes surrounding the city of Rome. Malaria was responsible for the deaths of several popes, many cardinals and countless common Roman citizens. Most of the priests trained in Rome had seen malaria victims and were familiar with the shivering brought on by the febrile phase of the disease. The Jesuit brother Agostino Salumbrino (1564–1642), an apothecary by training who lived in Lima, observed the Quechua using the bark of the cinchona tree for that purpose. While its effect in treating malaria (and malaria-induced shivering) was unrelated to its effect in controlling shivering from rigors, it was a successful medicine against malaria. At the first opportunity, Salumbrino sent a small quantity to Rome for testing as a malaria treatment. In the years that followed, cinchona bark, known as Jesuit's bark or Peruvian bark, became one of the most valuable commodities shipped from Peru to Europe. When King Charles II was cured of malaria at the end of the 17th Century with quinine, it became popular in London. It remained the antimalarial drug of choice until the 1940s, when other drugs took over.

The form of quinine most effective in treating malaria was found by Charles Marie de La Condamine in 1737. In 1820, French researchers Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Bienaimé Caventou first isolated quinine from the bark of a tree in the genus Cinchona – probably Cinchona officinalis – and subsequently named the substance. The name was derived from the original Quechua (Inca) word for the cinchona tree bark, quina or quina-quina, which means "bark of bark" or "holy bark". Prior to 1820, the bark was first dried, ground to a fine powder, and then mixed into a liquid (commonly wine) which was then drunk. Large-scale use of quinine as a malaria prophylaxis started around 1850. In 1853 Paul Briquet published a brief history and discussion of the literature on "quinquina". Quinine played a significant role in the colonization of Africa by Europeans. Quinine had been said to be the prime reason Africa ceased to be known as the "white man's grave". A historian has stated, "it was quinine's efficacy that gave colonists fresh opportunities to swarm into the Gold Coast, Nigeria and other parts of west Africa". To maintain their monopoly on cinchona bark, Peru and surrounding countries began outlawing the export of cinchona seeds and saplings in the early 19th century. The Dutch government persisted in its attempts to smuggle the seeds, and in the late 19th century the Dutch grew the plants in Indonesian plantations. Soon they became the main suppliers of the plant, and in 1913 they set up the Kina Bureau, a cartel of cinchona producers charged with controlling price and production. By the 1930s Dutch plantations in Java were producing 22 million pounds of cinchona bark, or 97% of the world's quinine production. U.S. attempts to prosecute the Kina Bureau proved unsuccessful. During World War II, Allied powers were cut off from their supply of quinine when Germany conquered the Netherlands, and Japan controlled the Philippines and Indonesia. The US had obtained four million cinchona seeds from the Philippines and began operating cinchona plantations in Costa Rica. Additionally, they began harvesting wild cinchona bark during the Cinchona Missions. Such supplies came too late. Tens of thousands of US troops in Africa and the South Pacific died due to the lack of quinine. Despite controlling the supply, the Japanese did not make effective use of quinine, and thousands of Japanese troops in the southwest Pacific died as a result. Quinine remained the antimalarial drug of choice until after World War II, when other drugs, such as chloroquine, that have fewer side effects largely replaced it.

The Cinchona Missions (1942-1945) were a series of expeditions led by the United States to find natural sources of quinine in South America during World War II. With the outbreak of World War II, a supply of quinine was essential for successful military operations. In 1942, the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies cut off the supply of quinine to the allies. Recognizing the need for a new source of quinine, a program was established by the United States Board of Economic Warfare under the operation of the Defense Supplies Corporation (DSC). Professor William C. Steere was brought on as Assistant Director. The objective was to find supplies of cinchona bark in the Andes for military use. It had three goals: to control all sites with commercial cinchona for long term development; to develop plantations that could compete with established cinchona monopolies to ensure emergency provisions; and to train people in the producing countries to take over the industry at the end of US involvement. Six countries signed an agreement with the DSC; Colombia, Peru, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Ecuador and Bolivia. Wild populations of cinchona were also to be exploited. At its peak, as many as 30 American botanists were involved with the program. The first party left for Colombia in October 1942. It consisted of two foresters, two botanists, a chemist, and a lawyer. This initial group included Steere, Francis Raymond Fosberg, and Leslie Holdridge. At first, two field parties were organized. Each team had a botanist to identify cinchona species, as well as a forester to calculate the volume of bark and logistics of harvest. They began their search in the high altitude rainforests of the Cordillera Oriental and the Rio Magdalena, making an inventory of all available species. Once cleared for harvest, bark from an area was gathered with native labor. It was transported on the backs of people or mules to rivers and airstrips. Eventually, it would arrive at one of the field laboratories located in Bogotá, Colombia, Quito, Ecuador, Lima, Peru, or La Paz, Bolivia. Dry bark was often shipped directly to America. In 1943, an expedition to Ecuador was put together by the American Quinine Company, lead by anthropologist Froelich Rainey. Surveying was difficult, however, since the cinchona forests of Ecuador were often remote and inaccessible. Surveying parties ranged between ten and fifteen men, many of whom served as porters and trail cutters. By mid-1943, Ecuador was the second largest producer of cinchona bark in Latin America. The American pharmaceutical company Merck and Co. planned to develop the cinchona industry in the Western hemisphere as early as 1932. Their research was backed by the US Department of State, US Department of Agriculture, the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Food of Guatemala, and the United Fruit Company. Small experimental plantations were established in Guatemala and Costa Rica during the 1930's. After the outbreak of the war, the US government seized a plantation at El Porvenir, Guatemala and turned it into the world's largest cinchona nursery. Here, large scale research was conducted on propagation and harvesting techniques. Seedlings were distributed to other nearby countries, and further plantations were established in Mexico, Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Peru. Older plantations that existed before US involvement in Peru and Bolivia were also exploited. In 1944, quinine was successfully synthesized by American chemists Robert Burns Woodward and William von Eggers Doering. This, along with the recovery of Asian plantations and a healthy stockpile of antimalarial products in US control, led to the termination of the program. Overall, the US had imported approximately 40 million pounds of dry bark over the course of two years. The program ceased operations on November 30, 1945.'

+ The Cinchona Mission Expeditions: Columbo-Peruvian Quinine vs. HydroxyChloro-Quinine (1942-1945):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quinine
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinchona_Missions
+ https://collections.nmnh.si.edu/search/botany/?q=ex+Cinchona%20Missions
+ https://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/nation/2020/04/119_287410.html

'The non-federated mobile field army, known as the comitatenses, was eventually split into a number of smaller field armies: a central field army under the emperor's direct control, known as the comitatensis palatina or praesentalis, and several regional field armies. Historians Santosuosso and Vogt agree that the latter gradually degraded into low-quality garrison units similar to the limitanei that they either supplemented or replaced. By the 5th century, a significant portion of Western Rome's main military strength lay in rented barbarian mercenaries known as foederati. As Roman troops were spread increasingly thin over its long border, the Empire's territory continued to dwindle in size as the population of the empire declined. Barbarian war bands increasingly began to penetrate the Empire's vulnerable borders, both as settlers and invaders. In 451, the Romans defeated Attila the Hun, but only with assistance from a confederation of foederatii troops, which included Visigoths, Franks and Alans. As barbarian incursions continued, some advancing as far as the heart of Italy, Rome's borders began to collapse, with frontier forces swiftly finding themselves cut off deep in the enemy's rear. Simultaneously, barbarian troops in Rome's pay came to be "in a condition of almost perpetual turbulence and revolt" from 409 onwards. In 476 these troops finally unseated the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire. The Eastern Roman forces continued to defend the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire until its fall in 1453. Luttwak's defence-in-depth hypothesis appears to rely on two basic features: (a) deepened fortified border zones: "It became necessary to build forts capable of sustained resistance, and these fortifications had to be built in depth, in order to protect internal lines of communication. Instead of a thin perimeter line on the edges of provincial territory, broad zones of military control had to be created... The thin line of auxiliary 'forts' and legionary 'fortresses' was gradually replaced by a much broader network of small fortified hard-points (in the hands of) scattered groups of static limitanei..." The hypothesis thus predicts the establishment of fortifications well into the interior of border provinces, rather than just a string of bases right on the border line; (b) the use of the comitatus praesentales (imperial escort armies) as interception forces to deal with incursions. Luttwak terminates his analysis in 350, before the establishment of the regional comitatus. The interception forces were thus the single large comitatus of Constantine, and, later, the 3 comitatus known from Ammianus to exist in 350 of Gaul, Illyricum and the East. But there are serious difficulties with both propositions.

J.C. Mann points out that there is no evidence, either in the Notitia Dignitatum or in the archaeological record, that units along the Rhine or Danube were stationed in the border hinterlands. On the contrary, virtually all forts identified as built or occupied in the fourth century on the Danube lay on, very near or even beyond the river, strikingly similar to the second-century distribution. Luttwak seizes on the situation in Palaestina Salutaris (mainly the former Arabia Petraea) province, which was dotted with forts all over, as an example of defence-in-depth. But here it cannot be proven that the defence system developed only in the fourth century. It may have dated from as early as the second century. In any case, Isaac shows that these "in-depth" forts were probably used for the purposes of internal security against rebels and brigands rather than defence against external threat. Indeed, such material as can be dated to Diocletian suggests that his reorganisation resulted in a massive reinforcement of linear defence along his newly built desert highway, the Strata Diocletiana. In Britain, the configuration of a large number of fourth-century units stationed between Hadrian's Wall and the legionary fortresses at Deva (Chester) and Eboracum (York), superficially resembles defence-in-depth. But the same configuration existed in the second century, and was due to the short length of the frontier, forcing a "vertical" rather than horizontal deployment, as well as the need to protect the coastlines from seaborne attack. It was not defence-in-depth in the Luttwak sense. So strong is the evidence for forward defence under Diocletian that Luttwak himself struggles to avoid that conclusion. Luttwak's Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire (1976) launched the thesis that in the third and early fourth centuries, the Imperial Roman army's defence strategy mutated from "forward defence" (or "preclusive defence") during the Principate era (30 BC-AD 284) to "defence-in-depth" in the fourth century. "Forward-" or "preclusive" defence aimed to neutralise external threats before they breached the Roman borders: the barbarian regions neighbouring the borders were envisaged as the theatres of operations. In contrast, "defence-in-depth" would not attempt to prevent incursions into Roman territory, but aimed to neutralise them on Roman soil - in effect turning border provinces into combat zones.'

+ The Machiavelli of Maryland: The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire (1976):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structural_history_of_the_Roman_military
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defence-in-depth_(Roman_military)
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_legion
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Signaculum
+ https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/dec/09/edward-luttwak-machiavelli-of-maryland?
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Luttwak

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'Between 1987 and 1989 the U.S. Army’s 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment, also known as “The Night Stalkers,” flew Little Bird helicopters from barges and Navy frigates in the Persian Gulf. Operation Prime Chance paired the U.S. Army helicopters with Navy SEALs, Marines, and Special Boat Units in an undeclared war against Iranian Revolutionary Guards units harassing civilian shipping. Six Little Birds, both MH-6 utility and AH-6 attack versions equipped with SEAL snipers, rockets, and machine guns, flew patrols as low as thirty feet. The Army/Navy team worked together to monitor Iranian forces in the Gulf, particularly at night when IRGC Navy forces were suspected of planting sea mines. On September 21, 1987, two AH-6 attack helicopters and one MH-6 Little Bird launched from the frigate USS Jarrett and attacked the Iran Ajr, an Iranian ship, after it was observed laying mines. The Little Birds fired on the ship, which was subsequently abandoned by its crew. A team of SEALs boarded the ship, secured the mines on board as well as proof the vessel had been mining international waters. Now, more than 30 years later, there’s the possibility that the Army/Navy helicopter/ship team could be activated again, and against exactly the same enemy. But Prime Chance 2.0 would be even more lopsided... The combination of the Apaches and Lewis Puller creates an improvised attack helicopter carrier, capable of launching attacks against targets on shore or at sea. The Lewis Puller is based on the Alaska-class double hulled oil tankers, which have a 1.3 million barrel capacity in their unmodified configuration. The expeditionary sea base (ESB) ships add a flight deck—the third largest after aircraft carriers and amphibious assault ships—that can handle four helicopters at once. The ships are meant to operate as lily pads, allowing helicopters to launch from more distant, more expensive aircraft carriers and amphibious ships to reach their destination, using the ESB as a refueling point. It also features an aircraft hangar, weapons magazine, and can embark and launch small boats and unmanned undersea vehicles. The AH-64E Apache Guardian is a dedicated attack helicopter armed with a M320 30-millimeter chain gun and up to 16 Hellfire anti-tank missiles. Alternatively, the Apache can be armed with a mixture of 8 Hellfire missiles and two rocket pods, each loaded with 19 Advanced Precision Kill Weapon Systems (APKWS) laser-guided rockets. The Hellfire missile can destroy tanks at ranges of up to 4.3 miles, while APKWS can damage or destroy lightly armored targets at up to 3.1 miles. The Puller-Apache platform is capable of engaging small boat swarms, oil rigs, land-based anti-ship missiles, and other threats. This places the ship squarely in the path of Iran’s Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC), a paramilitary organization controlled by Tehran. The IRGC Navy operates swarms of armed speedboats, armed with machine guns, rocket launchers, and shoulder-fired anti-ship missiles, and trains to operate them in groups of a hundred or more to “swarm” bigger warships. The IRGC also operates anti-ship missiles and short-range ballistic missiles stationed on Iran’s coastline.'

+ Operation Prime Chance: Mobile Sea Bases (MSBs) & Naval Special Warfare Task Units (NSWTU) (1987–1989):
+ https://news.yahoo.com/why-army-helicopters-launching-navy-175000611.html
+ Bell OH-58 Kiowa: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bell_OH-58_Kiowa
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrier_Strike_Group_9
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Theodore_Roosevelt_(CVN-71)
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_aircraft_carrier_Charles_de_Gaulle

'The most striking feature of the Julio-Claudian system of imperial security was its economy of force... The total male population of military age in Italy probably numbered less than a million—one estimate has 900,000 iuniores, that is, the primary group of citizens of military age. Unsurprisingly, conscription was very unpopular, and it was abolished by Tiberius; as early as circa 50 CE one-third of the legionary manpower may have been of provincial birth. It was easier to pay for the army than to find suitable recruits. Annual pay and upkeep for a trained legionary soldier in the ranks came to 225 denarii per year; the overall cost of retirement grants, set at 3,000 denarii in the year 5, was a burden not much smaller than pay and upkeep, and there were also occasional donatives. Nevertheless, it has been suggested that military spending was roughly half of total expenditures under Augustus, with the proportion declining as government revenues increased, though others calculate that it was more like three-quarters. The reorganization of the army following the civil war, which replaced the 60 leftover legions of unknown actual strength (some must have been much depleted) with 28 proper legions at full strength, certainly made sense from an organizational point of view. It is less likely that it was motivated by financial constraints, if only because the reorganization required vast expeditures for the severance grants of veterans leaving the army. In that famous passage already cited, Annals 4.5, Tacitus provides the only comprehensive survey of the deployment of the legions that can be found in the narrative sources. Its accuracy has long been accepted by scholars. According to Tacitus, in the year 23, the ninth year of the reign of Tiberius, there were eight legions on the Rhine, three in Spain, two in the province of Africa, two in Egypt, four in Syria, two in Moesia and two in Pannonia (for a total of four along the Danube), and two in Dalmatia, for a total of twenty-five. And then there were the auxilia, of which Tacitus refrains from giving a detailed breakdown. From this account one may gather the impression that the legionary forces, and the auxiliary troops with them, were distributed to form a thin perimeter. The consequent lack of a strategic reserve, held uncommitted in the deep rear, has regularly been noted and criticized. It is true that the forces in Italy, nine Praetorian cohorts and four urban cohorts, did not amount to much; the latter were primarily a police force and the former could provide no more than a strong escort for the rulers of Rome when they set out to campaign in person. On the other hand, Tacitus describes the two Dalmatian legions as a strategic reserve, which could cover in situ the northeastern invasion axes into Italy while also being available for redeployment elsewhere, because Dalmatia was not a frontier province. In fact, the impression of a perimeter deployment is misleading. For one thing, as it has been pointed out, a key factor in the distribution of the legions was the need to confront internal threats, with external security only relevant in some sectors. That explains the three legions in Spain, which was not frontier territory but was in the final stages of a secular pacification effort, and the two legions of Dalmatia, in the rear of the forces holding Pannonia. As Tacitus points out, Dalmatia was a convenient location for a strategic reserve, but the province had also been the scene of the dangerous Pannonian revolt in 6–9, “the most serious of all our foreign wars since the Carthaginian ones,” according to Suetonius in Tiberius 16 (“gravissimum omnium externorum bellorum post Punica”).

Similarly, the two legions in Egypt were obviously not required to ward off external threats, such as nomadic incursions. To counter or deter such elusive enemies, auxiliary units, especially if mounted, were much more effective than the solid mass of the legions. The latter, on the other hand, were very suitable for the task of maintaining internal security. There was as yet no demarcated imperial frontier and no system of fixed frontier defenses, nor were the legions housed in permanent stone fortresses as they would be in the future. Instead, the troops slept in leather tents or in winter quarters (hiberna) built of wood, in camps whose perimeter defenses were not always more elaborate than those of the camps that legionary forces on the move would build each afternoon at the conclusion of the day’s march. Nor were such legionary camps sited as tactical strong points, as Tacitus makes clear in Histories (4.23) in describing the site of Vetera (Xanten), the camp in which part of one legion and the remnants of another came under attack during the revolt of Civilis in 69–70. Indeed, they were not defensive positions at all (“Inde non loco neque munimentis labor additus: vis et arma satis placebant”). Deployed astride major routes leading both to unconquered lands ahead and to the sometimesunsettled provinces in the rear, the legions were not there to defend the adjacent ground, but rather to serve as mobile striking forces. For practical purposes, their deployment was that of a field army, distributed, it is true, in high-threat sectors, but not tied down to territorial defense. Uninvolved in major wars of conquest between the years 6 and 43 (Britain), the army’s salient function was necessarily to defend what Rome already had rather than to conquer more—until the policy changed. Aside from the sporadic transborder incursions of Germans, Dacians, and, later, Sarmatians and from the rivalry with Parthia over Armenia, Rome’s major security problems were the result of native revolts within the empire. Characteristically, a delay, sometimes of generations, would intervene between the initial conquest and the outbreak of revolt. While the native power structure and the “nativist atmosphere” were still largely intact (and with Rome itself having introduced concepts of leadership and cohesion through the local recruitment of auxiliary forces), the resistance to the full impact of imperial taxation and conscription was often violent, sometimes more so than the resistance to the initial conquest had been. Thus we see the revolt in Illyricum of the years 6–9 and the intermittent revolt of Tacfarinas in Africa between 14 and 24 CE; there were also more localized uprisings, such as that of Florus and Sacrovir in Gaul in the year 21 and, as a borderline case, the Jewish War. Because northwestern Germany had been counted as conquered, the scant military experience of P. Quinctilius Varus—“a leading lawyer without any military qualities” —limited to a peaceful march through uncontested Samaria with two legions, must have seemed sufficient. In any case, because Varus was there to organize a province rather than conquer one, the “Varian disaster” of the year 9 must also be counted as an “internal” war. Throughout this period, the control of internal insurgency presented a far more difficult problem than the maintenance of external security vis-à-vis Parthia—whose power was a serious threat certainly, but only in the East, hence a regional rather than a systemic threat. The Parthians certainly had no aspirations to conquer the entire Roman empire; accordingly, Tacitus (Annals, 13.6–7) makes it clear that the Romans considered them a regional rival, which was more than any other enemy anywhere near the empire was at the time.

The colonies were a second instrument of strategic control. Julius Caesar had routinely settled his veterans outside Italy, and Augustus founded 28 colonies for the veterans discharged from the legions. Not primarily intended as agencies of Romanization, the colonies were islands of direct Roman control in an empire still in part hegemonic; as such, they were especially important in areas such as Anatolia, where legions were not ordinarily deployed. Whether located in provincial or client-state territory, the colonies provided secure observation and control bases. Their citizens were, in effect, a ready-made militia of ex-soldiers and soldiers’ sons, who could defend their hometowns in the event of attack and hold out until imperial forces could arrive on the scene. They also provided a local base for operations in otherwise unpacified regions. Neither the legions and auxilia deployed in their widely spaced bases nor the colonies outside Italy, scattered as they were, could provide anything resembling an all-round perimeter defense. There were no guards and patrols to prevent infiltration of the 4,000 miles of the imperial perimeter on land; there were no contingents of widely distributed mobile forces ready to intercept raiding parties or contend with localized attacks; there was no perimeter defense. In other words, there was no limes, in its later and conventional meaning of a fortified and guarded border. At this time the word limes still retained its former (but not, apparently, original) meaning of an access road perpendicular to the border of secured imperial territory. Limes thus described a route of penetration cut through hostile territory rather than a “horizontal” frontier, and certainly not a fortified defensive perimeter. It is the absence of a perimeter defense that is the key to the entire system of Roman imperial security of this period. There were neither border defenses nor local forces to guard imperial territories against the low-intensity threats of petty infiltration, transborder incursion, or localized attacks. As we shall see, such protection was provided, but only by indirect and nonmilitary means. By avoiding the burden of maintaining continuous frontier defenses, that is, the dispersal of imperial forces over very long perimeters, the deployable military power that could be generated by the imperial forces was maximized. Hence, the total military power that others could perceive as being available to Rome for offensive use—and that could therefore be put to political advantage by diplomatic means—was also maximized. Thus the empire’s potential military power could be converted into actual political control at a high rate of exchange. The diplomatic instruments that achieved this conversion were the client states and client tribes, whose obedience reflected both their perceptions of Roman military power and their fear of retaliation. Since clients would take care to prevent attacks against provincial territory, their obedience lessened the need to provide local security at the periphery of the empire against lowintensity threats, thus increasing the empire’s net disposable military power—and so completing the cycle.'

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Henghrik Shah

'Genghis Khan incorporated many aspects of warfare from China, particularly in siege warfare. His baggage train included such siege equipment as battering rams, gunpowder, and enormous siege bows capable of throwing 20-foot arrows into siege works. The Mongol intelligence network was formidable. The Mongols never invaded an opponent whose military and economic will and ability to resist had not been thoroughly and completely scouted. For instance, Subutai and Batu Khan spent a year scouting central Europe, before destroying the armies of Hungary and Poland in two separate battles, two days apart. In this invasion, the Khan first demonstrated the use of indirect attack that would become a hallmark of his later campaigns, and those of his sons and grandsons. The Khan divided his armies, and sent one force solely to find and execute the Shah – so that he was forced to run for his life in his own country. The divided Mongol forces destroyed the Shah's forces piecemeal, and began the utter devastation of the country which would mark many of their later conquests. The estimates for the sizes of the opposing armies are often in dispute. It is certain that all contemporary and near-contemporary sources (or at least those that have survived), consider the Mongols to have been the numerically superior force. Several chroniclers, a notable one being Rashid Al-Din (a historian of the Mongol Ilkhanate) provide the figures of 400,000 for the Shah (spread across the whole empire) and 600,000 or 700,000 for the Khan. Immediately when war was declared, Genghis sent orders for a force already out to the west to immediately cross the Tien Shan mountains to the south and ravage the fertile Ferghana Valley in the eastern part of the Khwarezm Empire. This smaller detachment, no more than 20,000–30,000 men, was led by Genghis's son Jochi and his elite general Jebe. The Tien Shan mountain passes were much more treacherous than the Dzungarian Gate, and to make it worse, they attempted the crossing in the middle of winter with over 5 feet of snow. Though the Mongols suffered losses and were exhausted from the crossing, their presence in the Ferghana Valley stunned the Khwarezm leadership and permanently stole the initiative away. This march can be described as the Central Asian equivalent of Hannibal's crossing of the Alps, with the same devastating effects. Because the Shah did not know if this Mongol army was a diversion or their main army, he had to protect one of his most fertile regions with force. Therefore, the Shah dispatched his elite cavalry reserve, which prevented him from effectively marching anywhere else with his main army. Jebe and Jochi seem to have kept their army in good shape while plundering the valley, and they avoided defeat by a much superior force. At this point the Mongols split up and again maneuvered over the mountains: Jebe marched further south deeper into Khwarezm territory, while Jochi took most of the force northwest to attack the exposed cities on the Syr Darya from the east. Meanwhile, another Mongol force under Chagatai and Ogedei descended from either the Altai Mountains to the north or the Dzungarian Gate and immediately started laying siege to the border city of Otrar. Because Shah decided to march his army up from Samarkand to attack the besiegers of Otrar, Genghis could then rapidly encircle the Shah's army from the rear. However, the Shah dodged the trap, and Genghis had to change plans. At this point, the Mongol army was divided into five widely separated groups on opposite ends of the enemy Empire. After the Shah did not mount an active defense of the cities on the Syr Darya, Genghis and Tolui, at the head of an army of roughly 50,000 men, skirted the natural defense barrier of the Syr Darya and its fortified cities, and went westwards to lay siege to the city of Bukhara first. To do this, they traversed 300 miles of the seemingly impassable Kyzyl Kum desert by hopping through the various oases, guided most of the way by captured nomads. The Mongols arrived at the gates of Bukhara virtually unnoticed. Many military tacticians regard this surprise entrance to Bukhara as one of the most successful maneuvers in warfare. After the fall of Bukhara, Genghis headed to the Khwarezmian capital of Samarkand and arrived in March 1220. During this period, the Mongols also waged effective psychological warfare and caused divisions within their foe. As Genghis began his siege, his sons Chaghatai and Ögedei joined him after finishing the reduction of Otrar, and the joint Mongol forces launched an assault on the city. The Mongols attacked using prisoners as body shields. On the third day of fighting, the Samarkand garrison launched a counterattack. Feigning retreat, Genghis drew approximately half of the garrison outside the fortifications of Samarkand and slaughtered them in open combat. Shah Muhammad attempted to relieve the city twice, but was driven back. On the fifth day, all but a handful of soldiers surrendered. The remaining soldiers, die-hard supporters of the Shah, held out in the citadel. After the fortress fell, Genghis reneged on his surrender terms and executed every soldier that had taken arms against him at Samarkand. The people of Samarkand were ordered to evacuate and assemble in a plain outside the city, where many were killed. About the time of the fall of Samarkand, Genghis Khan charged Subutai and Jebe, two of the Khan's top generals, with hunting down the Shah. The Shah had fled west with some of his most loyal soldiers and his son, Jalal al-Din, to a small island in the Caspian Sea. It was there, in December 1220, that the Shah died. Most scholars attribute his death to pneumonia. Jalal al-Din, who took power after his father's death, began assembling the remnants of the Khwarezmid army in the south, in the area of Afghanistan. Genghis had dispatched forces to hunt down the gathering army under Jalal al-Din, and the two sides met in the spring of 1221 at the town of Parwan. The engagement was a humiliating defeat for the Mongol forces. Enraged, Genghis headed south himself, and defeated Jalal al-Din on the Indus River. Jalal al-Din, defeated, fled to India. Genghis spent some time on the southern shore of the Indus searching for the new Shah, but failed to find him. The Khan returned northwards, content to leave the Shah in India. After the remaining centers of resistance were destroyed, Genghis returned to Mongolia, leaving Mongolian garrison troops behind. The destruction and absorption of the Khwarezmid Empire would prove to be a sign of things to come for the Islamic world, as well as Eastern Europe. The new territory proved to be an important stepping stone for Mongol armies under the reign of Genghis' son Ögedei to invade Kievan Rus' and Poland, and future campaigns brought Mongol arms to Hungary and the Baltic Sea. For the Islamic world, the destruction of Khwarezmia left Iraq, Turkey and Syria wide open. All three were eventually subjugated by future Khans.'

+ Henghrik Shah & The Mongol Invasion of Iran [حمله مغول به ایران‎] (1219–1221):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongol_conquest_of_Khwarezmia
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_II_of_Khwarazm
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tian_Shan
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tengrism
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burkhanism

'Partly because of the nature of the threats faced by Rome, the value of the client states in the security system as a whole far exceeded any effort required to maintain them, because their contribution was not merely additive to Roman military power, but complementary. Effective client states could provide for their own internal security and for their own perimeter defense against low intensity threats, absolving the empire from that responsibility. For example, after Herod’s death the turbulent land of the Jews required the presence of at least one legion (X Fretensis) and sometimes more: three legions (V Macedonica, X Fretensis, XV Apollinaris) from the year 67 until the Jewish revolt was finally suppressed three years later, and the X Fretensis alone thereafter; then two legions around the time of the outbreak of Bar Kokhba’s revolt of the year 132, VI Ferrata and X Fretensis, which remained in place thereafter. The provision of internal security was the most obvious function of client states, and it is the one most commonly recognized. In addition, however, efficient client states could also shield adjacent provincial territories from low-intensity threats emanating from their own territory or from the far side of the client state’s periphery. For example, in Tacitus (Annals, 4.24), we read of Tacfarinas fought by client-state troops. Often approximated but not always achieved even by the most successful client states, this level of efficiency required a very delicate balance between strength and weakness, such as that supposedly achieved by Deiotarus, the client king of Galatia (d. 40 BCE), who was described in Cicero’s special pleading (Deiotarus, 22) as strong enough to guard his borders but not strong enough to threaten Roman interests: “Numquam eas copias rex Deiotarus habuit quibus inferre bellum populo Romano posset, sed quibus finis suos ab excursionibus et latrociniis tueretur et imperatoribus nostris auxilia mitteret.” More commonly perhaps, the client states could not ensure high standards of internal and perimeter security comparable to those of provincial territory. Sometimes there were major disorders that threatened adjacent provincial lands or important strategic routes and therefore required the direct intervention of imperial forces. In King Juba’s Mauretania, for example, 30 years of intermittent warfare were needed to subdue the Gaetuli; the fighting continued until the year 6. Soon thereafter, the revolt of Tacfarinas broke out in northern Africa, not to be finally suppressed until the year 24, with the eventual commitment of two legions, III Augusta and IX Hispana. (The revolt was centered in the province of Africa, but Mauretania and its chronically unruly tribes were also involved.) Another client state with severe internal and external security problems was Thrace, whose ruler, Rhoemetalces I, and his quarreling successors had to be repeatedly assisted against the Bessi. But even in such cases, the status of the territories involved made an important difference. If direct Roman intervention did become necessary, its goal could be limited to the essential minimum of protecting local Roman assets and keeping the client ruler in control of his people, in contrast to the much greater military effort ordinarily required for suppressing insurgencies fully and bringing the affected areas up to provincial standards of tranquility.

In other words, the direct intervention of Rome in the affairs of a client state would not mean that every rebel band would have to be pursued into deep forest or remote desert, as the Roman system of deterrence and Roman prestige required in provincial territory, with the siege of Masada in the barren Judean desert as the extreme case. There, the entire tenth legion was commited to besiege fanatics holding out on top of an inconsequential mountain. When client forces were inadequate, the locals could at least absorb the resultant insecurity, and the Romans were content to let them do so. To censure Rome for this, as Mommsen did in commenting that the client states enjoyed neither “peace nor independence,” reveals a lack of historical perspective and imposes anachronistic values on a premodern political relationship. As we shall see, it was only much later that the systemic goals of the empire changed, requiring a modification in the fundamental strategy toward provision of high standards of security even at the peripheries of empire. Against high-intensity threats, such as invasions on a provincial or even a regional scale, client states and client tribes could contribute both their own organic forces and their territorial capacity to absorb the threat—in other words, they could provide geographic depth. Any system of troop deployment that achieves high levels of economy of force does so by avoiding the diffusion of strength entailed by the distribution of forces along the full length of a defensive perimeter. Consequently, if high-intensity threats do materialize, they can usually be dealt with only after the fact. In the event of an invasion, enemy penetrations can only be countered and reversed after additional forces have been redeployed to the scene, and given the Roman rates of strategic mobility, this was likely to happen, if at all, long after the damage had been done. Notwithstanding a justly renowned road system, movements on land were of course very slow—3 miles per hour for marching troops, then as now, or 24–30 miles a day at most. Inter-sector journeys (e.g., Pannonia to eastern Anatolia) would accordingly take up much of a campaigning season. Movements at sea could be much faster, and often were much more direct. Given the relationship between the system’s economy of force and its inability to defend all frontier sectors all of the time or to campaign simultaneously on a serious scale on separate fronts (though nobody who can avoid doing so would ever do that), it was essential for the success of the system to limit the damage that high-intensity threats could inflict rapidly. If the damage were great, the costs of such penetrations could exceed the benefits achieved by the centralized deployment of forces. The client states were critically important in reducing these costs: even if their own forces could not maintain a defense until imperial troops arrived on the scene, the resultant damage would be inflicted not on Rome, but on what was not yet Roman territory in the full sense. This would considerably reduce the loss of prestige and the domestic political costs of enemy invasions to the rulers of Rome. Thus, during this period no Roman forces were ordinarily deployed to guard the entire Anatolian sector (from Zeugma in northeastern Syria to the Black Sea), which faced Armenia and the major invasion axes from Parthia. Instead, at the time of Tiberius’s accession to the principate in the year 14, it was the client rulers of Pontus, Cappadocia, and Commagene who guarded the entire sector with their own forces, and it was their territories that would have absorbed the first impact of an invasion. In a typical failure to appreciate the strategic significance of the Augustan arrangement, whose very essence was the avoidance of perimeter deployment, the absence of permanent Roman garrisons has been described as a “grave military defect.” By 72 CE, in the principate of Vespasian, all three states had been annexed, and annexation required the deployment of a costly permanent garrison of two legions on the Anatolian-Armenian border; both were stationed in the reorganized province of Cappadocia. Thus, instead of an “invisible” border guarded by others at no direct cost to Rome, a new defended sector had to be created, and a supporting road infrastructure had to be built. When the supposed “defect” was duly corrected, the defense of eastern Anatolia permanently reduced the empire’s disposable military power, and therefore reduced the system’s economy of force.'

'Military power is normally defined, in functional terms, more or less as “the ability of states to affect the will and behavior of other states by armed coercion or the threat of armed coercion.” Such a definition clearly does not allow for any meaningful differentiation between power and force; indeed the quoted author immediately adds, “It [military power] is equivalent to ‘force,’ broadly defined.” It is apparent that the “power” manifest in the Roman security systems under consideration, as indeed in almost all other conceivable security systems, is a phenomenon much broader than force, even if force is “broadly defined.” Power itself, power tout court (but always as a relation rather than a unit of measurement), has been the subject of countless definitions, including some so general as to define very little indeed (e.g., “man’s control over the minds and actions of other men,” in a popular textbook). One modern definition analyzes the power relation in its components, treating power in action as a dynamic, manipulative relationship, of which power tout court is an instrumentality that includes diverse elements in a continuum from positive incentives to coercion. In this fuller definition, voluntary compliance is attributed to “authority,” while the absence of coercion or the threat thereof in nonvoluntary compliance is said to reveal the working of “influence.” Other modern definitions deliberately combine the notions of power and influence, treating both as actor-directed relationships, whose nature can be viewed in terms of “intuitive notions very similar to those on which the idea of force rests in mechanics” —Newtonian mechanics, that is. Not surprisingly, less formal definitions obscure entirely any distinction between power and force, beginning (and sometimes ending) with a phrase such as “power is the ability to force.” Now these definitions may be adequate for a variety of analytical purposes, but not for our own. In seeking to evaluate the efficiency of the three systems of imperial security, it should be noted first that in these, as in all comparable systems of security both ancient and modern, “power” as an aggregate of external action capabilities is the overall “output” of the system. (The output is power rather than security because the latter depends also on the level of the threat, a variable external to the system.) Next, we observe that the efficiency of such systems is defined by the relationship between the power generated (output) and the costs to society of operating the system (input). These are both the direct costs of force deployments, military infrastructures, and subsidization, and the hidden costs that may be imputed to methods of discretionary defense (i.e., defense-in-depth and elastic defense), in which damage is inflicted on the society by enemy action that goes temporarily unopposed for strategic (i.e., systemic) reasons. All else being equal, the efficiency of such systems must be inversely proportional to the degree of reliance on force, since the force generated will require a proportional input of human and material resources. In fact, the efficiency of the systems will reflect their “economy of force.” It follows that while in a static perspective, force is indeed a constituent of power, in dynamic terms force and power are not analogous at all, but they are rather, in a sense, opposites. One is an input and the other an output, and efficiency requires the minimization of the former and the maximization of the latter. Evidently we cannot rely on definitions that nullify the difference (in dynamic terms) between force and power, and must provide our own definitions instead. Of course, the definition of force is by far the simpler. We know how force is constituted: in direct proportion to the quantity and quality of the inputs, whether these are legionary troops or armored divisions, auxiliary cavalry or helicopter squadrons—or, at a different level of analysis, men and foodstuffs, or equipment and fuel. We know how force works: by direct application on the field of battle, or in active (noncombat) deployments. It is true that force also works indirectly (i.e., politically) since its mere presence—if recognized—may deter or compel. But the indirect suasion of force, though undoubtedly a political rather than a physical phenomenon, occurs only in the narrowest tactical dimension.

Accordingly, while bearing in mind this qualification, we may treat force in operation as essentially analogous to a physical phenomenon, genuinely comparable to the concept of force in Newtonian mechanics. Both are consumed in application; both wane over distance to a degree that is dependent on the means of conveyance or the medium of transmission; both are characterized by perfect proportionality between qualitatively equal units. In other words, military force is indeed governed by constraints on accumulation, use, transmission, and dispersion akin to the physical laws that condition mechanical force. How does power work? Very differently. First, it works not by causing effects directly, but by eliciting responses—if all goes well, the desired responses. The powerful issue an order, and those subject to their power obey. But in obeying, the latter are not the passive objects of the power relation (as are the objects of force). They are the actors, since those who obey carry out the required actions themselves. The powerful, who merely issue the order, only have a static attribute, that is, “power”; it is the actor-objects of this power who supply the dynamic energy through their obedience. It follows immediately that the physical constraints, which impose a proportional relationship between the amount of force applied (and consumed in the process) and the results obtained, does not apply to the power relation. One, two, or a thousand prisoners of war who walk to their place of internment in response to an order that they choose to obey do not consume the power to which their obedience is a response. In contrast, the physical removal of 50 demonstrators requires much less force than the removal of 50,000. In the latter case there is a rigid proportionality between the force inputs and the output; in the former there is no such proportionality. All this merely describes the power relation without explaining it. Next we must ask why some men obey others, or, in other words, what the processes are whereby desired responses can be elicited in the minds of men, causing them to act in the manner required of them. Clearly, the actorobjects of the power relation decide to obey; if we assume that they are rational, their obedience or lack of it must reflect a comparison between the costs and benefits of obedience versus those of defiance. (This comparison may have been internalized into a mental habit, with obedience reflexive rather than deliberate. Such apparently instinctual processes merely reflect the ingrained results of prior comparisons of costs and benefits.) At this point it would seem that power is easily defined as the ability to control the flows of costs and benefits to others, with force being merely a subordinate ability to impose a particular kind of cost through coercion or destruction. If this were indeed so, then our analysis would have fruitlessly returned to its starting point, and the differentiation here being pursued between power and force would have to be abandoned. For it would appear that the ability to control costs and benefits must be subject to the same limiting proportionality between inputs and outputs as the ability to apply force (or force tout court). But this is not so. The ability to elicit desired responses through the decisions of the actor-objects of the power relation is plainly not a function of the ability to control costs and benefits, but rather a function of the perceived ability to do so. In other words, the first stage of the power process is perceptual, and power is therefore initially a subjective phenomenon; it can only function through the medium of others’ perceptions. If power is in the first instance a perceptual process, then distance will not diminish it unless the means of perception are correspondingly degraded over the distance. A remote eastern client kingdom would normally be much closer to Roman realities in perceptual terms than would the peoples beyond the Elbe, for in the East a Hellenistic civilization predisposed men to understand the meaning of imperial power, while no such cultural basis was to be found beyond the Elbe. It is true that repeated punitive actions (as well as positive inducements) could teach even the most primitive of men the meaning of Roman power, but in that case the “power” so validated would be a different sort of phenomenon: crucially, there would be a proportionality between inputs and outputs, at least as long as the process of education continued. Perceived power does not diminish with distance, for it is not a physical (or quasi-physical) phenomenon. For the same reason, perceived power is not consumed by use. One client king or ten can perceive the same undivided power in the empire and can be influenced by it. Nor is the quantum of this power diminished when the obedience of a further dozen client kings is secured—by their own perception of this same power. Indeed, perception is one of a very few human activities (pace the romantics, love is another) that does not consume its objects, even imperceptibly.

By contrast, force applied on one sector to impose tranquility on one restless tribe is unavailable for simultaneous use against another, and any increase in the number of targets diminishes the amount of force that can be used against each. It is for this reason that the efficiency of systems of imperial security must depend on their economy of force. Or, to put it differently, their efficiency depends on the degree to which force is maintained as an inactive component of perceived power rather than used directly. If one excludes for the moment consideration of all other components of power—that is, static, perceived power—it may seem that once again the difference between the workings of power and those of force is inconsequential, for it is clear that in virtually all conceivable circumstances deployed military force will be the central ingredient of the overall power of states. Accordingly, it would appear that it hardly matters whether security is obtained by the static deployment of force as perceived power or by its direct use. Not so. Even if one does not take into account the actual wear and tear that force must suffer when actually used (casualties and matériel losses), force as power is inherently much more economical than force used directly, since it does not require proportionate inputs. For example, a given perimeter may be secured by means of an active defense (in which case the forces deployed must suffice to defeat all threats on every segment of the perimeter) or else it may be secured by deterrence, for which one need only deploy a punitive striking force capable of inflicting greater damage on the potential attackers than the gains the latter may hope to make by attacking in the first place. Inevitably, an active defense requires altogether greater force than does deterrence, for which credible retaliatory capabilities will suffice—assuming that one’s opponents are rational and make predictable relative-value judgments. In the first instance, security requires the protection of every single asset vulnerable to attack; in the second, it requires merely the recognized ability to destroy selected enemy assets and inflict unacceptable levels of damage. Still, it must be pointed out that there is a qualitative difference between the security provided by deterrence and that provided by an active defense. The former, being the result of suasion, is subject to all the vagaries inherent in human perceptions and human decisions; the latter, being physical, is definitive. Prudent men may well choose to pay the greater costs of an active defense for the sake of its reliability, which is independent of the decisions of other men. This raises the entire broad question of error, beyond the specific case of cognitive time lags.'

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'If power can only be manifest through the medium of others’ perceptions, then the translation of the “objective” (and, by the same token, theoretical) ability to control costs and benefits into the perceived ability of doing so is subject to multiple errors: errors of physical perception, of the medium of communication, of cognitive processes, and of communication between perceivers. A blind man will not be intimidated by the display of a gun, nor a bank clerk by a gun too well concealed, while men ignorant of the chemistry of gunpowder may regard rifles as ineffectual clubs, and even those who understand it may fail to convey word of guns’ lethality to other men who have never seen them. In such cases, it may suffice to kill one savage, blind man, or bank clerk to educate the rest, but the exercise of suasion will have been invalidated, since force had to be used instead. Nor will symbolic force suffice in every case. Is power then merely a perceptual phenomenon, and politics nothing more than a particular psychological phenomenon—and a narrow one at that? Surely not. So far, we have implicitly treated the power relation as bilateral, with a single controller of costs and benefits facing—and being perceived by—a single actor-object of his power; even when groups were hypothesized, they were treated as entirely monolithic, thus identical to individuals. But even if all politics could be treated as a sum of power relations, these relations would be for the most part not bilateral, but multilateral. Returning to the example of the client kings who individually perceived Roman power and individually obeyed imperial commands, there was an implicit assumption that the client kings did not also perceive the power of their fellow clients as being potentially additive and did not compare their total power to the power of Rome. Had such a comparison been made, the power of the empire would no longer have been seen as so totally superior. It follows that the power relation between the empire and the single client king was only procedurally bilateral. In fact it depended on a variety of phenomena, most of them multilateral: the client’s perception and calculation of his own power, of the power of other clients, of the possibilities of concerted action, of the risks, costs, and benefits of joint defiance (versus the costs and benefits of obedience), and so on. All these factors are conditioned by the perceptions of individuals and the decisions of (and between) groups—in other words, by all the processes of politics in their full diversity and inherent complexity. Politics in the round ultimately determines the relationship between client states and empires; most significantly, it determines the balance of power, which is a function not only of the perceived power of the individual units in the system but also of the degree of cohesion between the clients and within the empire. In spite of the importance of these complex relations, perception and the problems thereof remain central, and with them remains the distinction between power and force.'

+ "The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire - From the First Century CE to the Third" - Edward N. Luttwak (1979):
+ https://www.amazon.com/Grand-Strategy-Roman-Empire-D/dp/0801821584
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qara_Khitai

'The success of Mongol tactics hinged on fear: to induce capitulation amongst enemy populations. From the perspective of modern theories of international relations, Quester suggests that, "Perhaps terrorism produced a fear that immobilized and incapacitated the forces that would have resisted." Although perceived as being bloodthirsty, the Mongol strategy of "surrender or die" still recognized that conquest by capitulation was more desirable than being forced to continually expend soldiers, food, and money to fight every army and sack every town and city along the campaign's route. The Mongols frequently faced states with armies and resources greater than their own. In the beginning, Temujin (the birthname of Genghis Khan) started off with a band of youths and some women, then he had troops of 20,000 initially facing the city states and interests of the Kin domain, which mainly included China, with then probably a 2-million-strong army, each city being populated with hundreds of thousands of inhabitants – and simply invading everyone was out of the question. Furthermore, a supine nation was more desirable than a sacked one. While both provided the same territorial gains, the former would continue to provide taxes and conscripts long after the conflict ended, whereas the latter would be depopulated and economically worthless once available goods and slaves were seized. Thus whenever possible, by using the "promise" of wholesale execution for resistance, Mongol forces made efficient conquests, in turn allowing them to attack multiple targets and redirect soldiers and material where most needed. The reputation of guaranteed wholesale enactment on those who fought them was also the primary reason why the Mongols could hold vast territories long after their main force had moved on. Even if the tumens (tyumens) were hundreds or thousands of miles away, the conquered people would usually not dare to interfere with the token Mongol occupying force, for fear of a likely Mongol return.

The linchpin of Mongol success was the widespread perception amongst their enemies that they were facing an insurmountable juggernaut that could only be placated by surrender. The Mongols may have counted on reports of horrifying massacres and torture to terrify their foes. The goal was to convince all and sundry that the costs of surrendering were not nearly onerous enough to risk an unwinnable war, given the guarantee of complete annihilation if they lost. This strategy was partially adopted because of the Mongols' lesser numbers; if their opponents were not sufficiently subdued, there was a greater chance they could rise again and attack the Mongols when the Mongols left to deal with another town and settlements. This way they technically covered their rear and flanks, and avoided a situation in which they would have to again engage a people they already fought and subdued, thereby saving resources, in their point of view, from an unnecessary second engagement. As Mongol conquest spread, this form of psychological warfare proved effective at suppressing resistance to Mongol rule. There were tales of lone Mongol soldiers riding into surrendered villages and executing peasants at random as a test of loyalty. It was widely known that a single act of resistance would bring the entire Mongol army down on a town to obliterate its occupants. Thus they ensured obedience through fear. Peasants frequently appear to have joined the troops or readily accepted their demands. Genghis Khan and his generals and successors, preferred to offer their enemies the chance to surrender without resistance in order to avoid war, to become vassals by sending tribute, accepting Mongol residents, and/or contributing troops. The Khans guaranteed protection only if the populace submitted to Mongol rule and was obedient to it. Sources record massive destruction, terror and death if there was resistance. David Nicole notes in The Mongol Warlords: "terror and mass extermination of anyone opposing them was a well-tested Mongol tactic". The alternative to submission was total war: if refused, Mongol leaders ordered the collective slaughter of populations and destruction of property. Such was the fate of resisting Muslim communities during the invasions of the Khwarezmid Empire.

The majority of kingdoms resisting Mongol conquest were taken by force (some were subjected to vassaldom and not complete conquest); only skilled engineers and artisans (at the time of Khubilai Khan, doctors) were spared. The aim was to spread terror to others. Some troops who submitted, respectively overthrew, or rose up against their rulers were incorporated into the Mongol system in order to expand their manpower; this also allowed the Mongols to absorb new technology, knowledge and skills for use in military campaigns against other opponents. Genghis Khan was by and large tolerant of multiple religions, but there are many cases of him or other Mongols engaging in religious war, even if the populations were obedient. All of the campaigns caused deliberate destruction of places of worship. Ancient sources described Genghis Khan's conquests as wholesale destruction on an unprecedented scale in certain geographical regions, causing great demographic changes in Asia. According to the works of the Iranian historian Rashid al-Din (1247–1318), the Mongols killed more than 700,000 people in Merv and more than a million in Nishapur. The total population of Persia may have dropped from 2,500,000 to 250,000 as a result of mass extermination and famine. Other historians like William McNeill and David Morgan argue that the Bubonic Plague, spread by the Mongols, was the main factor behind the demographic decline during this period. The plague also spread into areas of Western Europe and Africa that the Mongols never reached. The Mongols practised biological warfare by catapulting diseased cadavers into the cities they besieged. Mongols were known to burn farmland; when they were trying to take the Ganghwa Island palaces during the invasions (there were at least 6 separate invasions) of Korea under the Goryeo Dynasty, crops were burned to starve the populace. Other tactics included diverting rivers into and from cities and towns. The use of catapulted diseased cadavers during the siege of Caffa is alleged by some sources to have brought the Black Death to Europe. It is believed that fleas remaining on the bodies of the cadavers may have acted as vectors to spread the bubonic plague. The Mongols also spread the Black Death to Europe through trade and raids. About half the population of Kievan Rus' may have died during the Mongol invasion of Rus. This figure refers to the area roughly corresponding to modern Ukraine. Historians estimate that up to half of Hungary's population of two million were victims of the Mongol invasion of Europe. Mongol campaigns in Northern China, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East caused extensive destruction, though there are no exact figures available at this time. The cities of Balkh, Bamiyan, Herat, Kiev, Baghdad, Nishapur, Merv, Urgench, Lahore, Ryazan, Chernigov, Vladimir, and Samarkand suffered serious devastation by the Mongol armies. For example, there is a noticeable lack of Chinese literature from the Jin Dynasty, predating the Mongol conquest, and in the Battle of Baghdad in 1258, libraries, books, literature, and hospitals were burned: some of the books were thrown into the river, in quantities sufficient to "turn the Tigris black with ink for several days." The Mongols' destruction of the irrigation systems of Iran and Iraq turned back millennia of effort in building irrigation and drainage infrastructure in these regions. The loss of available food as a result may have led to the death of more people from starvation in this area than actual battle did. The Islamic civilization of the Persian Gulf region did not recover until after the Middle Ages.'

+ Pandemics, Ethnic Cleanse, & Cultural Destruction under the Mongol Empire (1206–1405):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Destruction_under_the_Mongol_Empire
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongol_invasions_and_conquests
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_wars_and_anthropogenic_disasters_by_death_toll

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'Before the Mongols' rise, the Old World system consisted of isolated imperial systems. The new Mongol empire amalgamated the once isolated civilizations into a new continental system, and re-established the Silk Road as a dominant method of transportation. The unification of Eurasia under the Mongols greatly diminished the number of competing tribute gatherers throughout the trade network and assured greater safety and security in travel. During the Pax Mongolica, European merchants like Marco Polo made their way from Europe to China on the well-maintained and well travelled roads that linked Anatolia to China. On the Silk Road caravans with Chinese silk; pepper, ginger, cinnamon, and nutmeg came to the West from the Spice Islands via the transcontinental trade routes. Eastern diets were introduced to Europeans as well. Indian muslins, cottons, pearls, and precious stones were sold in Europe, as well as weapons, carpets, and leather goods from Iran. Gunpowder was also introduced to Europe from China. In the opposite direction, Europeans sent silver, fine cloth, horses, linen, and other goods to the near and far East. Increasing trade and commerce meant that the respective nations and societies increased their exposure to new goods and markets, thus increasing the GDP of each nation or society that was involved in the trade system. Μany of the cities participating in the 13th century world trade system grew rapidly in size. Along with land trade routes, a Maritime Silk Road contributed to the flow of goods and establishment of a Pax Mongolica. This Maritime Silk Road started with short coastal routes in Southern China. As technology and navigation progressed these routes developed into a high-seas route into the Indian Ocean. Eventually these routes further developed encompassing the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, Red Sea, and the sea off East Africa. Along with tangible goods, people, techniques, information, and ideas moved lucidly across the Eurasian landmass for the first time. For example, John of Montecorvino, archbishop of Beijing founded Roman Catholic missions in India and China and also translated the New Testament into the Mongolian language. Long-distance trade brought new methods of doing business from the far East to Europe; bills of exchange, deposit banking, and insurance were introduced to Europe during the Pax Mongolica. Bills of exchange made it significantly easier to travel long distances because a traveller would not be burdened by the weight of metal coins. Islamic methods of mathematics, astronomy, and science made their way to Africa, East Asia and Europe during the Pax Mongolica. Methods of paper-making and printing made their way from China to Europe. Rudimentary banking systems were established, and money changing and credit extension were common, resulting in large amounts of merchant wealth. The segregation and fragmentation of the respective khanates in the Mongol Empire were not the only factors in contributing to the decline of the Pax Mongolica. The outbreak of bubonic plague, or Black Death, also played a devastating role in the decline of the Pax Mongolica. Because the Mongol Empire bridged once isolated regions, it made it easy for the Black Death to spread rapidly. Historian William H. McNeill has noted that the plague was transferred from ground rodents living in southern Chinese and Burmese Himalayan foothills to Mongol soldiers when they invaded the area in 1252. In 1331 the plague was noted in China, and from East Asia it was carried west along the trade routes by merchants and Mongol soldiers who were able to so freely and quickly travel across the continent during the Pax Mongolica. Plague-infected fleas hitched rides in the manes of horses, on the hair of camels, or on black rats that nestled in cargoes or in saddlebags. The Black Death is estimated to have killed one-third of China's population and 25-50% of Europe's population. Demographically weakened, the Mongols were not able to exert their rule over remote domains in their empire, which began to revolt once the plague broke out. These revolts disrupted the production of goods and flow of trade, which ended the Pax Mongolica.'

+ Pax Mongolica: The Golden Horde & East-West Relations (1206–1405):
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pax_Mongolica
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yam_(route)
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_Horde

'The Ming dynasty that preceded the Manchu, ruling from 1368 to 1644 by conventional dating, was impeccably and entirely Han but it had succeeded the decidedly alien Mongol occupation. Under Kublai Kan (Qubilai Qan), grandson of Genghis Khan, the Mongols assumed the symbols and style of Chinese imperial rule as the Yuan dynasty, whose conventional dates are 1271 to 1368. Again, the sophisticated Han had been unable to keep out the rude Mongols, and had to live under their dominion, destructively predatory at first, and severely extractive even at its best (not least to pay for the famous network of road-forts cum postal relay and remount stations). Moreover, in China north of the Yangtze River it was not Han rule that preceded the Mongols, but rather another Jurchen dynasty, the Jin established by the Wányán clan that originated in the forest-lands of Manchuria, and whose conventional dates are 1115– 1234. The Han dynasty of the Song persisted in the south, but the Han of the historic core of China centered on the Yellow River lived as subjects of foreign conquerors, whom they had been unable to defeat and keep out of their lands. In the north above the Yellow River, including “the sixteen prefectures,” Yjnyún Shíliù Zh,u, around and beyond Beijing, the predecessors of the Jin were also non-Han, but rather Khitans or Qidans, originally Mongolic nomads and mounted archers from the northern steppes. Under the leadership of their Yelü clan, they established the Liao dynasty, conventionally dated 907– 1125, but it is to their original ethnic name that we owe China’s now stylish antique appellation Cathay, which is Marco Polo’s "Catai" Englished but was not Marco Polo’s personal conceit, because Kitai, Qitay, Khitad, or Hitai is how China is still known going westward all the way to Bulgaria. Not today a well remembered ethnic name, the Khitans or Qidans evidently made a great impression in their time... The last dynasty, the Qing, whose conventional dates are 1644 to 1912, was established by Tungusic-speaking Jurchen nomad-warriors of forest and tundra led by their Aisin Gioro clan, which invented Manchu (“strong, great”) as a new ethnic name in 1635, before choosing the auspicious title Qing (“clear”) for their dynasty in 1644. Till the very end, the Manchu rulers preserved their separate ethnic identity complete with their own language and their own script, derived from the Aramaic alphabet via Sogdian, Uyghur, and Mongol; it can still be seen around Beijing in the Qing signboards affixed on historical buildings. (The nationalist claim that the Manchu were quickly and completely assimilated, so that their victories and power were in reality Han victories and Han power, no longer has scholarly standing.) It was the Manchu who established the borders of contemporary China by gradually conquering the diverse territories that now form the enormous Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, by encompassing the Mongol tribes whose descendants are now a minority in Inner Mongolia, and by asserting at least a nominal suzerainty over Tibet. China under the Manchu was thus nothing more than a conquered land alongside the others, yet in contemporary Chinese consciousness the borders of China are those of the Manchu Empire at its peak, achieved with the completion of the conquest of the vast territory of Dzungaria in 1761, under the Qianlong emperor... A strong dynasty resulted in internal peace, law, and order. Peace in turn resulted in economic growth, and therefore greater income and wealth differentiation, the rise of the local rich. Wealth differentiation in turn resulted in the transfer of land-ownership from small-holders to richer landlords. Having become sharecroppers and landless field laborers, the ex-peasants became bandits when harvests failed. Bandits in turn became local rebels, and local rebellions merged into large revolts when charismatic leaders emerged. None was more so than Zhu Yuanzhang, who started off as a landless laborer, became a rebel against the Yuan dynasty of the Mongols, rose in rebel leadership ranks, and finally founded the Ming dynasty in 1368 as the Hongwu emperor. Along the way, there is an inner cycle of decay that starts with wealth differentiation, which leads to the rise of local oligarchs who increasingly control local government, which allows them to accumulate yet more wealth. And within that, there is the innermost cycle of officialdom itself, which starts with scholar-officials who take Confucianism and its obligations seriously, thereby ensuring law and order, which leads to wealth differentiation, which allows the rich to support their children through the examination system until they become officials in turn, who then use their power to further enrich their families, until the system breaks down. Current social realities are probably not coincidental...

The slogan “Peaceful Rise” was first given international currency by Zheng Bijian, Hu Jintao’s senior advisor, a former vice principal of the Central Party School, and at present also a Ministry of Public Security advisor, with his own elegantly housed institute. The occasion was the 2004 session of the China-Australasia Bo’ao Forum, which meets annually in Hainan. Subsequently, Zheng Bijian published a widely noticed article in Foreign Affairs (Sept.– Oct. 2005) that presented the concept more fully as “China’s Peaceful Rise to SuperPower Status.” This was very well received, but by the time the Foreign Affairs article was published, it had been replaced in Chinese official parlance by “China’s Peaceful Development,” to remove the challenging undertone of “rise,” and further dissuade adversarial reactions. In essence, it conveyed the promise (Zheng Bijian’s advisory role was made explicit) that China would employ the ever-increasing resources generated by rapid economic growth for its continued internal development rather than military aggrandizement, and that it would join, rather than seek to disrupt or supersede, the comity of the principal nations, the United States, the Europeon Union, and Japan, while being mindful of the needs of the Global South. The success of the grand strategy thus ably presented was manifest in what did not happen: even as China’s economic growth accelerated, no anti-Chinese military alliance emerged among China’s neighbors all around, and there was no move to impose trade barriers specifically meant to slow its economic growth. (It is true that there was and there is always some “protectionism”— specific trade barriers— but their aim is to protect favored sectors, usually for domestic political reasons, and not to hurt China’s economic growth for strategic reasons; claims to the contrary are common, but without any evidence to support them.) Under either name, this declared grand strategy was characterized not by what it included— that could be determined only in the future— but by the threatening possibilities it ruled out. Over the years, successive Chinese leaders made those exclusions perfectly clear. Each was a guarantee not to do something that rising economic capacity and its military potential could have made possible:

Guarantee 1: Peacefully rising China would not seek to create its own world system but would rather join in the existing world system; it would be “rule-taking” in Chinese terms, not “rule-making.”

Guarantee 2: Peacefully rising China would not seek regional, let alone global, hegemony, hence its military forces would not threaten or deliberately intimidate other countries.

Guarantee 3: Peacefully rising China would not try to use force over territorial and maritime disputes but would resolve them by diplomatic means only, including bilateral or multilateral negotiations, and possibly international adjudication and arbitration (though the latter was not explicitly stated).

Guarantee 4: Peacefully rising China would not use its rapidly increasing economy to maximize its accumulation of military strength as the Soviet Union had done in the last thirty years of its existence (with a final outcome that did not inspire imitation).

Guarantee 5: Peacefully rising China would not disrupt the economies of other countries while seeking to expand its own. For example, it would not condone, but instead would seek to repress, the theft of intellectual property, while respecting the common rules of international trade that would later be specified by the WTO.

Guarantee 6: Peacefully rising China would peacefully reabsorb Hong Kong and Macao; moreover, so long as Taiwan’s identity as a province of China was not challenged, no force would be used against the island.

Because these reassuring promises were presented by successive Chinese leaders in credible ways, and— more important— because actual Chinese conduct kept faith with these promises in the years 2005– 2008, there was no “natural” reaction to China’s extremely rapid rise: no elements, even tacit, of any anti-Chinese alliance emerged on its periphery, and there was not even any speculation about any attempt to deliberately slow China’s economic growth.'

+ "THE RISE OF CHINA VS. THE LOGIC OF STRATEGY" - Edward N. Luttwak (2012):
+ https://www.degruyter.com/view/title/125165
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mukden_Incident
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_invasion_of_Manchuria
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_28_incident
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Rhone_Crossing

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'As far as Japan itself is concerned, the events of 1931-1932 were quite serious in their impact. According to the outstanding Japanese political scientist Masao Maruyama, “the energy of radical fascism stored up in the preparatory period now burst forth in full concentration under the combined pressure of domestic panic and international crises such as the Manchurian Incident, the Shanghai Incident, and Japan’s withdrawal from the League of Nations.” Furthermore, “the issue of the infringement of the supreme command,” raised when the civilian leadership had overruled the military leaders and in effect capitulated to the West at the London Naval Conference, “was a great stimulus to the fascist movement”. In 1932 a series of assassinations of important political figures (including Prime Minister Inukai) contributed further to the decline of civilian power and the strengthening of the hand of the military... In general, the Kwantung Army regarded the thirty million people of Manchuria — half of whom had immigrated since the initiation of Japanese development efforts a quarter of a century earlier — as “suffering masses who had been sacrificed to the misrule of warlords and the avarice of wicked officials, masses deriving no benefits of civilization despite the natural abundance of the region.” Furthermore, the Army regarded Manchuria as “the fortress against Russian southern advancement, which became increasingly threatening as Soviet influence over the Chinese revolution became more and more apparent.” With many Japanese civilians, it felt that “Under the leadership of Chiang Kai-shek and with the support of the Western democratic powers which wanted to keep China in a semi-colonial state safe from the continental advance of the Japanese, China was rapidly becoming a military-fascist country” and had no right to dominate Manchuria. To use the kind of terminology favored by Secretary Rusk, it was unwilling to sacrifice the Manchurian people to their more powerful or better organized neighbors, and it engaged in serious efforts to win the hearts and minds of the people and to encourage the responsible Chinese leadership that had itself been working for Manchurian independence. In fact, a case can be made that “had it not been for Western intervention, which strengthened China, the Tibetans and Mongols would have simply resumed their own national sovereignty after the fall of the Manchu empire” in 1911, as would the Manchurians. With considerable Western prodding, the Nationalist government had abandoned the original demand for union with equality of Chinese, Manchus, Mongols, Moslems, and Tibetans and taken the position that China should rule the outer dominions. The West assumed that China would be under Western guidance and influence; “by confirming a maximum area for China it increased the sphere of future Western investment and exploitation” (a fact which adds a touch of irony to current Western complaints about “Chinese expansionism”). From this point of view, the independence of Manchukuo could easily be rationalized as a step towards the emancipation of the peoples of East Asia from Western dominance. To be sure, the establishment of Japanese hegemony over Manchuria — and later, northern China as well — was motivated by the desire to secure Japanese rights and interests. No one hated the necessary violence of pacification more than the Japanese officers in charge. Vice-Governor Itagaki described the moral dilemma that they faced in moving words:

"The construction of the defense hamlets must be enforced — with tears. We issue small subsidy funds and severe orders [to the farmers], telling them to move to a designated location by such and such a date and that this is the last order. But it is too miserable [to watch] the farmers destroying their accustomed houses, and [to see] little innocent babies wrapped in rags and smiling on carts that are carrying the household goods away. A few days ago, a girl of sixteen or seventeen made me weep by coming to my office at the prefectural government and kneeling down to beg me to spare her house. She said, “Do we really have to tear down our house, councilor?” She had walked a long way to town thinking, “If I asked the councilor, something could be done.” Watching the bony back of the little girl who was quietly led out by the office boy, I closed my eyes and told myself, “You will go to hell.” The hardship of the Japanese police officers at the forefront who have to guide the coercive operation directly is beyond imagination. I was told many times while I was on my inspection tours of the front, “I cannot go on with this kind of wretched work. I will quit and go home.” These words, uttered [as we sat] around a lamp sipping kaoliang gin, sounded as though someone was spitting blood. In each case we had to console and keep telling each other that this was the last hill that needed to be conquered. The program was forced through mercilessly, inhumanely, without emotion — as if driving a horse. As a result, more than 100 defense hamlets were constructed throughout the prefecture. These were built with blood, tears, and sweat."

"The use of military force against the insurgents is the principal means of attaining peace and order, in that it will directly reduce the number of insurgents. But this method is to be used only as a last resort; it is not a method that is compatible with our nation’s philosophy, which is the realization of the kingly way (wangtao). The most appropriate means suitable for a righteous government is that of liberating the masses from old notions implanted by a long period of exploitative rule by military cliques and feudalistic habits and of dispelling the illusions created by Communist ideology. Furthermore, the philosophy of the state calls for a proper understanding by the masses of the true nature of righteous government, the reasons behind the establishment of the state, and the current state of affairs. The insurgents should be given an opportunity to alter their misconceived notions and to become good citizens. This is why the operation for the inducement of surrender has such grave significance."

"Through propaganda and example, the guerrillas awakened the patriotism of the people and convinced them that the guerrillas were the only true defenders of their interests. When necessary, the guerrillas terrorized the reluctant elements as a warning to others. An intricate network of anti-Japanese societies, peasant societies, and the like provided the guerrillas both with the necessary supplies and with vital intelligence. Farmers who were located in regions too remote to be protected by the Manchukuo authorities and the Japanese were forced to comply with the guerrillas’ demands, even if they had no desire to assist the insurgent cause."

"Families were ordered to move from their farm homes with little or no notice, even if the collective hamlets were not ready. Some farmers were forced to move just before the sowing season, making it impossible for them to plant any seeds that year, while others were ordered to move just before harvest. Many farmhouses seem to have been destroyed by troops engaged in mop-up operations before preparations had been made for the farmers’ relocation. The only concern of the military was to cut off the guerrillas’ sources of food supply and their contacts with the farmers."

The collective-hamlet program was fairly successful, though it was necessary to prevent insurgents from “assaulting the weakly protected collective hamlets and … plundering food and grain” and to prevent infiltration. According to a report in 1939, many of the residents of the hamlets continued to “sympathize with Communism and secretly plan to join the insurgents,” and the Communists continued to exploit the farmers’ grievances with skill. Vice-Governor Itagaki formulated the problem succinctly: “We are not afraid of Communist propaganda; but we are worried because the material for propaganda can be found in the farmers’ lives. We are not afraid of the ignition of fire; rather we are afraid of the seeping oil”. The Japanese undertook a number of what are now called “population control methods,” including registration of residents, issuance of residence certificates, unscheduled searches, and so on. They also made use of the method of reward and punishment recommended by more recent theorists of pacification. The Japanese understood that “it was totally unrealistic to expect reforms or innovations to be initiated by those who were already well off” and therefore replaced the former “local gentry” by “young and capable administrative personnel” who were “trained to assist the local administrators through the Hsueh-ho-hui, the government-sponsored organization to recruit mass support for the Manchukuo regime”. Many abuses at the village level were also eliminated, in an attempt to wean the villagers from their traditional belief that the government is merely an agency of exploitation. Extensive propaganda efforts were conducted to win the hearts and minds of the villagers. In comparison with American efforts at pacification, the Japanese appear to have achieved considerable success — if these documents can be believed — in part, apparently, because Japan was not committed to guaranteeing the persistence of the old semi-feudal order and was less solicitous of property rights. The reports indicate that by 1940, the Communist guerrillas had been virtually exterminated in Manchuria. In China itself, pacification continued throughout the Pacific war. Chalmers Johnson summarizes these efforts briefly in a recent study. In both north and central China “the Japanese suffered from guerrilla attacks and from their inability to distinguish a guerrilla from a villager.” In the north the policy implemented was “the physical destruction of all life and property in an area where guerrillas were thought to exist … whereas in central China a policy of establishing so-called Model Peace Zones was pursued … [consisting] of expelling the Communists from certain very rich agricultural areas and then, following this military phase, of integrating the cleared area into the Japanese satellite economy.” The latter policy was far more successful, and it was possible to place the government in Chinese hands.'

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Diego Garcia

'In July 1940, the United States placed an embargo on aviation fuel, which Japan could obtain from no other source, and in September, a total embargo on scrap iron. Meanwhile American aid to China was increasing. In September, the Tripartite Pact was signed, and Japanese troops entered northern Indochina. The goals were basically two: to block the flow of supplies to Chiang Kai-shek and to take steps towards acquisition of petroleum from the Dutch East Indies. On July 2, 1941, a decision was made to move troops to southern Indochina. The decision was known to the American government, since the Japanese diplomatic code had been broken. On July 24, President Roosevelt informed the Japanese ambassador that if Japan would refrain from this step, he would use his influence to achieve the neutralization of Indochina. This message did not reach the Japanese Foreign Ministry until July 27. On July 26, Japan announced publicly its plans to move troops to southern Indochina and the United States government ordered all Japanese assets in the United States to be frozen. On August 1, a total embargo of oil was announced by the United States. At this point, “Japan was denied access to all the vitally needed supplies outside her own control.” What slender hope there now remained to avoid war lay in the Hull-Nomura talks, which had been under way since February. The nature of these talks has been a matter of some dispute. Pal points out that the American position hardened noticeably in the course of the discussions, with respect to all major issues. The United States insisted on making the Axis alliance a major issue, though Japan persistently de-emphasized it. Schroeder argues that the American motive was in part “selling the anticipated war with Japan to the American people,” who might not “agree that an attack on non-American soil — on Thailand, Malaya, Singapore, or the Netherlands East Indies — constituted an attack on the United States.” It may be that the underlying motive was to justify the forthcoming American involvement in the European war. In any event, the American terms, by November, were such that Japan would have had to abandon totally its attempt to secure “special interests” of the sort possessed by the United States and Britain in the areas under their domination, as well as its alliance with the Axis powers, becoming a mere “subcontractor” in the emerging American world system. Japan chose war — as we now know, with no expectation of victory over the United States but in the hope “that the Americans, confronted by a German victory in Europe and weary of war in the Pacific, would agree to a negotiated peace in which Japan would be recognized as the dominant power in Eastern Asia.” On November 7, 1941, Japan offered to accept “the principle of nondiscrimination in commercial relations” in the Pacific, including China, if this principle “were adopted throughout the world.” The qualification was, needless to say, quite unthinkable. Hull’s final demand was that the principle be applied in the Japanese occupied areas and that Japan withdraw all forces from China and Indochina. The Western powers could not be expected to respond in kind in their dominions. A few days later came “the day that will live in infamy...” The immediate cause of the attack on Pearl Harbor was the recognition, by the Japanese military, that it was “now or never.” The Western powers controlled the raw materials on which their existence depended, and these supplies were being choked off in retaliation for expansion on the mainland and association with Germany and Italy in the Tripartite Pact. Japan faced an American diplomatic offensive aimed at changing it “from a hostile expansionist empire, with great pride in its destiny and ambitious plans for its future, to a peaceful, contented nation of merchants subcontracting with the United States to aid America’s fight against the international Communist conspiracy.”'

+ Noam Chomsky: American Power and the New Mandarins (1968):
+ https://chomsky.info/196709__/
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Power_and_the_New_Mandarins
+ https://archive.org/details/AmericanPowerAndTheNewMandarins/page/n8/mode/2up

'The "Family" is a tentacle of the Synarchist movement. which was founded by Britain's Lord Shelburne at the time of the American Revolution, both to destroy the United States, and to prevent the propagation of the American idea to Europe and the rest of the globe. The chosen instrument of this movement was, and is, terrorism against the American Intellectual Tradition. The Spanish Inquisition played and still plays a central role for the Synarchy, because one of Synarchism's intellectual authors, the Savoyard noble and diplomat Joseph de Maistre (1754-1821), based his conception of the Synarchist "Beast-Man," on the role of such Spanish Grand Inquisitors as the Dominican Tomas de Torquemada. The Beast-Man was the leader capable and ready for whatever unimaginably enormous crime. Thus, the precedent for Hitler's genocide against the Jews, was the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain, which Torquemada forced on King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella in 1492. Never before then had presumed Christians conducted such a genocide. Nor was this done in the course of war, but against those who were then, and had been for centuries their peaceable neighbors. In this sense, the late Sir Isaiah Berlin was quite right to choose Joseph de Maistre as "the first fascist." And it is no coincidence that Poe's famous tale, "The Pit and the Pendulum," takes place in the Inquisition's central prison/fortress at Toledo, and at a then-recent, datable historic moment. This was no mere choice of a "horrible" theme; quite the contrary. For the reasons given here, the actual Spanish Inquisition was central to Poe's collaborators in American Intelligence, among them the diplomat and great writer Washington Irving, and Irving's collaborator, the leading historian William H. Prescott.

In the 1930s, the American branch of Synarchy centered on the pro-Hitler, Mussolini, and Franco alliance between the Ku Klux Klan-descended Nashville Agrarian movement, and the anti-Renaissance, pro-Roman Empire, pro-Spanish Inquisition "Catholic" movement known as the Distributists. Both these movements were sponsored and promoted by the British Fabian "Round Tables" associated with H.G. Wells, Bertrand Russell, Sidney Webb, and company. After the second World War, the movement was funded and promoted here, notoriously, by the family of William F. Buckley, in conjunction with the circle of Nazi ideologue Leo Strauss. The "Catholic" Janus-face, which recruited DeLay associates Senators Sam Brownback and Rick Santorum, now centers in a network of institutions led by the Buckley and Hapsburg-family dominated Christendom College of Front Royal, Va., and the University of Dallas. Christendom's ideological dominance of the Church's Arlington Diocese, and its influence over so-called "conservative" thinking in our capital, is typified by Nazi-like Associate Justice Antonin Scalia, and Nazi-Communist spy Robert Hanssen. This "Catholic" wing is intertwined with the Ku Klux Klan revivalists associated with the League of the South, Southern Partisan and Southern Patriot magazines, and Buckleyite conservative think-tanks such as the Rockford Institute and the Heritage Foundation, as well as with the Straussian cult,—notably the "West Coast" wing centered at California's Claremont Institute.

The outlook of the Agrarian-Distributist movement, is as follows: The United States, and the idea of a community of principle among sovereign nation-states as prescribed by John Quincy Adams' Monroe Doctrine, is the greatest evil on Earth, being the most advanced manifestation of the Platonic Christian idea, that man shares in the cognitive capability of the Creator, and has a mission, therefore, to provide for the General Welfare of himself and his posterity, by creating nations which foster scientific and cultural progress to that end. This idea is vilified by Southern Agrarian John Crowe Ransom and the others as the "half-man, half-god" Jesus Christ, as the "American Heresy," the "heresy of nationalism," the chaos of sovereignty, and in myriad other ways. To this idea of man, they counterpose those qualities, such as appetite, which man shares with the beasts. Poet and literary critic Ransom insisted that the purpose of literature and art is to focus man's cognition on those animal, rather than human, qualities. His lifelong friend, William Yandell Elliott, the Harvard professor and mentor of such Utopian foreign policy figures as Henry Kissinger, Zbigniew Brzezinski, Samuel Huntington, and McGeorge Bundy, preaches that myths and legends should be "employed to condition people as you train animals, as you train a dog." The Synarchists insist that thus bestialized man must be dominated by the terror "god" of the "Family," and of Joseph de Maistre, what Ransom calls the "God of Thunder," which British Catholic rightist ideologue Hilaire Belloc (1870-1953) specifically identifies as the "god" of the Roman Pantheon. This is the "god" which man's reason can never comprehend, and which it is a great sin to attempt to comprehend, who terrorizes and destroys man at his will. It is the god of the Spanish Inquisition, which insists, as Ignatius Loyola put it, that, if he says black is white and white is black, they are. Belloc and the Distributists insist, with Maistre earlier, that the Catholic Church is not the Church of Christ, but, rather the Cult of the Roman Empire. In his Great Heresies, Belloc went so far as to insist that it is a heresy to question the alleged "Donation of Constantine," whereby that Roman Emperor supposedly made the Pope, the Bishop of Rome, heir to the world-empire of the Caesars,—even though it might be a forgery. Maistre likewise insisted on the authority of that "Donation," even if forged, in his Letters on the Pope. Thus, there could be no sovereign governments, because all were subject to the Pope as emperor...'

+ The Gospel According to Genghis Khan - Children of Satan II: "The Beast-Men" (2004):
+ https://larouchepub.com/other/2004/3102delay_mannkin.html
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Petty,_2nd_Earl_of_Shelburne
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_de_Maistre
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom%C3%A1s_de_Torquemada
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auto-da-f%C3%A9
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_H._Prescott
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Crowe_Ransom

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+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia_Cowles
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_Civil_War
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniele_Ganser
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Army_Field_Manual_30-31B
+ https://www.amazon.com/NATOs-Secret-Armies-Operation-Contemporary/dp/0714685003
+ https://libcom.org/files/NATOs_secret_armies.pdf
+ https://archive.org/details/military-manuals
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Cornell
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vicarius
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Praetorian_prefect
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+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sagrada_Fam%C3%ADlia
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+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waste_Management_(corporation)
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_Services
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lapis_manalis
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umbilicus_urbis_Romae
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges-Louis_Leclerc,_Comte_de_Buffon
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burgundy
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Burns_Woodward
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alden_J._Blethen
+ https://crosscut.com/2008/05/how-blethen-family-lost-495-percent-seattle-times
+ https://www.seattletimes.com/nation-world/great-barrier-reef-suffers-its-most-widespread-mass-bleaching-even...
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleurisy
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jodocus_Hondius
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_Maiden
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Somers
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leo_Belgicus
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hannibal%27s_crossing_of_the_Alps
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Teutoburg_Forest
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illyricum_(Roman_province)
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weser
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cohort_(military_unit)
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socotra
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colony_of_Aden
+ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zanzibar

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